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finger. G is mute before it, as gnash, sizn. riously used, for a rent, custom, service, &c. Gh has the sound of bard G in the beginning of Where it was a payment for rent, those who paid a word, as ghostly; sometimes at the end it is it were termed Gablatores. Formerly, when quite silent, as though. But at the end of many mentioned without any addition, gabel signified other words Gh has the sound of f, as laugh, the tax on salt, though afterwards it was applied rough, tough, &c. In music, G is the character to all other taxes. or mark of the treble cleff; and from its being GABINIAN Laws, in Roman antiquity, laws placed at the head, or marking the first sound in instituted upon several occasions by persons of Guido's scale, the whole scale took the name the name of Gabiuius : 1. Gabinius lex de CoGamut. IV. As a numeral, Gwas anciently mitiis by Gabinius the tribune, A.U.C. 614; reused to denote 400; and with a dash over it quiring that in the public assemblies for electing thus G for 40,000.

magistrates, the votes should be given by tables, GAB, v. n.

Mr. Todd observes and not vivâ voce: 2. De Comitiis, which made it Gabble, v. n. & n. s. Sof this word that it is a capital punishment to convene any clandestine

GABBLER, n. s. ) one of the most ancient assembly, agreeably to the old law of the twelve in our own language, and found in many others tables : 3. De Militiâ, by A. Gabinius the triwith much the same meaning: Old Fr. guber, to bune, A.U.C. 685. It granted Pompey the laugh at, from gab, mockery : Goth. beyabba ; Ice. power of carrying on the war against the pirates gubba: the same from gabb, a mocker; Sax. gab- during three years, and of obliging all kings, ban, to tritle; to joke; to talk a mere jargon: governors, and states, to supply him with all the Ital. gabbare, to mock; Pers. ghab, a foolish or necessaries he wanted, over all the Mediterranean bitter expression. The European word is to be Sea, and in the maritime provinces as far as 400 traced, perhaps, to the Celt. gob, a beak : Irish. stadia from the sea: 4. De Usurâ by Aul. Gabinius gob, a beak, or mouth: whence gab, for the

the tribune, A.U.C. 685; ordaining that no action mouth: and hence gabble. To make an indis

should be granted for the recovery of any money tinct noise, or talk loudly without meaning: to borrowed upon small interest to be lent upon prate, or chatter.

larger. This was a usual practice at Rome, I am no labbe,

which obtained the name of versuram facere : Ne though I say it I n'am not lefe to gabbe

5. Against fornication. Say what thou wolt, I shal it never telle.

GABINUS Cinctus, in Roman antiquity, a Chaucer. The Milleres Tale. particular way of tucking the gown, by drawing I gabbe not so have I joy and bliss.

it forwards on the breast, and tying it into a Id. The Nonnes Preestes Tale.

knot; as the people of Gabii did at a solemn When thou couldest not, savage,

sacrifice, on the sudden attack of an enemy, in Shew thine own meaning, but wouldest gabble like

order to be fitter for action. In this manner the A thing most brutish, I endowed thy purposes

consul used to declare war, to sacrifice, and burn With words that made them known? Shakspeare. Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to

the spoils of the enemy; and then he was said gabble like tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make

i to be præcinctus. an alehouse of my lady's house?

GABION, n. s. Fr. A wicker basket filled

Id. Twelfth Night. with earth to make a fortification or entrenchNot to know what we speak one to another, so we ment. sceni to know, is to know straight our purpose: His battery was defended all along with gabions, clough'3 language, gabble enough and good enough. and casks filled with sand.

Id. All's Well that Ends Well.
Forth with a hideous gabble rises loud

GABIONS, in fortifica-
Among the builders; each to other calls,
Not understood.

Milton's Paradise Los!.

tions, are baskets made Which made some think, when he did gabble,

of ozier twigs, of a cyThe' had heard three labourers of Babel. Hudibras.

lindrical form, six feet Flocks of fowl, that when the tempest roar,

high, and four wide ; With their boarse gabbling seek the silent shore. which, being filled with

Dryden. earth, serve as a shelter
Such a rout, and such a rabble,

from the enemy's fire.
Ran to hear Jack pudding gabble. Swift. See diagram :
GABARDINE. Span. gabardina; Ital. gavar-
dina. A coarse frock; any mean dress.

GABLE, n. s. Fr. gable ; Welsh and Belg. You call me misbeliever cut-throat dog,

gaval ; Swed. gafuel; Teut. gabel, gibel. The And spit upon my Jewish gabardine. Shakspeure.

shoping roof at the end of a building.
The knight did straight submit,
And laid his weapons at her feet :

Take care that all your brick-work be covered with
Next he disrobed his gabardine,

the tilting, according to the new way of building, And with it did himself resign.

without gable ends, which are very heavy, and very Hudibras.

apt to let the water into the brick-work. GABEL, n. S. Sax. gafel; Fr. gabelle ; Ital.

Mortimer's Husbandry. gabella. A tribute; an excise; a tax.

GABLE, or GABLE-END, of a house, is the The gabels of Naples are very high on oil, wine, upright triangular end from the cornice or eaves and tobacco.

Addison on Italy. to the top of the house. Gabel. Lat. cabella, gabium, gablagium, GABON, a river of Western Africa, flowinand vectigal, has the same signification among through a country of this name, and of nir the ancient Evglish writers, that gabelle had in with a considerable estuary between Cape I'rance, before the revolution. It has been va- Lopez Gonsalvo and Benin. In its mouth dat a number of small islands called the Pongos. of the poorer prisoners, till the viceroy, who Vessels frequently stop here to take in water, was a good-tempered man, gave up the contest, which is better than at Cape Lopez. The articles and set her at liberty. One expedient to ensure of trade are ivory, wax, and honey; but the her best efforts was found to be, placing a fanatives are licentious in their manners, and very vorite admirer in a conspicuous part of the difficult and tedious palavering. Here also are theatre, wben she would generally address her conveniences for repairing and refitting of ships. airs to him. Gabrielli amassed great wealth,


GABRES, GEBRES, GUEBRES, or GHEBER. although by no means mercenary, being enriched See GHEBER.

as well by her boundless success, as by the GABRIEL, 5,932, Heb. i. e. the strength of bounty of the emperor of Germany, who was God, one of the angels. There are a few events, much attached to her. He at length, however, in which this exalted being was concerned re- banished her from Vienna, on account of the corded in Scripture. He was sent to the pro- continual broils occasioned by her influence. phet Daniel, to explain to him the vision of the The time of her decease is not recorded. ram and goat, and the mystery of the seventy GAD, n. s. Sax. zad; Goth. and Swed. gadd; weeks; to Zecharias, to declare to him the fu- Isl. gaddcur, a club, or wedge. · A wedge or inture birth of John the Baptist; and, six months got of steel : it is also used for a stile or graver. after, to the Virgin Mary, at Nazareth, to warn

I will go get a leaf of brass, her of the birth of Jesus Christ. The Mahom And with a gad of steel will write these words. medans call him the faithful spirit; and the

Shakoreare. Persians, the peacock of heaven. In the second

Flemish steel is brought down the Rhine to Dort, chapter of the Koran, it is said, that whosoever

and other parts, some in bars, and some in gado; and

therefore called Flemish steel, and sometimes gad is an enemy to Gabriel shall be confounded. It


Moxon's Mechanical Exercises. was Gabriel, Mahomet pretended, who brought

Gad, 0.n.

Derived by Skinner from the revelations which he published; and who

Gadder, n. s. gadfly; by Junius from conducted him to heaven mounted upon the

GaddinGLY, adv. S Welsh, gadaw, to forsake; animal Borak.

Gadling, n. s. ( by others thought to be GABRIELITES, in ecclesiastical history, a

GADFLY, n. s. the preterite of the old sect of Anabaptists that appeared in Pomerania, word agaan, to go. Minsheu says à Belg. gaen, in 1530 ; so named from Gabriel Scherling, who,

no; to journey; or Belg. guden, to please. To ramble after having been for some time tolerated in that

about; to rove loosely, or wildly : one that runs country, was obliged to remove, and died in Po- abroad without object or business : gadfly, a fly land.

that by stinging cattle causes them to run madly GABRIELLI (Caterina), a celebrated and

about; the breese. accomplished Italian singer of the last century, was born at Rome, 1730. She was a pupil of

A drunken woman, and a gadder abroad, causeth Porpora and Metastasio, and, from the circum

great anger, and she will not cover her own shame.

Ecclus. xxvi. 8. tance of her father having been a cook, she

These bowes two held swete loking; icquired in her earlier years the epithet of La

That ne seemed like no gadling; Cuochetina. Wherever she visited, she excited And ten brode arrowes held he there the greatest admiration of her talents. In Russia, Of whiche five in his honde were. she remained three years, and ranked high at

Chaucer. Romaunt of the Rosc. court. Visiting England, in 1775, she appeared How now, my headstrong, where have you been at the king's theatre during that and the follow

gadding? ing year, and is said to have exhibited fewer of Where I have learnt me to repent. Shakspeare. her capricious freaks here than abroad, from a

Envy is a gadding passion, and walketh the streets, salutary fear lest an English audience should Ji and doth not keep home.

Bacon. break her bones.

The fly called the gadsly breedeth of somewhat that Brydone gives a curious instance of one of

swimmeth upon the top of the water, and is most about ponds.

Bacon's Natural History. her whims during her stay at the court of Pa

The lesser devils arose with ghastly rore, lermo. The viceroy had honored her, it ap- And thronged forth about the world to god; pears, with an invitation to a party, which she Each land they filled, river, stream, and shore. accepted, but not arriving at the appointed hour,

Fairfa. the dinner was put back, and a messenger des Gad not abroad at every quest and call patched to her residence, who found her reading of an untrained hope or passion ; in bed. She rose and accompanied him, apo- To court each place or fortune that doth fall, ising to the company, which consisted of Is wantonness in contemplation.

Herbert. great number of noble persons, on the ground

Thee, shepherd, thee the woods and desart caves that she had forgotten the engagement. This

With wild thyme and the gadding vine o'ergrown, offended the viceroy; but when, on coming to

And all their echo's moan.

Milton the opera, no persuasion could induce her to

A fierce loud buzzing breeze; their stings draw

blood, sing a note above her breath, he threatened her with punishment. She was now, however, only

And drive the cattle gadding through the wood.


She wreaks her anger on her rival's head; that his excellency might indeed make her cry, With furies frights her from her native home, but he never should make her to sing.' On this And drives her gadding, round the world to roam. she was committed to prison; and remained in

Id, confinement twelve days, during which she gave There's an ox lost, and this coxcomh runs a galding magnificent entertainments, and paid the debts afier wild fow'


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No wonder their thoughts should be perpetually Erythia, according to Pliny. Geryon, whom shifting from what disgusts them, and seek better Hercules killed, is said to have resided in it. entertainment in more pleasing objects, after which Hercules Gaditanus had there a celebrated they will unavoidably be gadding.

Locke. temple, in wbich all his labors were engraved. Light fly his slumbers, if perchance a flight

This island was considered as the western exOf angry gadflies fasten on the herd. Thomson. tremity of the habitable world, and as such was

Gad, 9a, i. e. a troop, one of the twelve alluded to by the poets. Juvenal says, patriarchs, the son of Jacob of Zilpah, and pro- Omnibus in terris quæ sunt à Gadibus usque genitor of the tribe of the Gadites.

Auroram et Gangem pauci dignoscere possunt Gad, in ancient geography, a district of Vera bona, atque illis multum diversa, remota Transjordan Palestine, situated between Gilead Erroris nebula.

Sat. X. and the kingdom of Bashan on the north, and

Horace also, that of the Amorites to the south, having the Jordan to the west, and bounded by various

Latiùs regnis avidum domando nations on the east, so called from the tribe of

Spiritum, quàm si Libyam remotis

Gadibus jungas, et uterque Pægus that name.

Serviat uni.

Lib. ii. od. 2. Gad, a prophet who attended David during his persecution by Saul, and gave him various GADIACZ, a town in the government of admonitions afterwards. He wrote a history of Pultava, Russia, containing 2300 inhabitants. David's life, which is lost.

150 miles south-east of Czernigow. Gad, among miners, a small punch of iron, GADOU, a country of Western Africa, with a long wooden handle, used to break up having Brooko Fooladoo to the north, Konkodoo the ore. One of the miners holds this in his to the east, and Jallonhadoo to the south. It is hand, directing the point to a proper place, while crossed by streams, which descend from the the other drives it into the vein, by striking it mountains of Manding, and form the Senegal. with a sledge hammer.

The tract is mountainous, containing mines of GADAMIS, a tuwn and territory of Northern gold, iron, and saltpetre, Africa, forming a species of oasis in the great GADUS, in ichthyology, a genus of fishes desert of Sahara.' It is situated north-west belonging to the order of jugulares. The head from Fezzan, and south-west of Tripoli, and in is smooth; there are seven cylindrical rays in the road between these countries and Tom- the branchiostege membrane; the body is obbuctoo: but the caravan that passes rarely consists long, with deciduous scales; the whole fins are of more than 150 camels. It passes through covered with the common skin of fish; the rays Tuat or Souat, another oasis to the south-west. of the back fins are blunt, and those of the This territory is said to contain ninety-two vil breast are sharp. There are twenty-three species, lages, and many Roman ruins. 300 miles south- principally distinguished by their cirri, and the west of Tripoli.

number of back fins. The most remarkable are GADARENORUM AGER, in ancient geo- these :graphy, the country of the Gadarenes, called by G. barbatus, the pout, never growing to a Matthew the country of the Gergesenes; a dis. large size, and seldom exceeding a foot in length. trict that lay between Gadara and Gergesa, other. It is distinguished from all others by its great wise called Gerosa, both which lay within the depth; one of the size above mentioned being Decapolis on the other side Jordan.

nearly four inches deep in the broadest part. The GADBURY (John), a noted professor of the back is very much arched, and cafinated; the wonderful revelations of astrology. He was a color of the fins and tail is black; at the bottom native of Oxfordshire, and bred a sailor; then of the pectoral fins is a black spot. The lateral he was the pupil and assistant of the famous line is white, broad, and crooked. The tail is Lilly. Being a Catholic, and on account of even at the end, and of a dusky color. The some ominous remarks in his Almanacks, he color of the body is white; but more obscure on was arrested during the commotions excited by the back than the belly, and tinged with y llow. the so-called Popish plots in Charles II. reigo: It is called at Scarborough a kleg, and is a very but liberated ; and died, it is said, by ship- delicate fish. wreck on a voyage to Jamaica: but the dates G. carbonarius, the coal fish, is of a more neither of his life or death appear. He pub- elegant form than the cod, growing to the length lished A Discourse of the Nature and Effects of of two feet and a half, and weighing about Comets, Philosophically, Historically, and Astro- twenty-eight or thirty pounds at most. The head logically considered, 1665: and Partridge, a is small; the under jaw a little longer than the professor of this art, gave the world in 1693, upper: the tail is broad and forked. They vary The Black Life of John Gadbury.

in color: some have their back, nose, dorsal fins, GADEBUSCH, a town of Mecklenburgh- and tail, of a deep black; the gill-covers silver Schwerin, on the Radegast, where the Swedes and black, the ventral and anal fins, and the defeated the Danes and Saxons, on the 20th of belly, white: others are dusky, others browu; December, 1712. Inhabitants 1500. It is but, in all, the lateral line is straight and white, fifteen miles south-west of Wismar, and sixteen and the lower parts, or the ventral and anal fins, W.N.W. of Schwerin.

white. This species takes its name from the GADES, or Gadira, in ancient geography, black color that it sometimes assumes. Belon a small island in the Atlantic, on the panish calls it the colfisch, imagining that it was so coast, twenty-five miles from the Pillars of Her named by the English, from its producing the cules. It was sometimes called Tartessus, and ichthyocolla : but Gesner gives the true etymology These fishes are common on most of our the shore, they caught nothing but dog fish, rocky and deep coasts, but particularly those of which shows how exactly these fish keep their the north of Scotland. They swarm about the limits. The best haddocks were sold at from Orkneys, where the fry are the greatest support 8d. to 1s. per score, and the smaller sort at 1d. of the poor. The young begin to appear on the and even d. per score. The large haddocks Yorkshire coast in the beginning of July, in vast quit the coast as soon as they go out of season, shoals, and are then about an inch and a half and leave behind great plenty of small ones. It long. In August they are from three to five is said that they visit the coasts of Hamburgh inches, and are taken in great numbers with the and Jutland in summer. It is no less remarkangling rod; they are esteemed very delicate; able than providential, that all kinds of fish (exbut grow so coarse, when a year old, that few cept mackerel) which frequent the Yorkshire people eat them. Fish of that age are from coast, approach the shore, and, as it were, offer eight to fifteen inches long, and begin to have a themselves to us, generally remaining there as little blackness near the gills and on the back; long as they are in high season, and retire from this blackness increases as they grow older. The us when they become unfit for use. They do fry is known by different names in different not grow to a great bulk, one of fourteen pounds places: they are called at Scarborough parrs; being an uncommon size, but these are extremely and, when a year old, billets. About twenty coarse; the best weighing only from two to three years ago such a quantity of parrs visited that pounds. part, that for several weeks it was impossible to G. lota, the burbot, in its body has some redip a pail into the sea without taking some semblance to an eel, only shorter and thicker ; Though this fish is so little esteemed when fresh, and its motions also resemble those of that fish: it it is salted and dried for sale.

is besides very smooth, slippery, and sliny. The G. eglesinus, the haddock, has a long body; head is very ugly, being flat, and shaped like the upper part of a dusky brown color, and the that of a toad: the teeth are very small, but nubelly and lower part of the sides silvery: on the merous. On the end of the nose are two smail back are three fins, resembling those of the com- beads; on the chin another. The color varies : non cod fish; the lateral line is black; and the some are dusky, others are of a dirty green, ail is forked : the head slopes down to the spotted with black, and oftentimes with yellow; nose; on the chin is a sbort beard ; and on each and the belly in some is white; but the real side beyond the gills is a large black spot. Su- colors are frequently concealed by the slime. perstition assigns this mark to the innpression This species abounds in the lake of Genera, and St. Peter left with his finger and thumb when he is also met with in the lakes Maggiore and Lutook the piece of silver out of the mouth of a gano. In Britain it is found in the Trent; but fish of this species, which has been continued to in greater plenty in the Witham, and the great the whole race of haddocks ever since that mi- east fen in Lincolnshire. It is a very delicate racle. Large haddocks begin to be in roe in the fish for the table, though of a disgusting appearmiddle of November, and continue so till the end ance when alive. It is very voracious, and preys of January; from that time till May they are on the fry and smaller fish. It does not often take very thin-tailed, and out of season. In Maybait, but is generally caught in weels. The they begin to recover; and the middling-sized largest taken in our waters weigh between two fish are then very good, and continue improving and three pounds, but abroad they are sometimes till the time of their perfection. The small ones found of double that weight. are extremely good from May till February, and G. merlangus, the whiting, is a fish of an elesome even in February, March, and April, viz. gant make: the upper jaw is the longest; the those which are not old enough to breed. The eyes are large, the nose is sharp : the teeth of the fishermen assert, that in rough weather haddocks upper jaw are long, and appear above the lower sink down into the sand and ooze in the bottom when closed. The color of the head and back of the sea, where they shelter themselves till the is a pale brown; the lateral line white, and storm is over; for in stormy weather they take crooked; the belly and sides are silvery, the last none, and those that are taken immediately after streaked lengthwise with yellow. These fish a storm have mud on their backs. In summer appear in vast shoals in spring, keeping at the they live on young herrings and other small fish; distance of about half a mile to that of three in winter on the stone-coated worms, a species miles from the shore. They are caught in rast of serpula, which the fishermen call haddock- numbers by the line, and afford excellent divermeat. The grand shoal of haddocks comes pe- sion. They are the most delicate, as well as the riodically on the Yorkshire coast. It is remark- most wholesome, of any of the genus : but they able that they appeared in 1766 on the 10th of do not grow to a large size, the biggest not exDecember, and exactly on the same day in 1767: ceeding twenty inches; and even that is very these shoals extended from the shore nearly three uncommon, the usual length being ten or twelve; miles in breadth, and in length from Flambo- though, it is said, that whitings from four to eight rough Head to Tinmouth Castle, and perhaps pounds in weight have been taken in the deep much farther northwards. An idea may be given water at the edge of the Dogger Bank of their numbers by the following fact: three G. meriucius, the hake, is found in vast abasfishermen, within the distance of a mile from dance on many of our coasts, and those of IreScarborough harbour, frequently loaded their land. There was formerly a stationary fishery hoats with them twice a-day, taking each time of hake on the Nymph bank off Waterford, imabout a ton of fish; when they put down their mense quantities appearing there twice a-yar; vises beyond the distance of three miles from the first shoal coming in June, during the mackerel season; the other in September, at the be- yellow: the belly is white; but they vary much, ginning of the herring season, probably in pur- both in color and shape, particularly that of the suit of those fish. The hake is in England head. The side line is wide, broad, and straight esteemed a very coarse fish, and is seldom ad- till opposite the vent, when it bends towards the mitted to table either fresh or salted. When tail. **Codlings are often taken of a yellow, cured it is known by the name of Poor John. orange, and even red color, while they re'These fish are from one and a half to nearly three main among the rocks; but on changing their feet; they are of a slender make, of a pale ash place assume the color of other codfish. The color on their backs, and of a dirty white on their jaws are of an equal length, and at the end of bellies.

the lower is a small beard; the teeth are disposed G. minutus, the poor, is the smallest species in the palate as well as in the jaws. The cod is yet discovered, being little more than six inches found only in the northern seas; being, as Ronlong. On the chin is a small beard; the eyes deletius calls it, an ocean fish, and never met are covered with a loose membrane; on each with in the Mediterranean Sea. It affects cold side of the gill-covers and jaws there are nine climates and seems confined between the latipunctures. The color on the back is a light tudes 66° and 50°; those caught north and south brown; on the belly a dirty white. It is taken of these degrees being either bad, or in small near Marseilles, and sometimes in such quan- numbers. The Greenland cod are small, and tities as to become a nuisance; for no other emaciated ; being very voracious, and suffering kinds of fish are taken during their season. It in those seas a scarcity of provision. Most other is esteemed good, but incapable of being salted species of this genus inhabit the cold seas, or or dried. Belon says, that when it is dried in such as lie within regions that can just claim the the sun, it grows as hard as horn.

title of temperate. There is nevertheless a speG. molva, the ling, is usually from three to cies found near the Canary Islands, called cherfour feet long, but have been caught seven feet ny, which are said to be better than the Newlong. The body is very slender; the head flat: foundland kind. The great rendezvous of the the upper jaw is longest ; the teeth in that jaw cod fish is on the banks of Newfoundland, and are small and very mumerous; in the lower, few, the other sand-banks off the coasts of Cape Breslender, and sharp: on the chin is a small beard. ton, Nova Scotia, and New England. See our They vary in color, some being of an olive hue article FISHERIES. on the sides and back, others cinereous; the G. mustela, the five-bearded cod, very much belly white. The ventral fins are white: the resembles the lota. The beards on the upper dorsal and anal edged with white. The tail is jaw are four, viz. two at the very end of the nose, marked near the end with a transverse black bar, and two a little above them: on the end of the and tipped with white. Its English name ling lower jaw is a single one. The fish are of a is derived from its length, being a corruption of deep olive brown, their belly whitish. They long. It abounds about the Scilly Isles, on the grow to the same size as the lota. coasts of Scarborough, Scotland, and Ireland, G. pollachius, the pollack, has the under jaw and forms a great branch of trade. It was con- longer than the upper; the head and body rise siderable, so long ago as the reign of Edward III. pretty high, as far as the first dorsal fin. The an act for regulating the price of lob, ling, and side ine is incurvated, rising towards the middle cod, being made in the thirty-first year. In the of the back, then sinking and running straight to Yorkshire fens they are in perfection from the the tail; it is broad and of a brown color. The leginning of February to that of May, and some color of the back is dusky, sometimes inclining to the end of it. In June they spawii, deposit to green: the sides beneath the lateral line are ing their eggs in the soft oozy ground of the marked with lines of yellow; and the belly is mouth of the Tees. At that time the males se- white. This species is common on many of our parate from the females, and resort to some rocky rocky coasts: during summer they are seen in ground near Flamborough Head, where the fish- great shoals frolicking on the surface of the ermen take great numbers without ever finding water, and Ainging themselves into a thousand any of the female fish among them. While a ling forms. They will then bite at any thing that is in season its liver is very white, and abounds appears on the top of the waves, and are often with a fine flavored oil; but as soon as it goes taken with a goose feather fixed to the hook. out of season, the liver becomes as red as that They are very strong, being observed to keep of a bullock, and affords no oil. The same hap- their station at the feet of the rocks in the most pens to the cod and other fish in a certain degree, turbulent and rapid sea. They do not grow to but not so remarkably as in the ling. When in a very large size; the biggest seldom exceed six perfection, a very large quantity of oil may be or seven pounds, but some have been taken melted out of the liver by a slow fire; but if a near Scarborough, during winter, that weighed violent sudden heat be used for that purpose, nearly twenty-eight pounds. They are there called they yield very little. Vast quantities of ling leets. are salted for exportation as well as for home G. toricius, the torsk, tusk, or brismack, is a consumption. To be split, or cut for curing, it northern fish; and as yet not discovered lower must measure twenty-six inches or upwards froin than about the Orkneys, and even there it is the shoulder to the tail ; if less than that, it is not rather scarce. In the seas about Shetland, it reckoned a sizeable fish, and consequently not swarms, and forms (barrelled or dried) a consientitled to the bounty on exportation, such are derable article of commerce. The length is about called drizzles, and are in season all summer. twenty inches, the greatest depth four and a

G. morhua, the common cod, is cinereous on half; the head is small; the upper jaw a little the back and sides, and commonly spotted with longer than the lower; both jaws furnished with

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