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site of the dwelling-house, it may be remarked, ticular building be attempled to be laid. It may: that, although a house being situate in the middle he adds, ‘be conceived by a person who has not of a regular front is, in some points of view, the turned his attention to this subject, that there most pleasing way, and in many situations per- must be some simple, obvious, and fixed plan to haps the best, yet, unless the ground and other proceed upon. But seeing the endless variety circumstances in every respect favor such a dis- in the mere dwelling-places of men, it is not to position, it should not invariably be adhered 10; be wondered at if a still greater variety of plans for it may often happen, that a much better situ- should take place where so many appurtenances ation for the dwelling-house may be obtained at are required, and these on sites so infinitely vaa little distance from the offices, a pleasing uni- rious; nor that men's opinions and practices formity be observed in them at the same time, should differ so much on the subject, that on a and the house be more healthy and agreeable. given site, no two practical men, it is more than In some cases, and for some kinds of farms, it probable, would make the same arrangement.' may be particularly necessary to have the house There are, however,' he says, “certain principles so placed, in respect to the offices and farm-yard, which no artist ought to lose sight of in laying as to admit of their being constantly inspected, out such buildings and conveniences. The barns, and the labor that is to be performed in them at the stables, and the granary, should be under the tended to and overlooked.
eye-should be readily seen from the dwellingThe requisites of a farmstead,' says Mr. Mar- house. The prevailing idea, at present, is, that shall, • are as various as the intentions of farms. the several buildings ought to form a regular A sheep-farm, a grazing-farm, a bay-farm, a figure, and enclose an area or farm-yard, either dairy-farm, and one under mixed cultivation, as a fold for loose cattle, or, where the stalling of may require different situations, and different ar- cattle is practised, as a receptacle for dung, and rangements of yards and buildings. On a farm the most prevailing figure is the square. But of the last species, which may be considered as this form is, he thinks, more defective than the the ordinary farm of this kingdom, the princi- oval or circle, the angles being too sharp, and pal requisites are shelter, water, an area or site the corners too deep. Besides, the roadway, resufficiently flat for yards and buildings; with mea- cessary to be carried round a farm-yard in order dow land below it, to receive the washings of to have a free and easy passage between the difthe yards; as well as sound pasture grounds ferent buildings, is inconveniently lengthened or above it for a grass-yard and paddocks; with made at greater expense. The view of the whole private roads nearly on a level to the principal yard and buildings from the house, on one side arahle lands; and with suitable outlets to the of it, is likewise more confined.' He on the nearest or best markets.'
whole prefers the complete octagon, the dwellingFor a mixed husbandry farm, the particulars, house á being on one side, and the entrance gateto be arranged, according to Marshall, are thus way and granary opposite; the remaining six enumerated; 1. A suit of buildings, adapted to sides being occupied by stables and cattle-sheds, the intended plan of management;—as a dwell- and other out-buildings, c, d, e, a barn and threshing ing-house, barns, stables, cattle-sheds, cart-shed. machine, f, with a broad-way, dipping gently from 2. A spacious yard, common to the buildings, the buildings, g, and surrounding a wide shallow and containing a receptacle of stall-manure, dung-basin, h, which occupy the rest of the area whether arising from stables, cattle-sheds, hog- of the yard. Externally is a basin for the styes, or other buildings; together with separate drainings of the yard, i; and grass enclosures for folds, or straw-yards, furnished with appropriate calves, poultry, fruit trees, and rick-yard. sheds, for particular stock, in places where such are required. 3. A reservoir, or catchpool, situated on the lower side of the buildings and yards, to receive their washings, and collect them in a body for the purpose of irrigating the lands below them. 4. A corn yard, convenient to the barns; and a hay-yard contiguous to the cow or fatting-sheds. 5. A garden and fruit ground near the house. 6. A spacious grass-yard or green, embracing the whole or principal part of the conveniences; as an occasional receptacle for stock of every kind; as a common pasture for swine, and a range for poultry; as a security to the fields from stock straying out of the inner yards; and as an ante-field or lobby, out of which the home grounds and driftways may be conveniently entered. An accurate delineation of the The following plan of the arrangement of a site which is fixed on, requires,' he observes, 'to small farm-house and offices, which he considers be drawn out on a scale; the plannist studying very convenient, is given by Beatson. At the the subject, alternately, upon the paper, and on north-west corner is the barn (1), with a water the ground to be laid out; continuing to sketch threshing-mill; a straw-house (2), being a conand correct his plan, until he has not a doubt left timuation of the barn above, for holding a quanon his mind; and then to mark out the whole tity of straw after it is threshed, or hay, that it upon the ground, in a conspicuous and perma- may be at hand to give to the cattle in the nent manner, before the foundation of any par- feeding-house below. The upper part of this
straw-house may consist of pillars to support the thrown into the dung-court. A rick of straw, or roof, with about eight feet space between them, bay, built behind the stable or cow-house, or in a whereby a good deal of building will be saved. shed contiguous to either, with proper conveniIn the floor should be hatches, at convenient dis- ences, will have the same progressive course to tances, to put down the straw to the cattle below. the dung-bill; for, it will be observed, the com
munication from these is equally easy from without or within ; the rail across the calf-pen being intended chiefly to keep in the calves, while the doors on each side are open when conveying the dung that way from the stable to the dung-hill.
The ground floor of the dwelling-house to this farmery (13), has a dairy, pantry, and various conveniences behind for keeping swine, poultry, coals, &c. The stair to the upper chambers rises from either side to the same landing-place; from whence are a few steps up to the chamberfloor.
The following diagrams represent the elevation, and two ground plans, of a farm-house on a large scale, and which might be extended to any size.
The ground plan, fig. 2, is divided into a, the LIIIZH
principal entry; 0, the parlour; c, the family bed-room; d, the kitchen; e, the dairy; f, the pantry and cellar; the three latter being attached to the back part of the house by a continuation of the same roof downwards. By permitting the ceilings to be seven and a half or eight feet in height, some small bed rooms may
be provided above them, having a few steps down A court for the dung-hill (3) has a door lo it from the floor of the front rooms, or a few steps from the feeding-house, and a large entry at the up from the first landing place. other end to admit carts to take away the dung : on the outside of this should be a urine-pit, in
Fig. 1. the most convenient place, according to the form of the ground; a cow-house (4) has a door also to the dung-court; and a calf-pen (5) with a rail across to keep in the calves, even though the doors are all open, adjoins; there is a stable, with a harness-room, and a place for keeping corn (6); a root-house (7), over which, or over the barn, may be a granary; a shed for carts (8); a place for keeping large implements, as ploughs and harrows (9); for keeping smaller implements, as spades, shovels, rakes, forks, &c., and for laying by old iron and many other useful things that might otherwise be lost or thrown away (10); a pond for washing the horses' feet (11); which slopes down from each extremity towards the middle, where it is deepest, that the horses may easily go in at one end, and come
Fig. 2. out at the other, with a rail at each end, to prevent their going in during frost, or when not wanted to go; a pump, with a trough for the horses or cattle to drink in, especially while other water is frozen, or when the water in the pond is dirty (12); but, if it can be contrived so that the water which drives the mill may run through this pond, it will be preferable as being at all times clean and wholesome. One advantage of this arrange
15.0 ment, as Beatson remarks, is, that the fodder consumed upon the farm goes progressively forward from the barn-yard through the cattle-houses to the dung-hill, without the unnecessary labor generally occasioned by carrying it backwards and forwards. For it comes from the barn-yard into the barn, where it is threshed; it is then put in the strawhouse, and given to the cattle immediately The earl of Winchelsea, at Burleigh, has a below; and after passing through them, it is farm-house erected nearly in this way; but in it
the back door of the kitchen enters into a brew- pable of holding a bed, or in any other way house and wash-house; the fire place and copper that may be thought more convenient. being behind the kitchen vent. Beyond this brew-house is a place for holding fire-wood, &c.; ir: the back walls of which are openings to feed the swine at. In the kitchen is an oven; and below the grate an excellent contrivance for baking occasionally, but chiefly employed for the purpose of keeping the servants' meat warm. It consists of a plate of cast iron, with a door similar to that of an oven. The up-stairs part is divided in the front into two good rooms, and into two small ones on the back part, but may be easily subdivided where necessary.
Fig. 3 exhibits another mode of dividing the ground floor, in which a is the parlour; b, the kitchen; c, the closet; d, the dairy; e, the pantry; f, the coal-house; g, the poultry-house; h, 3. On keeping Farming Accounts.—Sir John the pig-sty, which has an opening into the Sinclair strongly recommends accuracy to the kitchen; i, the back entry. The chamber-floor gentleman farmer, as well as to the tenant, and may be divided likewise, where it is requisite, furnishes the following models, chiefly adapted into two good bed-rooms, and a light closet ca- to the former, in his Code of Agriculture, 1820.
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