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and one worthy of special notice is conveyed in the absence from the title of this book of the letter “s.' It is “ The Life and Work.” We have many biographies headed Life and Works," meaning thereby writings. But it is by his work that Dr. Muhlenberg will be chiefly known in church history. Not but that his hymns will also live and be esteemed a precious legacy, but the Church of the Holy Communion, N. Y., St. Luke's Hospital and St. John Land will be his memorial. By these he will be known to future generations. A remarkable feature of the man was his patience and his ability to execute his theories by enlisting others in the work. The history of the establishment of the Hospital shows this, and also how God will bless faithful efforts in His cause.
He took charge of the new Church of the Holy Com. munion, New York, May, 1846. In visiting among the poor of what was then the outskirts of the city, he was at once struck with the great need of some place for the care of the sick. The only hospitals then in the city of New York were the Broadway Hos. pital, since removed, having three hundred and fifty beds, mainly for seamen and accident cases, and Bellevue, devoted entirely to paupers. Moved by his large-hearted, christian charity, Dr. Muhlenberg resolved to begin collections for a church hospital.
On St. Luke's Day (Oct. 18th), 1846, he proposed to the congregation that half of the offerings of the day should be laid aside as the beginning of a fund towards the founding of an institution for the relief of the sick poor, under the auspices of religion, and that on each return of the festival of St. Luke the Evangelist and Physician, the object should be kept in view, and the procoeds of the offertory so appropriated.
No previous announcement of his intention was made. The result would have discouraged any other man. We quote again :
Something more than thirty dollars was the result, a sum so small that a brother clergyman assisting him that afternoon asked with something of scorn—" Pray, when do you expect to build your hospital ?” Never, if I do not make a beginning," Dr. Muhlenberg replied. He could wait. He knew what he was doing.
It may be said with truth that this was the beginning of all those church charities which since have been inaugurated in New York. Yet how slow the growth. It was not until 1849, three years after, that the hospital idea took practical shape. Then it grew so fast that instead of as at first proposed, a parochial institution, it became one for the whole Church. It was the cholera visitation which gave new impulse to the design. Collections had been continued each year on St. Luke's Day, but in the antumn of 1849 this day was observed as a special thanksgiving for deliverance from cholera, and the offertory was so considerable in amount as to warrant an effort to give a practical shape to the project. In May, 1850, St. Luke's Hospital was incorporated, and large contribu. tions came in, in sums varying from $20,000 down, without names attached, so that its erection became assured. It is worth noticing that Dr. Muhlenberg was fifty years old when he commenced this work. We must refer the reader to the book itself for details of this most interesting life. In reading it they will also be surprised, as we confess we have been, to find how many things now
common in this Church were introduced by Dr. Muhlenberg, such as Christmas trees, boy choirs and choral sing. ing of the Psalter, weekly Communion, sisterhoods, excursions for the poor, etc. But we must stop here. If we have said enough to induce our readers to peruse this life for themselves we have done them good, for they can scarcely read it without being in some degree stirred up to go and do likewise.
CHIEF ANCIENT PhilosOPHIES– EPICUREANISM. By William
Wallace, M. A. LONDON: SOCIETY FOR PROmoting CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. New York: Port, Young & Co. 1880. pp. 270. $1.00.
ANCIENT PhilosoPHIES FOR MODERN READERS–Stoicism. By
Rev. W. W. Capes. LONDON: SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEGE. NEW YORK: Port, Young & Co. 1880. pp. 255. $1.00.
Some knowledge of the ancient schools of thought is essential to the modern student. There were four of these especially noteworthy—the School of Plato, the Academic; the School of Aris. totle, the Peripatetic; the School of Zeno, the Stoic; and the School of Epicurus, called from its founder the Epicurean. There were indeed older philosophies than these, but these four are the ones best developed and known, and the teachings of these still influence the world of thought. Epicureanism and Stoicism, though not perhaps their legitimate offspring, yet to a certain extent inherited respectively the schools of Plato and Aristotle, and from B. c. 250 to A. D. 150 appear to have forced the older ones into the background, and to have divided between them the Roman world. They were, therefore, in full force at the time of the first promulgation of Christianity. St Paul encountered their disciples in Athens. They had more or less influence on the early church, just as at a later period had the teachings first of Aristotle and afterwards of Plato. Hence the importance to the student of church history of a knowledge of these systems. But few have time or patience to study them out for themselves from original
These two little volumes are therefore useful as giving in a small space all that it is necessary to know about them. It adds to their value that so far as space allows this information is given in the words of their own founders. To those, therefore, who desire at as little cost of time and study as possible to obtain a clear knowledge of these schools of thought we commend these volumes. The society which has published them and the kindred
Non-Christian Religious Systems," viz. : Confucianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, etc., deserves our thanks. They are all by competent scholars and at a price within the reach of all.
INTRODUCTION TO LATIN COMPOSITION. Revised and enlarged,
with Introductory Ecercises on Elementary Constructions. Ву William F. Allen. Boston: Ginn & HEATH. 1880. pp. 181.
This is intended as an aid in writing Latin. It appears well adapted for the purpose. No language can be learned by mere translation. To obtain a knowledge of the grammar we must write in it. It is often said, “Why should a boy be taught to write Latin? He is not likely ever to do so when a man.” True. But he is likely to need habits of patient industry, of accuracy and of thought, as well as of memory and investigation, and these a careful, thorough study of the grammar and construction of the dead languages induces. It is indeed of little use to a boy to hurry through whole pages of Virgil or Cicero by help of a crib. It is the careless way in which these languages have been taught which has brought their study into disrepute. Such books as this show that a wiser system is prevailing among us.
THE PIONEER CHURCH; or the Story of a New Parish in the West.
By the Rev. M. Schuyler, D. D. Second Edition. NEW YORK: Pott, Young & Co. pp. 211. $1.
We bespeak for this little book a large sale; not only because it is a good book in itself, but because all the proceeds of this edition go to the cause of “Domestic Missions." We incline to think that the well known author has given us some of his own experiences in the West. Everything is drawn coleur de rose, and probably no such village as Arlington " ever did exist, with such a teachable, liberal set of men. But this story shows what can be done in church work by persevering effort. And one lesson of vast importance is set plainly forth : the importance of pre occupying the ground for the church, instead of coming in, as we too often do, as one among a number of denominations, all started before us.
THOUGHTS FOR WORKING DAYS. Original and Selected.
Emily C. Orr. New York : Port, YOUNG & Co. 80 cents.
Short passages from Holy Scripture, extracts from well known writers and hymus; arranged for each day of the month for the use of those who have little time to read or pray. An excellent manual. put forth by the London Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, to which we are indebted for so many good books.
Australia's HEROES. By Charles H. Eden. LONDON : Society
FOR PROMOTING ChristIAN KNOWLEDGE. New York: Pott,
We know from experience that it is not easy to find a connected account of the discoveries in Australia. There is no part of the world, unless it be some portions of Africa, of which so litile is known as the interior of the Fifth Continent. This book gives a full account of the various journeys into the interior as late as 1873. There is a large and well printed map. Those who desire to know something about Australian discoveries, without having the time to read large and numerous volumes, will find this a useful and interesting book.
THE AUTHORSHIP OF THE Fourty Gospel: External Evidences.
By Ezra Abbot, D. D., LL. D. Boston: GEORGE H. Ellis. 1880.
This was originally read as an essay before the “ Ministers' Institute" by the “Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation in the Divinity School of Harvard University," and revised and enlarged for printing. It does not pretend to go over the whole ground of the evidence for the genuineness of this Gospel, but is principally taken up with examining the point whether the Fourth Gospel was that quoted by Justin Martyr and by the Gnostic heretics of the second century. This is thor. oughly investigated and the objections carefully and impartially examined. The conclusion arrived at is, that there can be no doubt of the genuineness of the Gospel according to St. John. The clergy will find this monogram very interesting and instructive. The suurce whence it comes adds to its value.
WHAT IS OF Faith AS TO EVERLASTING PUNISHMENT? In
reply to Dr. Farrar's Challenge in his “ Eternal Hope," 1879, by the Rev. E. B. Pusey, D. D Second Edition. London, RIVINGTONS. NEW YORK : Port, Young & Co. 1880. $1.25.
We wish everyone whose mind has been disturbed by the writings of Farrar and others on this question of Eternal Punishment would read this book. Dr. Pusey shows clearly that Farrar is laboring under a misconception of the teaching of the Church, and that it is Calvinism not the Catholic Faith against which he is contending One very remarkable and unusual feature in the writings of Dr. Pusey is the combination of immense learning with great clearness of style. On pages 22 and 23, there is a summing up, which we think is perfectly satisfactory, as showing what is of the Faith in this matter. We can find room for these only of the twelve paragraphs :
The merits of Jesus reach to every soul who wills to be saved, whether in this life they knew Him, or knew Him not.
God the Holy Ghost visits every soul which God has created, and each soul will be judged as it responded or did not respond to the degree of light which He bestowed upon it, not by our maxims, but by the wisdom and love of Almighty God.
None will be lost, whom God can save, without destroying in them His own gift of free will.
With regard to the nature of the sufferings, nothing is matter of faith.
Dr. Pusey finds a solution for the difficulty of believing that a soul converted at the moment of death, can be fit, without further preparation, for the vision of God, in the doctrine of an Intermediate State, during which by suffering “as by fire,” he shall be fitted for heaven (He refers to Cor. iii). Farrar believes in such a condition, but thinks it one of further probation. Dr. Pusey shows that there is no teaching in the Bible or in the early Fathers of a future probation; that only they who are saved, are admitted into this state; and that they may be helped by our prayers. We fail to see any difference between this and the Romish doctrine of Purgatory. We cannot but think that where Scripture has been silent, it is wiser for us to be very cautious in expressing opinions—our Lord's Parables seem to teach a free forgiveness and a full reception by our Father.
A great part of the book is taken up with quotations from Jewish writers and Christian Fathers, to show that they held to the belief of everlasting (not remedial) punishment, and that Dr. Farrar is mistaken in his rendering of the word “aionios."
CONCIONES AD CLERUM. 1879-1880. By A. N. Littlejohn, D.
D., Bishop of Long Island. NEW YORK: Thomas WHITTAKER. 1881. pp. 339. $1.50.
During Lent, 1879 and 1880, Bishop Littlejohn called his clergy together for conference on the duties and the labors of the Ministry.” At the request of those who heard them he has published these addresses, with the addition of a few notes and Appendices. And they are well worth publishing. The whole subject is treated under these heads. I., Clergy and People. II., The Cure of Souls. III., The Grace of Ordination ; how to Quicken and Develop It. The Appendices are three. A. On the Casuistry of the Church of Rome. B On Confession. C. On the Interpretation of Scripture. The second head - The Cure of Souls,” is treated at great length, as its importance demands ; and especial attention is paid to dealing with individual cases. The Clergy will find much profit from the careful reading of these addresses.