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* The account books of a common farmer,' as to read across both pages, with columns titled, says Mr. Loudon, 'may be a cash book for all as in the specimen annexed. In this the bailiff receipts and payments, specifying each; a or master inserts the name of every hand; and ledger for accounts with dealers and tradesmen; the time in days, or proportions of a day, which and a stock book for taking an inventory and each person under his care has been at work, valuation of stock, crop, manures, tillages (and and the particular work he or she has been enevery thing that a tenant could dispose of or be gaged in. At the end of each week the bailiff paid for on quitting his farm), once a year. or master sums up the time from the preceding Farming may be carried on with the greatest Saturday or Monday, to the Friday or Saturday accuracy and safety, as to money matters, by inclusive; the sum due or to be advanced to means of the above books, and a few pocket each man is put in one column, and when the memorandum books for laborers' time, jobs, &c. man receives it he writes the word received in With the exception of a time book (such as is the column before it, and signs his name as a hereafter described), we should never require receipt in the succeeding column. The Time more, even from a proprietor's bailiff; to many Book, therefore, will show what every man has of whom the nine forms just given would only been engaged in during every hour in the year puzzle ;—to some we have known them lead to for which he has been paid, and it will also conthe greatest errors and confusion. No form of tain receipts for every sum, however trifling, books, or mode of procedure, will enable a which has been paid by the bailiff for rural farmer to know whether he is losing or gaining, labor.? 'In short, it would be difficult to contrive but that of taking stock.'

a book more satisfactory for both master and The Time Book, Mr. Loudon recommends, servant than the Time Book, as it prevents, as far may be made useful, as he suggests, in every as can well be done, the latter from deceiving department of agriculture and on every scale of either himself or his employer, and remains an management, though most necessary for bailiffs, authentic indisputable record of work done, and where a number of day laborers are employed of vouchers for money paid during the whole on improvements. It is a folio volume, ruled so period of the bailiff's services.'

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Cow Charlotte died on

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Attending the At the cow and Set hen with has got one of Booker's

nine eck!

in fallow field fallow field No.

at Bawdry.
Digging drains in Digging drains Digging drains in

low field, 7.
fallow field. No.drains in fal- fallow field No.

No. 7
Digging drains in Digging

calved cow.
at Bawdry.

Daily Occupation.


1824, Sept. 8th to 15th. Time, Expense, and Occupation of hired Servants and Laborers employed at

Superintending the Op a visit.

women at turnip

wheat from At
Peter's Piece.
Superintending the On a visit.

women at turnip
The same.


Farmer (Hugh), a learned dissenting minister, born at Shrewsbury in 1714. He was descended from a respectable family in North Wales ; and, after receiving the first part of his education at a school in Llangerin, was for some time under the tutorage of Dr. Charles Owen. When about sixteen years of age, he was sent to prosecute his studies under the celebrated Dr. Doddridge, at Northampton. Mr. Farmer first became chaplain in the family of William Coward, Esq. of Walthamstow in Essex, and minister to a dissenting congregation in that village. He next resided with William Snell, Esq., a respectable dissenter of the neighbourhood ; and in his family Mr. Fariner lived for thirty years, still continuing his connexion with the congregation at Walthamstow. Upon the day of thanksgiving appointed for the suppression of the rebellion, in 1745, he delivered a very apposite sermon, which he was induced to publish the following year. His next publication was entitled An Enquiry into the Nature and Design of our Lord's Temptation in the Wilderness, 8vo. In this work Mr. Farmer labors to demonstrate that the whole of the temptations were transacted in vision, and that they were particularly intended to point out to Jesus the difficulties and duties of his subsequent ministry. Whatever singularity of opinion appeared in this work, the originality of thought and profound erudition with which it was supported, gained it a rapid and extensive circulation, and called forth the abilities of those who were of a different opinion. It_is generally thought, however, that of all Mr. Farmer's lite rary productions, his Dissertation on Miracles, designed to show that they are arguments of a divine interposition, and absolute proofs of the mission and doctrine of a prophet, published in 1771, is the most masterly. Notwithstanding the many able treatises upon that subject, which have appeared, some have considered this work in many respects as without a rival. His next publication was An Essay on the Demoniacs of the New Testament, which he maintains to have been only natural diseases. This work seems to be a completion of what the author had designed in his Dissertation on Miracles. Mr. Farmer was for several years the sole pastor of the congregation at Walthamstow, but in 1761 an able col. league was appointed him, in consequence of which he became the afternoon preacher to the congregation of Salter's Hall, London, and, in a short time after, the Tuesday lecturer at the same place. As he advanced in years, he resigned his ministerial employments, much to the regret of the people under his charge. His last performance was entitled The General Prevalence of the Worship of Human Spirits in the Ancient Heathen Nations Asserted and Proved; which was attacked by Mr. Fell, in an acute and learned treatise in 1785. In the same year Mr. Farmer was afflicted with a disease in his eyes, which almost deprived him of sight. From this time, however, his infirmities increased, and he died at Walthamstow in 1787, in the seventythird year

of his age. In his last will his executors were directed to burn all his manuscripts; but some of his letters and fragments of a Dissertation on the Story of Balaam, were published in 1804 with his life prefixed.


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FARMER (Richard), an English divine and an- borough castle in Northumberland At low tiquary, born at Leicester in 1735. His father water the points of several others are visible bewas a hosier in that town, and, after receiving sides the seventeen just mentioned. The nearest the rudiments of his education there, he became island to the shore is called the House Island, a student at Cambridge, and pensioner of Ema- and lies exactly one mile and sixty-eight chains nuel College. Here his diligence and success in from the coast. The most distant is about seven obtaining a knowledge of books, as well as the or eight miles. Their produce is kelp, feathers, quickness of his memory, were early observed; and a few seals, which the tenants watch and and he was made B.A. in 1757, and M.A, in shoot for the sake of the oil and skins. Some of 1760, in which year also he was appointed them yield a little grass that serves to feed a cow classical tutor. After officiating some time as a or two; which the people transport over in their curate, he, in 1767, took the degree of B.D. and little boats. became one of the preachers at Whitehall. FARNABIE, or FARNABY (Thomas), an emiWhile Mr. Farmer paid considerable attention to nent grammarian, son of a London carpenter, Grecian and Roman authors, he also applied was born in 1575. While at Oxford, being enhimself particularly to old English literature; and ticed to abandon his religion, he went to Spain, An Essay on the Learning of Shakspeare, pub- and was there educated in a college belonging to lished in 1766, contributed principally to his the Jesuits. Being weary of their severe disciliterary fame. Of this performance, which was pline, he went with Sir John Hawkins and Sir much admired for the sprightliness of its compo- Francis Drake in their last voyage in 1595. He sition, three editions were sold in a very short was afterwards a soldier in the Low Countries : time. Mr. Farmer was now noticed and pa- but being reduced to great want, returned to tronised in his profession: by the influence of England, where after wandering about for some bishop Hurd, he was promoted to the chancellor- time, under the name of Thomas Bainrafe (the ship and a prebend in the cathedral of Litchfield; anagram of his name), he settled at Mattock in and in 1775 was chosen master of Emanuel Somersetshire, and taught grammar with reputaCollege, and took his degree of D.D. Not long tion. He removed to London, and opened a after, he was appointed principal librarian to the school. While here he was made M. A. at Camuniversity, and served in turn the office of vice- bridge, and incorporated into the university of chancellor. Lord North, at that time prime- Oxford. Thence he removed, in 1636, to Sevenminister, made him prebendary of Canterbury, Oaks in Kent; and raised a respectable school. and Mr. Pitt repeatedly offered him a bishopric; l'pon the breaking out of the civil war, in 1641, but the constraints and sulemnity of the episco- he was cast into prison. It was debated, in the pal character did not suit bis natural disposition, house of commons, whether he should be sent and he not only declined accepting a bishopric, to America ; but, this motion being rejected, he but resigned his office as prebendary for a resi- was removed to Ely-house in Holborn, where dentaryship of St. Paul's.' By this it was neces- he died, June 12th, 1647. Many writers have sary he should reside three months annually in spoken with great approbation of his labors. M. London, and these he spent in the company of Bayle says, "his notes upon most of the ancient literary characters with pleasure and advantage. Latin poets have been of very great use to young He was particularly instrumental in amending the beginners ; being short, learned, and designed police of Cambridge, with regard to the paving chiefly to clear up the text.' and lighting the streets. He had collected ample FARNESE, the name of a distinguished famaterials for a history of the town and anti- mily in Italy, of which the most remarkable were, quities of Leicester, which he intended to pub- 1. Peter Louis Farnese, the son of Alexander, lish by subscription, but relinquished the design; afterwards pope Paul III. He was created duke and Mr. Nichols being engaged in writing a his- of Parma and Placentia in 1545, but, becoming tory of that county, the doctor gave what he had universally hated for his tyranny and debauchery, collected, with the plates, to him. Dr. Farmer fell by the hands of an assassin in 1547. 2. His died at Emanuel College, in 1797, in the sixty- eldest son, Alexander, born 1520, was raised by second year of his age. His collection of scarce Clement VII. to the see of Parma, and created and curious books, which was very extensive, a cardinal by his grandfather, Paul III. He was was disposed of a short time after his death. also dean of the Sacred College, and distinguished

FARMINGTON, a large, pleasant, and both by his learning and virtues. He was rewealthy town in Hartford county, Connecticut. peatedly employed as nuncio to the courts of The river meanders delightfully through charm- Vienna and Paris

, and died at Rome in 1589. iog intervales, which beautify and enrich this 3. Alexander, third duke of Parma, was a nephew town. The houses, in the compact part of the of his, and distinguished as a military commantown, stand chiefly on the street that runs north der under Philip II. of Spain. He succeeded and south along the gentle declivity of a hill Don John of Austria in the government of the which ascends east of the vallies. About the Low Countries in 1578; and was designed to centre of the street there is a large and handsome have commanded the Spanish army which emcongregational church. This town was settled as barked with the Armada for the conquest of early as 1645, and its boundaries were then very England. He died in 1592 at Arras, aged fortyextensive. Several towns have been since taken six. from it. It lies ten miles south-west of Hart- FARNHAM, or Fernham, a market town of ford.

Surry, thirty-eight miles from London, and FARN ISLANDS, two groups of little islands twelve west from Guildford. It is a populous and rocks, seventeen in number, opposite to Bam- place, situated on the Wey, and supposed to have its name from the fern which abounded the French obtained a naval victory over the here. It was given by Ethelbald, king of the Spaniards in 1675. West Saxons, to the see of Winchester; the FAROE ISLANDS. See FERROE Isles. bishops of which have generally resided in the FARON, a mountain of France, in the decastle here, in summer, since the reign of king partment of Var, near Toulon, with a fort and Stephen, whose brother, the then bishop, first redoubt on its top, which is 1718 feet above the built it. It was a magnificent structure, with sea level, and almost inaccessible, being nearly deep moats, strong walls, towers, and a fine park; perpendicular. The British troops, under lord but it is much decayed. Adjoining the park is Mulgrave, were in possession of the fort, on the Jay's tower, the ascent to which is by sixty-three 30th September, 1793, when the French, by a stone steps. This was partly beaten down by very daring manœuvre, seized the redoubt, but Cromwell's cannon. It now contains about were driven from it on the 1st October, by the forty-eight rods of land on its top, which is con- combined forces, with the loss of 2000 men. 'verted into a kitchen garden. This spot was FARQUHAR (George), an ingenious poet annually visited by their late majesties durin and dramatic writer, the son of an Irish clergythe life of the late bishop Thomas. The town, man, was born at Londonderry in 1678. He which has many handsome houses, and well was sent to Trinity College, Dublin ; but his paved streets, is governed by twelve masters, of volatile disposition soon led him to the stage ; whom two are bailiffs, chosen annually. They where, having dangerously wounded a brother have the profits of the fairs and markets, and the actor in a tragic scene, by forgetting to change assize of bread and beer; and hold a court every his sword for a foil, it affected him so much three weeks, which has power of trying and de- that he left the Dublin theatre and went to Lontermining all actions under 40s. From Michael- don. Here, by the interest of the earl of Orrery, mas to Christmas there is a good market for oats; be procured a lieutenant's commission; which and a considerable wheat market between Ali he held several years, and gave many proofs both Saint's day and Midsummer; but it is diminished of courage and conduct. In 1698 he wrote his since the people about Chichester and Southamp- first comedy, called Love and a Bottle; which, ton have so largely communicated with London for its sprightly dialogue and busy scenes, was by sea. This loss, however, is amply made up well received. In 1700, the jubilee year at by the vast growth of hops, of which there are Rome, he brought out his Constant Couple, or a 700 or 800 acres of plantations about this town, Trip to the Jubilee: and suited Mr. Wilkes's said to excel the Kentish grounds both in quan- talents so well, in the character of Sir Henry tity and quality. This town sent members to Wildair, that the player gained almost as much parliament in the reign of Edward II, but never reputation as the poet. This induced him to since. The market is on Thursday; fairs on continue it in another comedy called Sir Harry Holy Thursday, June 24th, and Nov. 2nd. There Wildair, or The Sequel of the Trip to the Jubiis also a market for Welsh hose.

lee; in which Mrs. Oldfield acquired great apFARNOVIUS (Stanislaus), a dissenter from plause. In 1703 appeared The Inconstant, or the other Unitarians in 1568, who was followed The Way to Win him; in 1704 a farce called by several persons eminent for their learning. The Stage-coach ; in 1705 The Twin Rivals ; He was induced by Gonesius to prefer the Arian and in 1706 Thé Recruiting Officer, founded system to that of the Socinians, and consequently on his own observations while on a recruiting asserted, that Christ had been produced out of party at Shrewsbury. His last comedy was The nothing by the Supreme Being before the crea- Beaux Stratagem, of which he did not live to tion. He warned his disciples against paying enjoy the full success. Mr. Farquhar married in religious worship to the Divine Spirit

. He died 1703. Before this time his manner of life had in 1615.

been dissipated ; and the lady, who became his FARO, an island of Sweden, to the north-east wife, having fallen violently in love with him, of Gothland, in the Baltic. It is about thirty contrived to circulate a report that she was posmiles in circumference; and has a chief town of sessed of a large fortune. Interest and vanity, the same name on the east coast. Long. 19° therefore, got the better of Farquhar's passion 32' 55" E., lat. 57° 56' N.

for liberty, and the lady and he were united in Faro, a sea-port and bishop's see of Portugal, the hymeneal band. To his honor, however, it in Algarve, near Cape Santa Maria. It stands is recorded, that though he soon found himself in a fertile plain; is fortified, and tolerably well deceived, he was not known to upbraid his wife built. Population 7000. The harbour is almost with it; but became a most indulgent husband. blocked up, but the roadstead has good anchor- Mrs. Farquhar, however, did not long enjoy the age; and a considerable export trade is carried happiness she had thus purchased by this strataon with England and other countries in sumach, gem. The involvement of her husband, and the wine, and cork. There are packet boats between treachery of a court patron who persuaded him this place and Gibraltar. 'It suffered severely to sell his commission, brought on a decline, from the earthquake of 1755; and is eighteen which at length carried him off in 1707, in the miles south-west of Tavira, and 130 south-east twenty-ninth year of his age. His plays still conof Lisbon.

tinue to be represented to full houses. Faro or Messina, a strait of the Mediterra- FARR (Samuel), M. D., was a native of nean, between Sicily and Calabria, about seven Taunton, Somersetshire, and born in 1741. He miles across; so named from Cape Faro; re- was educated at Warrington 'grammar-school, markable for its tide ebbing and flowing with and the universities of Edinburgh and Leyden. great rapidity every six hours. In this strait He afterwards established himself in his native town, and was the author of several medical at all the expense in curing the horse so lamed. tracts of merit, as An Inquiry into the propriety Farriers are in every respect liable to be tried of Phlebotomy in cases of Consumption, 8vo.; according to the Articles of War. An Essay on Acids; The History of Epidemics, FARRIERY. The treatment of the diseases translated from the Greek of Hippocrates, 4to.; of horses we refer to the article VETERINARY The Elements of Medical Jurisprudence, 8vo. ; Art, fully feeling the propriety of seeking that and Aphorismi de Marasmo, ex summis Medicis superior profess:onal treatment for horses of collecti, 12mo. He died in 1795.

value which the English gentleman no longer FARRA'GO, 1. s. 1 Lat. A mass formed expects to find either with his groom or his black

FARRA'GINOUS, adj. & confusedly of several in- smith. But farriery (Lat. ferrarius, from ferrum, gredients; a medley formed of different materials. iron) may with strict propriety describe a very

Being a confusion of knaves and fools, and a furra- useful and important employment of the latter, ginous concurrence of all conditions, tempers, sexes, i.e. the shoeing of horses : we therefore propose and ages, it is but natural if their determinations to offer our observations on that art in this place. be monstrous, and many ways inconsistent with truth. Shoeing is a method of preserving the feet of

Browne's Vulgar Errours. horses. Some other auxiliary methods may first When we sleep, the faculty of volition ceases to be noticed. For instance, when young horses act, and in consequence the uncompared trains of ideas are first taken from the field, their hoofs are obbecome incongruous, and form the farrago of our served to be cool, sound, and tough: but they dreams; in which we never experience any surprise, are no sooner introduced into the stable, than or sense of novelty.


their hoofs are greased or oiled two or three FARRANT (Richard), an English musical times a week: and if they are kept much in the composer of eminence, held situations in the house standing upon hot dry litter, without being Chapel Royal and St. George's chapel at Wind- frequently led abroad, and without having an sor, from 1564 to 1580, and was remarkable for opportunity of getting their hoofs cooled and the devout and solemn style of his church music, moistened in wet ground, their hoofs grow so much of which is found in the collections of brittle, dry, and hard, that pieces frequently break Boyce and Barnard. His full anthem, “Lord, off, like chips from a hard stone; and, when for thy tender mercy's sake,' is still in use. driving the nails in shoeing, pieces will split off,

FAR’RIER, n. s. & v. n. Fr. ferrier; Ital. even although the nails are made very fine and Fae'riery.

ferraro; Lat. ferra- thin. If these same horses with brittle shattered rius, of ferrum, iron. A shoer of horses; a horse hoofs are turned out to graze in the fields, their doctor: to farrier is to practice either or both of hoofs in time will become as sound, tough, and these callings : farriery is the art or calling thus good, as they were at first. practised. Which see below.

Mr. Clarke of Edinburgh wascribes this change But the utmost exactness in these particulars be. to the wet and moisture which the hoofs are exlongs to farriers, saddlers, smiths, and other trades. posed to in the fields, of which water is the

Digby. There are many pretenders

principal ingredient; and it is a certain fact, of

the art of furriering which we have daily proofs, that, when all other and cowleeching, yet many of them are very ignorant. means fail, horses, turned out to grass, will re

If you are a piece of a farrier, as every groom cover their decayed brittle hoofs. It is known, ought to be, get sack, or strong-beer, to rub your horses. he observes, that the hoofs of horses are porous;

Swift. and that insensible perspiration is carried on Most satirists are indeed a public scourge

through these pores, in the same manner, and Their mildest physic is a farrier's purge ; according to the same laws as take place in other Their acrid temper turns, as soon as stirred, parts of the body. Now every body knows, that The milk of their good purpose all to curd. greasy or oily medicines applied to the skin ot

Cowper. the human body prevent' perspiration, which is FARRIER, Military, is a man appointed frequently attended with the worst consequences. to do the duty of farriery in a troop, of horse. The same reasoning will hold with respect to the These troop farriers are under the immediate hoofs of horses ; for greasy applications close the superintendence of a veterinary surgeon, to pores of the hoof, by being absorbed into its whom they must apply whenever a horse is ill inner substance. Hence the natural moisture, or lame, that he may report the same to the which should nourish the hoof, is prevented from officer commanding the troop. When the far- arriving at its surface; which, on that account, rier goes round, after riding out, or exercise on becomes as it were dead, and consequently dry, horseback, he must carry his hammer, pincers, brittle, and hard. The original practice of and some nails, to fasten any shoe that may be greasing horses' hoofs has probably taken its rise loose. When horses at oui-quarters fall par- from observing, that grease or oil softens dead ticularly ill, or contract an obstinate lameness, substances, such as leather, &c. But this will the case must be reported to the head-quarters by no means apply to the hoofs of horses, as of the regiment; and the veterinary surgeon there is a very great difference between the living must, if time and distance will permit

, be sent and dead parts of animals; the former having to examine the horse. No farrier must presume juices, &c., necessary for their own nourishment to make up any medicine, or any external appli- and support, whilst the latter require such apçation, without, or contrary to, the receipt given plications as will preserve them only from dehim by the veterinary surgeon. If any farrier, c ying and rotting. through carelessness or inattention, lames a Another practice, equally pernicious, is the horse belonging to another troop, he ought to be stuffing up (as it is called) horses' hoofs with bot


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