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now 900 miles from the mouth of the Yang-tse, and here for the present our steamer must be content to stop, for here for the first time we meet with rapids. When the summer sun has melted the snows of Central Asia, the trading junks shoot down these falls, and, empty of cargo, they can be forced up them. But if we are ever to pursue an unbroken voyage beyond this point, John Chinaman must add one other to his at present innumerable canals, and English engineers must teach him the secret of constructing locks.
It will not do, however, to be stopped by these rapids. The whole basin of the Yang-tse is one vast coal field. From Nankin to Sz'cbuen we have no difficulty in obtaining the means of locomotion. There are markets higher up, and thither, in a steamer to be put together above the falls, we must go. Let us suppose this——no great labour for us Anglo-Saxon—to have been acomplished. The stream is still deep and navigable. It is crowded with junks, as M. Huck will testify. Kwei was just upon the boundary line between Sz'chuen and Hupeh, and Sz'chuen is the last province of China. Beyond that are the snows of Thibet and the swamps of Burmah. Sz'chuen is the finest province in all China. “ You never see an ill.dressed man from Sz'chuen,” says the Chinese proverb. It grows more grain in one year than it can consume in ten,” says another native authority, addicted, I fear, to exaggeration. This province appears to produce everything; more silk than any other province, more and better wax and tobacco, grasscloth of the finest quality, tea of the coarsest, grain in such quantities that its supplies act upon the distant market of Hangchow. Moreover, the climate is variable, extremely hot and extremely cold, just suited for our woollens. My Chinese authority asserts that they penetrate there now even through the difficulties of the transit from Canton; and he says (I
1; suspect with some exaggeration), that one half of the long ells and shirtings landed at Canton find their tedious way over the hills and up the rivers to Sz'chuen.
We must go up, therefore, above the Kwei falls, and must pursue our voyage till we reach the confluence of the Yang-tse with the Kialing, a river which comes down from the north. At this confluence stands the great city Chung-king, the second great commercial emporium of China. My authority states that under the walls of this city of Chung-king the lusty young Yang-tse is already as broad as the Canton river in front of the dear departed factories, and very deep and very rapid. You may go further if you please, for there is the Western Soochow and all the land of poppybearing Yunnan higher up. But the stream grows rocky, and savage tribes from Thibet and Burmah make the way dangerous. We are getting to the western boundary of China Proper.' We have done our work. We have
opened up the country." So here we will turn our steamer's head-shall we call her the Yang-tse ?—and pass swiftly back, towing our junk loads of tea and silk and wax, and satisfied, I hope, with our speculative voyage. I have said nothing of consuls or consular establishments. The merchants appear to incline to the opinion that they do not want them, and are better without them. They say that Swatow and Woochow are growing into importance without consular protection, and that the want is not felt. I differ a little here. If you do not want consuls to protect, you want them to restrain. We must not allow a vagabond European population to run riot in the internal cities of China, or we shall change the peaceful character of the people. Wuchang and Chung-king might, however, well maintain each
a consul or consular agent with extended jurisdiction, and this would be ample for a commencement. A consul may be a great nusiance. A fussy consul, not now in China, drove the carrying trade at one of our ports out of our hands. He made so many petty difficulties that the Chinamen wrote up and down the coast not to charter British ships. We must have no elevés of the Circumlocution-office in the Yang-tse.
As I have brought our voyage so I must bring this paper to a close, for the subject is so vast that fresh fields open upon me more rapidly than the past have been traversed. Surely you can work out for yourselves the tributaries of the Yang-tse and the Grand Canal pierced provinces of the north and the canals of the interior. Bradshaw's Railway Map is a blank sheet compared with these. I have spoken already of the advantages of the northern coast when Pekin may be reached from the sea. Give us free access to China; protect us in the exercise of our privileges until the Chinese are become accustomed to us and understand us, and fix our duty payments firmly and explicitly, and everything else will follow. The great piracy difficulty on the coast will find its own solution, for the coal fields will be opened, and some screw steam company will get possession of the coasting trade. The Custom house bug bear will disappear, for the goods will be put down at the door of the customer. Teas and silks will be bought cheaper, for different districts will be made to compete when we buy direct from the producer; and British manufactures, with moderate energy and enterprise, will take a fair start.
I ought to say something of the trade with Thibet from India, but it is a long matter, and I have not courage to ask attention to it. Dr. Campbell, the superintendent of Darjeeling, who, I hope, has escaped these recent dangers, understands this subject thoroughly, and should be heard upon it before our treaty terms are settled.
Such are the facts and opinions I have been able to gather upon the British import trade into China. The subject is too vast to be fully treated in these columns. If I have wearied the public by saying so much, I am dissatisfied myself at having left so much unsaid. Many topics press upon me as I resolutely close the paper. Let me only add that all dealing with the interior of China is impossible unless your agents speak the language of the people, and I have done."
THE christian's heart his pray'r indites :
He speaks as prompted from within,
And Christ receives, and gives it in.
Depend on him, thou canst not fail;
Make all thy wants and wishes known;
Ask what thou wilt, it shall be done.
THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL SCIENCE. With questions for examination. By
FRANCIS WAYLAND, D.D. Late President of Brown University, and Professor of Moral Philosoply. With Notes and Anlysis, by Jo-EPA ANGUS, D.D.
12mo., cloth boards, pp. 403. London: Religious Tract Society. THESE “Elements of Moral Science” grew into a book like many other professorial works. Dr. Wayland, having been elevated to the chair of moral philosophy in Brown University, found the text-book in use was Paley's well-known treatise. Compelled to dissent from many of the archdeacon's principles, he at first contented himself with stating to his classes these objections, and in offering his own views on the topics discussed in the form of familiar addresses. For convenience these were by and bye committed to paper, and delivered as lectures. Years roll on, and the good doctor finds that these prelections have become so far extended as to contain in themselves the elements of a different system from that of the text-book he was avowedly teaching. To avoid the clash and confusion arising from thus teaching two systems at once, he systematized and enlarged his own lectures and gave up Paley altogether. Success encouraged him to publish, and some thirteen years ago his “Elements of Moral Science” were issued from the press. The edition before us has been carefully edited by Dr. Angus, President of the Baptist College, Regent's Park. His analysis of each chapter and occasional notes will add materially to its usefulness. We cannot but regret, however, that the sections on “the duty of the state in reference to religion" are entirely omitted. Deference to the opinions and prejudices of a numerous section of the supporters of the Tract Society, or even an anxiety to give it a wider circulation, may have suggested this mutilation; but to our thinking it seems hardly fair to do this without stating a reason or urging an excuse. Justice to the English public demanded that they should know what had been purposely left out, and an intimation of the sections omitted and their subject, is given in the preface; but justice to the American author equally demanded that for these omissions an apology, in some form or other, should have been fairly and courteously offered. The peculiar cast of the work has resulted from its origin. It gives no history of opinions, though bishop Hampden thought this indispensable in the study of moral theories; and it offers no elaboration of principles. The law and its reason are stated in a few pregnant sentences, and the style throughout is simple, clear, and didactic. Illustrations are mainly left to be supplied by the teacher who may make it a text-book or the student who may con over it in private. What is exploded, what is doubtful, what is false, have been omitted, both because space forbad any such details, and reason suggested a wiser course. The communication of what is true has always done more permanent good than any mere feats of controversial dexterity, and to this plan Dr. Wayland has adhered. Few authorities are quoted, not out of disdain for the patient labours of others, but solely from the fact that in the preparation of the work, few were consulted. Bishop Butler is the only one to whom the author acknowledges large obligations. It was from a study of his sermons on human nature that the doctor's attention was first turned to the science of human duty, and the sentiments have been insensibly incorporated with his own.
The work is divided into two parts, the first devoted to theoretical and the second to practical ethics. In treating of theoretical ethics, Dr. Wayland considers the origin of our notion of the moral quality of actions, conscience and the moral sense, the nature of virtue, human happiness, self-love, imperfection of conscience, natural religion, relations between natural and revealed religion, and the Holy Scriptures. In answering the question—In what manner are we to ascertain our duty from the Holy Scriptures P-Dr. Wayland says:
“When a revelation is made to us by language, it is taken for granted, that whatever is our duty will be signified to us by a command ; and hence, what is not commanded, is not to be considered by us as obligatory. Did we not establish this limitation, everything recorded, as for instance, all the actions both of good and of bad men, might be regarded as authority; and thus a revelation, given for the purpose of teaching us our duty, might be used as an instrument to confound all distinction between right and wrong. The ground of moral obligation, as derived from a revelation, must, therefore, be a command of God. Now a command seems to involve three ideas :-(1.) That an act be designated. This may be by the designation of the act itself, as for instance, giving bread to the hungry; or else by the designation of the temper of the mind, as that of universal love, under which the above act, and various other acts, are clearly comprehended.. (2.) That it be somehow signified to be the will of God that this act be performed. Without this intimation, every act that is described, or even held up for our reprobation, might be quoted as obligatory. (3.) That it be signified that we are included within the number to whom the command is addressed. Otherwise all the commands to the patriarchs and prophets, whether ceremonial, syn bolical, or individual, would be binding upon every one who might read them. And hence, in general, whosoever urge upon us any duty, as the command of God, revealed in the Bible, must show that God has, somewhere, commanded that action to be done, and that he has commanded us tɔ do it. This principle will exclude (1) everything which is merely history. Much of the Bible contains merely a narrative of facts. For the truth of this narrative the veracity of the Deity is pledged. We may derive from the account of God's dealings, lessons of instruct to guide us in particular cases; and, from the evil conduct of men, matter of warning. But the mere fact that anything has been done and recorded in the Scriptures, by no means places us under obligations to do it. (2) It excludes from being obligatory upon all, what has been commanded, but which can be shown to have been intended only for individuals, or for nations, and not for the whole human race. Thus many commands are recorded in the Scriptures, as having been given to individuals. Such was the command of Abraham to offer up his son; to Moses, to stand before Pharaoh ; to Samuel, to anoint Saul and David; and a thousand others. . . Thus, also; many of the commands of God in the Old Testament are addressed to nations. Such were the directions to the Israelites to take possession of Canaan; to make war upon the surrounding nations; to keep the ceremonial law; and so of various other instances. Now of such precepts it is to be observed ;-(1) they were to be obeyed only at the time and in the manner in which they were commanded. Thus the Jews, at present, would have no right, in virtue of the original command, to expel the Mahometans from Palestine; though the command to Joshua was a sufficient warrant for expelling the Canaanites, at the time in which it was given. (2) They are of force only to those to whom they were given. Thus, supposing the ceremonial law was not abolished; as it was given specially to Jews, and to no one else, it would bind no one but Jews now. Supposing it to be abolished, it of course now binds no one. For if, when in force, it was obligatory to no one but the Jews, and was nothing to any one else; when it is abolished as to them, it is nothing to
Such is the teaching of St. Paul on this subject. (3) It would exclude whatever was done by inspired men, if it was done without the addition of being somehow commanded. Thus the New Testament was manifestedly intended for the whole human race, and at all times; and it was written by men who were inspired by God to teach his will. But still, their example is not binding per se; that is, we are not under obligation to perform an act simply because they have done it. Thus, Paul and the other apostles, kept the feast of Pentecost; but this imposes no such obligation upon us. Paul circumcised Timothy; but this imposes no obligation upon us to do likewise ; for upon another occasion he did not circumcise Titus. The examples of inspired men in the New Testament would, unless exception be made, prove the lawfulness of an act; but it could by no means establish its obligatoriness."
The second part treats of practical ethics. Love to God, or piety, and love to man, or morality, are the obvious subdivisions of this section. In the first, necessarily brief,—love to God—the general obligation to supreme love, a devotional spirit, prayer, and the observance
of the Sabbath, are discussed in the order men. tioned. In the second-duties to man-two other divisions are followed; the first treats of reciprocity, and the second of benevolenee. Under the division reciprocity, three distinct classes of duties are discussed. (1.) Duties to men, as men; which includes justice, as it regards liberty, property, character, and reputation; and veracity, of the past and present, and of the future. (2.) Duties arising from the constitution of the sexes ; embracing, the general duty of chastity, the law of marriage, the duties and rights of parents, and the duties and rights of children.
(3.) Duties arising from the constitution of civil society; comprising, the nature of civil society, the mode in which the authority of civil society is maintained, forms of government, duties of magistrates, and duties of citizens.
But mere justice is not our rule. We are not only to abstain from doing our neighbour wrong, we are obliged also to do him good; and a large part of our moral probation comes under this law. It is one of the peculiarities and excellencies of Dr. Wayland's treatise, that he assigns a prominent place to the law of benevolence. The law of benevolence, or the law which places us under obligation to be the instruments of happiness to those who have no claim upon us on the ground of reciprocity, is manifestly indicated by the circumstances of our constitution. (1.) We are created under a constitution in which we are of necessity dependent on the benevolence of others. Thus we are all exposed to sickness, in which case we become perfectly helpless, and when, were it not for the kindness of others, we must perish. We grow old, and by age lose the power of supporting ourselves. Were benevolence to be withdrawn, many of the old would die of want. The various injuries arising from accident, as well as disease, teach us the same lesson. And besides, a world in which every individual is subject to death, must abound with widows and orphans, who, deprived by the hand of God of their only means of support, must frequently either look for sustenance and protection to those on whom they have no claim by the law of reciprocity, or they must die. Now, as we live under a constitution in which these things are of daily occurrence, and many of them by necessity belonging to it, and as we are all equally liable to be in need of assistance, it must be the design of our Creator that we should under such circumstances help one another. (2.) Nor do these remarks apply merely to the necessity of physical support. Much of the happiness of man depends upon intellectual and moral cultivation, But it is generally the fact, that those who are deprived of these means of happiness are ignorant of their value; and would therefore for ever remain deprived of them, were they not awakened to a conviction of their true interests by those who are more fortunate. Now, as we ourselves owe our intellectual happiness to the benevolence, either near or remote, of others, it would seem that an obligation was imposed upon us to manifest our gratitude by extending the blessings we enjoy to those who are destitute of them. We frequently cannot requite our actual benefactors, but we always may benefit others less happy than ourselves ; and thus in a more valuable manner, promote the welfare of the whole race to which we belong. (3.) This being manifestly an obligation imposed upon us by God, it cannot be affected by any of the actions of men; that is, we are bound by the law of benevolence, irrespective of the character of the recipient. It matters not though he be ungrateful, or wicked, or injurious, this does not affect the obligation under which we are placed by God to treat our neighbour by the law of benevolence. Hence in all cases we are bound to govern our. selves, not by the treatment we have received at his hands, but according to the law by which God has directed our intercourse with him to be governed. And yet more. It is evident that many of the virtues most appropriate to human nature, are called into exercise only by the miseries and vices of others. How could there be sympathy and mercy were there no suffering? How could there be patience, meekness, and forgiveness, were there no injury ? Thus we see, that a constitution which involves, by necessity, suffering, and obligation to relieve it, is that which alone is adapted to the perfection of our moral character in our present state.” Dr. Wayland then proceeds to show how abundantly this law is enforced in the word of God. The closing section of this volume is devoted to the further application of this law of benevolence to the unhappy, the wicked, and the injurious.
We have said enough to indicate the originality and excellence of this treatise. The enterprizing Society by whom this edition is issued offer it at a price within the reach of all
. It will be a happy day for England and for the world when works like this become the chosen companions of our young men and women. then expect to hear less than we have done of late-of unprincipled commerceof city vices, and of latent scepticism. Our young tradesmen, schooled by such teachers, will scorn to pollute their fingers with “fictitious paper,” or save their