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others affirm he was himself the ravisher under appoint; and informs them that, for the same the form of that bird. He deified this youth; purpose, the king hath appointed his sheriff of and to comfort his father made a present to him the same county to bring all the prisoners of the of some of those swift horses that the gods rode gaol and their attachments, before them at the upon.

day appointed. The justices of gaol-delivery GA'NZA, n. s. Span. gansa, a goose. A kind are empowered by the common law to proceed of wild goose, by a flock of which a virtuoso upon indictments of felony, trespass, &c., and to was fabled to be carried to the sunır world. order to execution or reprieve : they may likeThey are but idle dreams and fancies,

wise discharge such prisoners, as on their trials And favour strongly of the ganza's. Hudibras. are acquitted, and those against whom, on pro

GAOL, n. s. & v.a.) Fr. géole ; Welsh, clamation being made, no evidence has appeared; GAOL'-DELIVERY, n. s. géol; Spa. jaula; Ital. they have authority to try offenders for treason, Gaoʻler, n. s.

gaiola, caiola; all, per- and to punish many particular offences, by stahaps, from Lat. caveola, caveu. A prison : to tute 2 Hawk. 24. 2. Hale's Hist, Placit. Cor. 35. confine in a prison: the keeper of a prison: the GAOLERS. Sheriffs are to make such gaolers judicial process which evacuates the prison, for whom they will be answerable: but if there either by condemnation, or acquittal of the be any default in the gaoler, an action lies prisoners.

against him for an escape, &c., yet the sheriff is For he had yeven drinke his gayler som

most usually charged; 2 Inst. 592. Where a Of a clarre made of a certain wine,

gaoler kills a prisoner by hard usage, it is felony; With narcotikes and opie of Thebes fine,

3 Inst. 52. No fee shall be taken by gaolers, That all the night, though that men wold him shake, but what is allowed by law, and settled by the The gailer slept; he mighte not awake.

judges, who may determine petitions against Chaucer. The Knightes Tale. their extortions, &c., 2 Geo. II. c. 22. Then am I the prisoner, and his bed my gaol. GAONS, a certain order of Jewish doctors,

Shakspeare. King Lear. who appeared in the East, after the closing of the Have I been ever free, and must my house

Talmud. The word gaons signifies excellent or Be ay retentive enemy, my gaol? Shakspeare.

sublime; as in the divinity schools we formerly 1. we mean to thrive and do good, break open the had irrefragable, sublime, resolute, angelic, and gaols, and let out the prisoners. This is a gentle provost; seldom, when

subtile doctors. The Gaons succeeded the SebuThe steeled gaoler is the friend of men.

ræans, or Opines, about the beginning of the sixth

Id. Gaoling vagabonds was chargeable, pesterous, and

century. Chanan Meischtia was the head and of no open example.

Bacon.

first of the Gaons. He restored the academy of Then doth the' aspiring soul the body leave,

Pandebita, which had been shut up for thirty Which we call death ; but were it known to all, years. What life our souls do by this death receive,

GAP, 1. s.

Saxon, geapan; Goth. Men would it birth of gaol-delivery call. Davies.

GAPE, v. n. / gap. Primary sense, an I know not how or why my surly gaoler,

GAPER, n. s. Sopening; and used in reHard as his irons, and insolent as power

GAP-TOOTHED, adj. (ference to a variety of When put in vulgar hands, Cleanthes,

Gat-TOOTHED. subjects, both literally Put off the brute.

Dryden's Cleomenes. and figuratively. One who opens his mouth; From the polite part of mankind she had been stares vacantly and foolishly. To stop a gap is banished and immured, till the death of her gaoler.

ker gaoler. to supply a deficiency; to stand in the gap is to

Tatler:
Tatler.

expose himself for the protection of some one in Gaol. Every county has two gaols, one for danger. Gap-toothed, a person whose teeth are debtors, which may be any house where the widely separated from each other: gat-toothed sheriff pleases; the other for the peace and in Chaucer may be understood as debauched, matters of the crown, which is the county gaol. from Fr. gate ; or, perhaps, gat-toothed may be If a gaol be out of repair, or insufficient, &c., simply goat-toothed. justices of peace, in their quarter-sessions, may G at-toothed wos she sothly for to say contract with workmen for the rebuilding or re

Chaucer. Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. pairing it: and by their warrant order the sum See how he galpeth, lo, this dronken wight, agreed on for that purpose to be levied on the As though he wold us swallow anon aright. several hundreds, and other divisions in the coun- Hold close thy mouth, man. ty by a just rate, 11 and 12 Will. III. c. 19. See

Id. The Manciples Prologue. PRISON.

The former kings of England passed into them a GAOL-DELIVERY. The administration of jus- great part of their prerogatives ; which though then it tice being originally in the crown, in former times was well intended, and perhaps well deserved, yet our kings in person rode through the realm once now such a gap of mischief lies open thereby, that in seven years, to judge of and determine crimes could wish it were well stopt.

Spenser. and offences ; afterwards justices in eyre were The loss of that city concerned the Christian comappointed: and since, justices of assize and gaol- monweal : manifold miseries afterwards ensued by delivery, &c. A commission of gaol-delivery is the opening of that gap to all that side of Christendom.

Knolles. a patent, in nature of a letter from the king to

Each one demand, and answer to his part certain persons, appointing them his justices, or p

or Performed in his wide gap of time, since first two or three of them, and authorising them to de

We were dissevered. Shakspeare. Winter's Take. liver his gaol, at such a place, of the prisoner in If you violently proceed against him, mistaking his it: for which purpose it commands them to meet purpose, it would make a great gap in your bonour at such a place, at the time they themselves then

Id. King Lear.

May that ground gape, and swallow mo alive, plainly. Population 8000. Fifty-six miles south Where I shall kneel to him that slew my father. by east of Grenoble, and 426 south by east of

Shakspeare. Paris. Some men there are love not a gaping pig;

GAR, v. a. Isl. giera. To make. Obsolete, Some, that are mad, if they behold a cat. Id.

except in Scotland. The great horse-mussel, with the fine shell, doth

But specially I pray the hoste dere! gape and shut as the oysters do. Bacon's Natural History.

Gar us have mete and drinke, and make us chere The golden shower of the dissolved abbey-lands And we sal paien, trewely at the full. rained well near into every gaper's mouth. Carew.

Chaucer. The Reves Tale. To her grim death appears in all her shapes;

Tell me, good Hobbinol, what gars thee greet? The hungry grave for her due tribute gapes.

What! hath some wolf thy tender lambs ytorn ? Denham.

Or is thy bagpipe broke, that sounds so sweet? With terrours and with furies to the bounds

Or art thou of thy loved lass forlorne ? Spenser. And crystal wall of heaven ; which, opening wide, GARAMÀ, in ancient geography, the capital Rolled inward, and a spacious gap disclosed

of the Garamantes in Libya Interior; near the Into the wasteful deep. Milton's Paradise Lost.

spring of the Cinyphus, now in ruins. It lay Others will gape to' anticipate

south of Gætulia, extending from the springs of The cabinet designs of fate;

the Cinyphus, and the Gir, to the mountains Apply to wizards, to foresee What shall, and what shall uever be. Hudibras.

which form at the Vallis Garamantica (Pliny): There is not, to the best of my remembrance, one

or from the springs of the Bagrades to the lake vowel gaping on another for want of a cæsura in this Nuba (Ptolemy). poem,

Dryden. GARAMOND (Claude), a very ingenious The reeve, miller, and cook, are distinguished from letter-founder, born at Paris; where he began, each other, as much as the mincing lady prioress and in the year 1510, to found his printing-types, the broad speaking gap-toothed wife of Bath. Id. free from all the remains of the Gothic, or (as it As callow birds,

is generally called) the black letter, and brought Whose mother's killed in seeking of the prey, them to such perfection, that in Italy, Germany, Cry in their nest, and think her long away; , England, and Holland, the booksellers, by way And at each leaf that stirs, each blast of wind, Gape for the food which they must never find. Id.

of recommending their books, distinguished the

types by his name; and in particular, the small What would become of the church if there were Roman was by way of excellence known among none more concerned for her rights than this? Who

the printers of these nations by the name of Gawould stand in the gap ?

Lesley,

ramond's small Roman. By the special command Where elevated o'er the gaping crowd, Clasped in the board the perjured head is bowed,

of king Francis I. he founded three sizes of Greek Betimes retreat.

Gay's Trivia. types for the use of Robert Stephens, who with Gaping or yawning, and stretching, do pass from them printed all his beautiful editions of the New man to man; for that that causeth gaping and stretch Testament, and other Greek authors. He died ing is when the spirits are a little heavy by any at Paris in 1561. vapour.

Arbuthnot. GARASSE (Francis), a remarkable jesuitical That all these actions can be performed by ali- writer, the author of that irreconcileable enmity ment, as well as medicines, is plain ; by observing which so long subsisted between the Jesuits and the effects of different substances upon the fuids and

Jansenists, was born at Angoulesme, in 1585, solids, when the vessels are open and gape by a

and entered the Jesuits' College in 1600. As he wound.

Id. The hiatus, or gap, between two words, is caused

had a quick imagination, a strong voice, and a

peculiar turn to wit, he became a popular preacher by two vowels opening on each other. Pope. She stretches, gapes, unglues her eyes,

in the chief cities of France; but distinguished And asks if it be time to rise.

Swift.

himself still more by his writings, which were His policy consists in setting traps,

bold, licentious, and produced much controIn finding ways and means, and stopping gaps. Id. versy. The most considerable in its consequence

Ah, Vice ! how soft are thy voluptuous ways was entitled La somme Theologique des veritez While boyish blood is mantling who can 'scape capitals de la Religion Chretienne; which was The fascination of thy magic gaze?

first attacked by the abbot of St. Cyran, who obA cherub-hydra round us dost thou gape,

serving in it a prodigious number of falsifications And mould to every taste thy dear delusive shape of the Scriptures and of the fathers, besides many

Byron. Chalde Harold. heritical and impious opinions, conceived the Gap, a town and bishop's see of France, the honor of the church required him to undertake capital of the department of the Upper Alps. It a refutation. Accordingly he published a full stands in a deep funnel-shaped valley surrounded answer to it; while Garasse's book was also by barren mountains, though the soil in the under examination of the doctors of the Sorvicinity is rich, and is an ill built place, with bonne, by whom it was afterwards condemned. narrow streets and low houses. The museum of Garasse replied to St. Cyran; but the Jesuits its literary society contains a variety of curious were forced to remove their brother to a distance minerals, plants, and birds of the Alps. Here is from Paris; where, probably weary of bis inacalso a magnificent monument of the duc de Les tive obscurity, when the plague raged at Poicdiguieres, too well known in the civil wars of tiers. in 1631, he begged leave of his superior to France. Gap is an ancient town, being mentioned attend the sick, in which charitable office he was under the name of Vapinum by Antoninus. It infected and died. was sacked and burnt in 1692 by the duke of GARB, n. s. Fr. garbe; Ital. garbo ; Teut Savoy, and which its present state shows but too garb. Dress; fashion ; external appearance. Vol. IX.

3 C

This is some fellow,

GARCINIA, in botany, a genus of the monoWho, having been praised for bluntness, doth affect gynia order and dodecandria class of plants, and A saucy roughness, and constrains the garb

in the natural method ranking under the eighQuite from his nature. Shakspeare, King Lear.

teenth order, bicornes : Cal. tetraphyllous infeHorace's wit, and Virgil's state,

rior, there are four petals; the berry is octosperHe did not steal but emulate;

mous, and crowned with a shield-like stigma. And when he would like them appear, Their garb, but not their clothes, did wear.

Species four, all East Indian trees; the priuci

Denham. pal one is, G. mangostana, a tree of great eleThus Belial, with words clothed in reason's garb, gance, growing to about seventeen or eighteen Counselled ignoble ease and peaceful sloth. Milton. feet high, 'with a straight taper stem like a fir;'

He puts himself into the garb and habit of a pro. having a regular tuft in form of an oblong cone, fessor of physick, and sets up.

L'Estrange. composed of many branches and twigs, spreadHe saw his white walls shining in the sun,

ing out equally on all sides without leaving any His gardza trees all shadowy and green;

hollow. Its leaves are oblong, pointed at both He heard his rivulet's light bubbling run;

ends, entire, smooth, of a shining green on the The distant dog-bark; and perceived between upper side, and of an olive on the back, Its The umbrage of the wood, so cool and deen,

flower is composed of four petals almost round, The moving figures, and the sparkling sheen

or a little pointed ; their color resembles that of Of arms (in the East all arm)-and various dyes

a rose, only deeper and less lively. The calyx Of coloured garbs, as bright as butterflies.

of this flower is of one piece, expanded, and cut Byron. Don Juan.

into four lobes. The two upper lobes are someGAR'BAGE, n.s.) Goth. giorb; or Span. thing larger than the lower ones; they are greenGAR'BIDGE, n. s. garbear. The internal ish on the

ish on the outside, and of a fine deep red within : Gar'BISH, n. s. viscera of the body.

the red of the upper ones is more lively than The cloyed will,

that of the lower ones. This calyx encloses all That satiate, yet unsatisfied desire, that lub

the parts of the flower; it is supported by a pe Both filled and running, ravening first tbe lamb,

dicle, which is green, and constantly comes out Longs after for the garbage. Shakspeare, Cymbeline.

of the end of a twig above the last pair of leaves. Lust, though to a radiant argel linked,

The fruit is round, of the size of a small orange, Will sate itself in a celestial bed,

Id. Hamlet.

from an inch and a half to two inches in diameAnd prey on garbage. A fam more senseless than the roguery

ter. The body of this fruit is a capsula of one Of old Aruspicy and augury,

cavity, composed of a thick rind, a little like that That out of garbages of cattle

of a pomegranate, but softer, thicker, and fuller Presaged the events of truce or battle. Hudibras. of juice. Its thickness is commonly of a quar

All shavings of horus, hoofs of cattle, blood, and ter of an inch. Its outer color is a dark brown garbage, is good manure for land. Mortimer. purple, mixed with a little gray and dark green.

In Newfoundland they improve their ground with The inside of the peel is a rose color, and its the garbish of fish.

Id. Husbandry juice is purple. This skin is of a styptic or GAR'BLE, v.a. l Ital. garbellare; Span. astringent taste, like that of a pomegranate; nor

GAR'BLER. n. s. i garbellar. To separate, does it stick to the fruit it contains. The inside either in a good or bad sense; generally in the

in the of this fruit is a furrowed globe, divided into seg. latter : to mutilate or abbreviate.

ments, like those of an orange, but unequal in But you, who fathers and traditions take,

size, and not adhering to each other. The numAnd garble some, aud come you quite forsake.

ber of these segments is always equal to that of the

Druden. rays of the top which covers the fruit. The fewer Had our author set down this command, without there are of these segments, the bigger they ar garbling, as God gave it, and joined mother to father,

There are often in the same fruit segments as it had made directly against him.

Locke. big again as any of those that are on the side of The understanding works to collate, to combine, them. These segments are white, a little transand garble the images and ideas, the imagination and parent, fleshy, membranous, full of jnice like memory present to it.

Cheyne. cherries or raspberries, of the taste of strawberries A farther secret in this clause may best be dis and grapes together. Each of the segments encovered by the projectors, or at least the garblers of it. closesser

closes a seed of the figure and size of an almond Swift's Examiner.

stripped of its shell, having a protuberance on GAR'BOIL, n. s. Fr. garbouille ; Ital. gar

one of its sides.
one of its sides.

These seeds are covered with

These seed buglio. Disorder or uproar.

two s.nall skins, the outermost of which serves Look here, and at thy sovereign leisure read

for a basis to the filaments and membranes of What garboils she awaked,

shakspeare which the pulp is composed. The substance of GARCIAS-LASSO, or GARCILASSO DE LA these seeds comes very near to that of chestnuts, VEGA, a Spanish poet, was born at Toledo in as to their consistency, color, and astringent qua1503. The younger son of a noblemane he was lity. “This tree originally grows in the Molucca early distinguished for his elegant wit and fancy, islands, where it is called mangostan, but lias and adopted the poetical principles of his friend been transplanted thence to the islands of Jara Boscan, which he was a principal instrument in and Malacca, at which last place it thrives rendering popular. His works consist princi- very well. Its tuft is so fine, so regular, so pally of pastorals. Garcilasso followed the pro- equal, and the appearance of its leaves so beaufession of arms, and attended Charles V. in tiful, that it is at present looked upon at Batavia many of his expeditions, in one of which he lost as the most proper for adorning a garden and afois life at the early age of thirty-three.

fording an agreeable shade. There are few seeds,

te.

however, to be met with in this fruit that are six arches, the second eleven, and the third good for planting, most part of them being abor- thirty-five, but these last are much smaller than tive. Ruinphius observes, that the inangos- the others. It supports a canal of four feet tan is universally acknowledged to be the best wide, and five deep, lined with a strong cement, and wholesomest fruit that grows in India ; that which has never failed. The road to Nisines is its flesh is juicy, white, almost transparent, and made by a band of some miles to pass by this of as delicate and agreeable a flavor as the richest aqueduct, and a bridge is thrown over the Gargrapes; the taste and smell being so grateful, don, close to its eastern side. It is accessible that it is scarcely possible to be cloyed with eating only at its southern extremity. Its boldness and it. He adds, that when sick people have no re- simplicity always excite the admiration of tralish for any other food, they generally eat this vellers. Rousseau says, the Romans alone were with great delight; but, should they refuse it, capable of producing such a work. their recovery is no longer expected. On the Gard, or GARDON, a river of Lower Lantop of the fruit is the figure of five or six small guedoc, France, which rises in the Cevennes, and triangles joined in a circle ; and at the bottom falls into the Rhone, three miles above Beauseveral hollow green leaves, which are remains caire. It is small, but is often increased by land of the blossom. When they are to be eaten, the skin, floods. or rather flesh, must be taken off; under which GARDA, a lake of Austrian Italy, formed by are found six or seven white kernels, placed in a the rivers Trent, Saraca, and Tuscolano; thirtycircular order; and the pulp with which these five miles long, and from three to fourteen are enveloped is the fruit, than which nothing broad: the depth varies from ten to 300 feet. The can be more delicious. It is a happy mixture whirlwinds from the mountains of Trent and of the tart and the sweet, which is no less whole- Verona gave it a stormy motion resembling the some than pleasant : and, like the sweet orange, waves of the sea. It was anciently nained Bais allowed in any quantity to those who are nacus, and is described by Virgil in his Georgics, afflicted with putrid or inflammatory fevers. lib. 2, as peculiarly subject to these tempestuous

GARBIE, that division of Lower Egypt motions : -which is included between the Nile of Rosetta, “Benacus with tempestuous billows vext.' and the Nile of Damietta. It is the best wa- From this, its ancient name, is derived the motered and most fertile part of the Delta, and is dern name of the department, Benaco, seated on intersected by numerous canals, but it has no its banks. Its fish are famous for their delicious natural variety of surface : its ornaments are the flavor; and the fishery was formerly farmed at luxuriant vegetation, and numerous villages, 8000 silver ducats. It belonged entireiy to with which it is covered. Me-Mehallet el Verona before the treaty of Campo Formio. Kibeer is the principal town.

Near this lake Buonaparte's principal exploits GARD, a department of France, part of Lan- against the Austrians took place in 1796. guedoc, and surrounded by the Mediterranean GARDA, a small open town of Italy, in the and the departments of the Lozère, the Ardeche, Veronese, north of Lacize: it was anciently a the Rhone, the Herault, and the Aveyron. It fortress, with a citadel now in ruins, where the is divided into the four arrondissements of Nismes empress Adelheit, widow of Lothair, and wife of (the chief town), Uzès, Alais, and Vigan, and Otho I., was confined by Berenger II. It is has a population of more than 322,000. It seated at the end of the above lake, seventeen forms part of the ninth military division, and of miles north-west of Verona. the diocese of Avignon : in regard to jurisdic- GARDEN, n. s. & v. a.) Sax. garda; Swe. tion, it is subject to the cour royale at Nismes. GARDENER, n. s. garda; Goth. gurd ;

fertile : winter is here scarcely known, but the ardino; Welsh, gardd. A piece of ground ensirocco, and the crowds of mosquitoes are trou- closed and cultivated, or laid out for pleasure: hlesome : thunderstorms are also frequent. and hence any place peculiar for its fruitfulness The northern part lies among the Cevennes, is and beauty, used in composition, as gardenrugged and barren, but populous, and carrying mould, garden-tillage, garden-ware. The act of on a number of manufactures. It also has mines planning, and laying out a garden: the person of copper, lead, iron, pit-coal, vitriol, and some who cultivates and superintends it. of gold and silver. This department is on the

Whan I thus herd the foules sing, whole considered one of the most thriving in

I fell fast in a waimenting, France. The Protestant and Catholic popula

By whiche art or by what engin tion, however, being nearly equal, frequent re

I might come into that gardin ligious disputes still occur, and are urged with

But waie I couthe ne finden none disgraceful animosity. Hence the wars of the

Into that gardin for to gone. Cevennes so destructive. In our own day, the

Chaucer, Romaunt of the Rose. burning of houses, and the massacre of their Thy promises are like Adonis's gardens, inhabitants, occurred after the second return of Which one day bloomed, and fruitful were the next.

Shakspeare. Louis XVIII.

My lord of Ely, when I was last in Holbourn, GARD, PONT DU, is a celebrated Roman aque- I saw good strawberries in your garden there. Id. duct, in the department of the Gard, joining

t the Gard, joining

Our the

Our bodies are our gardens, to the which our wills two mountains, and passing over the Gard or are gardeners; so that, if we plant nettles, or sow letGardon. It is 157 feet in height, 530 in length tuce, the power lies in our will. at the bottom, and 872 at the top, and consists

I am arrived from fruitful Lombardy, of three tiers of arches. The lowest tier has The pleasant garden of great Italy.

C

clay.

d.

In the royal ordering of gardens, there ought to be own strength alone, if the garden is small, he gardens for all the months in the year. Bacon. tows it after him, and conducts it wherever be

When ages grow to civility and elegancy, men come pleases. to build stately sooner than to garden finely; as if GARDENS, HANGING, in antiquity, gardens gardening were the greater perfection.

1d. raised on arches by Nebuchadnezzar, king of BaGardeners tread down any loose ground, after they

they bylon, to gratify his wife, Amyctis, daughter of

bu have sown onions or turnips. Id. Natural History.

9. Astyages, king of Media. Q. Curtius makes At first, in Rome's poor age, When both her kings and consuls held the plough,

them equal in height to the walls of the city, Or gardened well.

Ben Jonson's Catiline.

viz. fifty feet. They contained a square of 400 Some Trees, when men oppresse their aged heads

feet on every side, and were carried up into the (With waighty stones) they fructifie the more ;

air in several terraces laid one above another, And, when upon some Herbs the gard'ner tread,

and the ascent from terrace to terrace was by They thrive and prosper, better than before.

stairs ten feet wide. The arches sustaining the

Geo. Withers. whole pile were raised one above another, and it They delight most in rich black garden-mould, that was strengthened by a wall, surrounding it on is deep and light, and mixed rather with sand than every side, of twenty-two feet in thickness. The

Mortimer. floors of each of the terraces were laid in the folA clay bottom is a much more pernicious soil for lowing manner :-On the top of the arches were trees and garden-ware than gravel.

Id. first laid large flat stones, sixteen feet long and Peas and beans are what belong to garden-tillage as

len-tillage as four broad. Over them was a layer of reed well as that of the field,

Id. Husbandry.

mixed with a great quantity of bitumen; over My compositions in gardening are after the Pindar

which were two rows of bricks, closely cemented ick manner, and run into the beautiful wildness of nature, without affecting the nicer elegancies of art. together by plaster, and over all were laid thick

Spectator. sheets of lead; and upon the lead was laid the Common understandings, like cits in gardening, mould of the garden. The mould, or earth, was allow no shades to their picture.

Shenstone. of such a depth as to admit the largest trees to Earths coarsest tread, the garden's homeliest roots, take root and grow; and it was covered with And scarce the summer luxury of fruits

various kinds of trees, plants, and flowers. In His short repast in humbleness supply,

the upper terrace there was an engine, whereby With all a hermit's board would scarce deny.

water was drawn up out of the river for watering

Byron. Childe Harold. the whole garden. GARDENS, FLOATING. Abbé Clavigero, in GARDENING. See HORTICULTURE his History of Mexico, says, that when the Mex. GARDINIA, or GARDENIA, a genus of the icans were brought under subjection to the Col- monogynia order, and pentandria class of plants, huan and Tepanecan nations, and confined to the natural order thirtieth, contortæ. The lobes of miserable little islands on the lake of Mexico, the corollæ are bent obliquely to the right; style they had no land to cultivate, until necessity elevated; two-lobed; segments of the calyx compelled them to form moveable fields and vertical. Species nineteen; chiefly East Indian gardens, which floated on the waters of the lake. plants. From the bark of some species exudes The method which they adopted to make these a gum, like gum elemi, and the fruit of G. dumeis extremely simple. They plait and twist to- torum, thrown into the water, intoxicates fishes. gether willows and roots of marsh plants or other GARDINER (colonel James), a brave and materials, which are light, but capable of sup- pious officer in the army, the son of captain Paporting the earth firmly united. Upon this trick Gardiner. His father had served under foundation they lay the light bushes which float king William III. and queen Anne, and died in on the lake; and over all the mud and dirt Germany after the battle of Hochstet. Our hero which they draw up from the bottom. Their was born at Carriden, January the 10th, 1688. He regular figure is quadrangular; their length and was educated at Linlithgow, and made a very breadth various; but generally they are about considerable progress in the languages, but, have eight perches long, and not more than three in ing an attachment to the military life, he served breadth, and have less than a foot of elevation very early as a cadet; and, at fourteen years of above the surface of the water. These were the age, bore an ensign's commission in a Scots refirst fields which the Mexicans had after the giment in the Dutch service, wherein he contifoundation of Mexico: there they first cultivated nued till 1702; when he received a similar maize, pepper, and other plants. In time, as commission in a British regiment from queen these fields became numerous from the industry Anne, which he bore in the famous battle of of the people, they cultivated gardens of flowers Ramillies. In this memorable action, being and odoriferous plants, which they employed in sent on a desperate service, he very narrowly the worship of their gods, and for the recreation escaped with his life. While calling to his men, of their nobles. All plants thrive in them sur- a musket ball entered his month, and, without prisingly; the mud of the lake affords a very touching his tongue or his teeth, went through fertile soil, and requires no water from the clouds. his neck, and came out about an inch and a

tree, and even a little hut to shelter the cultiva. the pain at first, he began to suspect he had tor and defend him from rain or the sun. When swallowed the ball, till he fell with loss of blood. the Chinampa, or owner of a garden, wishes to After this he passed two nights and all next day change his situation, to remove from a disagree- in the open air, in extreme cold weather, and able neighbour, or to come nearer to his own had his wound dressed at last by an ignorant family, he gets into his little vessel, and by his barber-surgeon; in spite of all which be reco

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