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and Odyssea, the two poems of Homer ; hæc Ænëis, idos, a poem of Virgil's; hæc Eunūchus, one of Terence's comedies.

The gender, however, of many of these depends on the termination ; thus, hic Pontus, a country of that name; hic Sulmo, -ōnis ; Peffinus, -untis ; Hydrus, -untis ; names of towns ; hæc Perfis, idis, the kingdom of Persia ; Carthāgo, -inis, the city Carthage; hoc Albion, Britain ; hoc Care, Reate, Preneste, Tibur, Ílium, names of towns. But some of thele are also found in the feminine ; as, Gelida Prenesle, Juv. Ilion defensa, Ovid.

The following names of trees are masculine, oleafler, -tri, a wild olive tree ; rhamnus, the white bramble.

The following are masculine or feminine ; cytisus, a kind of shrub; rubus, the bramble-bush; larix, the larch. tree; lotus, the lot-tree ; cupressus, the cypress-tree. The first two however are oftener masculine; the rest oftener feminine.

Those in um are neuter ; as, buxum, the bush, or boxtree ; ligustrum, a privet ; so likewise art suber, -ěris, the cork-tree ; filer, -ěris, the ofier ; robur, -oris, oak of the hardest kind ; acer, -ěris, the maple-tree.

The place where trees or shrubs grow is commonly neuter; as, Arbuftum, quercētum, esculētum, faliðum, fruticețum, &c. a place where trees, oaks, beeches, willows, Thrubs, &c. grow : Also the names of fruits and timber ; as, pomum, or malum, an apple ; pirum, a pear ; eběnum, ebony, &c. But from this rule there are various excep. tions.

Obs. 3. Several nouns are said to be of the doubtful gender ; that is, are fometimes found in one gender, and Tometimes in another; as, dies, a day, masculine or feminine ; vulgus, the rabble, masculine or neuter.


Nouns of the first declension end in a, e, as, es.

Latin nouns end only in a, and are of the feminine gender.

The terminations of the different cases are ; Nom. and Voc Sing, a ; Gen. and Dat. a dipthong ; Acc. am ;

Abl. a: Nom, and Vow. Plur. &; Gen. ārum; Dat. and
Abl. is ; Acc. as ; Thus,

Penna, a pen, fem.

Plural. Terminations. N. penna, a pen ;

pens ; | a, a, of a pen; G. pennārum, of pens ; | &, arum, pennæ, to a pen ; D. pennis,

to pens ; | e, is, A pennam,

a pen;
A. pennas,

pens ; am, as, pennæ,

a, a, A. pennâ, with a pen; A. pennis, with pens.

N pennæ,

G. pennæ,

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V. penna,

Open ;

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Opens ;

a, is.


Exc. 1.

The following nouns are masculine ; Hadria, the Hadriatic sea ; comēta, a comet ; planēta, a planet ; and sometimes talpa, a mole ; and dama, a fallow-deer. Pafcha, the passover, is neuter. Exc. 2.

The ancient Latins sometimes formed the genitive singular in āi ; thus, aula, a hall, gen. aulāi : and sometimes likewise in as; which form the compounds of familia usually retain ; as, mater-familias, the mistress of a family; gen. matris-familias ; nom. plur. matres familias, or matres familiarum.

Exc. 3. The following nouns have more frequently alus in the dative and ablative plural, to distinguish them in these cases from masculines in us of the second declen. fion : Anima, the foul

ilia, & Nata, a daughters
Dea, a godiłefs.

Liberta, a freed-woman.

Mula, a sbe-mule.
Famula, a female servant.
Thus, deābus, filiābus, rather than filiis, &c.

a mare.


Nouns in as, es, and e, of the first declension, are Greek. Nouns in as and es are masculine : nouns in e are feminine.

Nouns in as are declined like penna ; only they have am or an in the accusative ; as, Ænēas, Æneas the name of a man; gen. Æneæ ; dat. • ; acc a; abl. a.

So Boreas, -ee, the north wind ; Tiāras, -&, a turban. In prose they have commonly am, but in po

.am or -an; VOC.

etry oftener an, in the accusative. Greek nouns in a have
sometimes also an in the acc. in poetry; as ofa, -am, or
·an, the name of a mountain.
Nouns in es and e are thus declined,
Anchifes, Anchises, the name of a man.

Nom. Anchises, Acc. Anchisen,
Gen. Anchifæ,

Voc. Anchise,
Dat. Anchifæ,

Abl. Anchise.

Penelope, Penelope, the name of a woman.

Nom. Penelope,

Acc. Penelopen,
Gen. Penelopes, Voe. Penelope,
Dat. Penelope,

Abl. Penelope. These nouns, being proper names, want the plural ur, less when several of the same name are fpoken of, and then they are declined like the plural of penna.

The Latins frequently turn Greek nouns in es and a into a; as, Atrīda, for Atrides ; Perfa for Perfes, a Perfian ; Geometra, for-tres, a Geometrician: Circa for Circe; Epitoma, for me, an abridgment; Grammatica, for -ce, grammar ; Rhetorica, force, oratory. So Clinia, for Clinias, &c. The accusative of nouns in es and e is found fometimes in em.

Note. We fometimes find the genit. plur. contracted ; as, Calica! lum, for Cælicolarum; Æneădum, for -arum.


Nouns of the second declension end in er, ir, ur, us, um ; os, on.

Nouns in um and on are neuter; the rest are masculine.

Nouns of the second declension have the gen. sing. in į; the dat. and abl. in o; the acc. in um; the voc. like the nom. (But nouns in us make the vocative in e:) The nom. and voc. plur. in i, or a; the gen. in orum ; the dat. and abl. in is; and the acc. in os, or a; as,

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