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Contrary to. Not in use.

If native power prevail not, shall I doubt Any thing so overdone is from the purpose of play. To seek for needful succour from without ing; whose end, both at the first and now, was and

Dryden. is to hold, as 'twere, the mirrour up to nature.

From is sometimes followed by another preShakspeare, Hamlet. position, with its proper case. Do not believe, That from the sense of all civility,

From amidst.

Thou too shalt fall by time or barbarous foes, I thus would play and trifle with your reverence.

Whose circling walls the seven famed hills enclose;

Id. Did you draw bonds to forfeit? Sign, to break ?

And thou, whose rival towers invade the skies, Or must we read you quite from what we speak,

And from amidst the waves with equal glory rise.

Addison. And find the truth out the wrong way? Donne.

From among. Noting removal.

Here had new begun Thrice from the ground she leaped. Dryden. My wandering, had not he, who was my guide From is very frequently joined by an ellipsis Up hither, from among the trees appeared, with adverbs : as, from above, from the parts Presence divine.

Milton's Paradise Lost. above ; from below, from the places below ; of From beneath. which some are here exemplified.

My worthy wife our arms mislaid, From above.

And from beneath my head my sword conveyed. He, which gave them from above such power, for

Dryden's Éneid. miraculous confirmation of that which they taught,

From beyond. endued them also with wisdom from above, to teach There followed him great multitudes of people chat which they so did confirm.


Hooker. from Galileo, and from beyond Jordan. No sooner were his eyes in slumber bound,

Matthew iv. 25. When, from above, a more than mortal sound

From forth. Invades his ears.

Dryden's Æneid. Young Aretus, from forth his bridal bower, From afar.

Brought the full laver o'er their hands to pour,

And canisters of consecrated flour.
Light demilances from afar they throw.

Pope's Odyssey. From beneath.

From off. With whirlwinds from beneath she tossed the ship

Knights, unhorsed, may rise from off the plain, And bare exposed the bottom of the deep. Dryden.

And fight on foot, their honour to regain. Dryden. An arın arises out of Stygian flood,

The sea being constrained to withdraw from off Which, breaking from beneath with bellowing sound,

certain tracts of lands, which lay till then at the botWhirls the black waves and rattling stones round. tom of it.

Woodward. Id. From out. From behind,

And join thy voice unto the angel-quire, See, to their base restored, earth, seas, and air, From out his secret altar touched with hallowed fire. And joyful ages from behind, in crowding ranks appear.

Milton. Dryden. The king with angry threatnings from out a winFrom far.

dow, where he was not ashamed the world should A ship of merchants, that fetches her wares from behold him a beholder, commanded his guard and far, is the guod housewife of the commonwealth. the rest of his soldiers to hasten their death. Bp. Hall.

Sidney. Their train proceeding on their way,

Now shake, from out thy fruitful breast, the seeds From far the town and lufty towers survey. Of envy, discord, and of cruel deeds. Dryden.

Dryden's Æneid. From high.

Strong god of arms, whose iron sceptre sways Then heaven's imperious queen shot down from The freezing North and hyperborean seas, high.

Dryden. Terror is thine, and wild amazement, fung From hence. Here from is superfluous.

From out thy chariot, withers even the strong, In the necessary différences which arise from

Dryden. thence, they rather break into several divisions than

From out of. join in any one public interest; and from hence have

Whatsoever such principle there is, it was at the always risen the most dangerous factions, which have

ous factions, which have first found out by discourse, and drawn from out of ruined the peace of nations.

Clarendon the very bowels of heaven and earth. Hooker. From whence. From is here superfluous.

From under. While future realms his wandering thoughts de

He, though blind of sight, light,

Despised, and thought extinguished quite, His daily vision, and his dream by night,

With inward eyes illuminated, Forbidden Thebes appears before his eye,

His fiery virtue roused Prom whence he sees his absent brother fly. Pope.

From under ashes into sudden flame.

Milton's Agonistes. From where.

From within From where high Ithaca o'erlooks the floods,

From within Brown with o'erarching shades and pendent woods,

The broken bowels, and the bloated skin
Us to these shores our filial duty draws.

A buzzing noise of bees his ears alarms.
Pope's Odyssey.

Dryden. From without. When the plantation grows to strength, then it is FROME, a river of England, that rises from time to plant it with women as well as with men, several springs in the south-west of Dorsetshire, that it may spread into generations, and not be and, running almost due west, passes, under pierced from without.

Bacon. Frampton-bridge to Dorchester, and falls into a bay of the English Channel, called Poolhaven, FRONDI‘FEROUS, udi. Latin frondifer near Wareham.

Bearing leaves. FROME, or FROME-SELWOOD, a town of Somer FRONT, n. S., v.a. & v. 7. Fr. front; Lat. setshire, and one of the most considerable of this Front'ED, adj.

frons. Face and part of the country, which was anciently one FRONT'LESS, adj.

front both signify great forest, called Selwoodshire. Here is a the human countenance, and figuratively desiglarge handsome church, 150 feet long, and fifty- nate the particular parts of bodies, which bear four broad, comprising a nave, chancel, north some sort of resemblance to it, or to the foreand south aisles, four chapels, and a vestry-room, head. Crabb thus distinguishes their peculiar with a square embattled tower and an octagonal application: Face is applied to that part of bospire, 120 feet high. There are likewise several dies which serves as an index or rule, and conmeeting-houses in the town, belonging to dif- tains certain marks to direct the observer; front ferent denominations of dissenters, two of which is employed for that part which is most promiare large handsome edifices. Near the bridge nent or foremost: hence we speak of the face of stands a free-school for twenty boys, and an a wheel or clock, the face of a painting, or the alms-house for widows; the latter is a handsome face of nature; but the front of a house or buildbuilding, and was erected, by subscription, in ing, and the front of a stage : hence likewise the 1720. Here is also an hospital for old men, a propriety of the expressions, to put a good face charity-school for boys, and an asylum for girls, to- on a thing; to show a bold front.' The verb gether with various Sunday-schools, which afford signifies to oppose directly, or face to face, in instruction to 2000 children. The chief manufac- the sense of confront; to stand opposed or over ture is broad and narrow cloth. Formerly against any place or thing; to stand foremost. more wire cards, for carding wool for the spin Frontless is used in the sense of barefaced unners, were made at this place than in all the rest blushing impudence. of England, and there were no fewer than twenty

I front but in tbat file, master card-makers, one of whom employed 400

Where others tell steps with me. men, women, and children, in that manufactory

Shakspeare. Henry VIII. at once. This town has been long noted for its

You four shall front them in the narrow lane; we fine ale, which is kept to a great age. It is thir- will walk lower : if they 'scape from your encounter, teen miles south of Bath, and 105 west by south then they light on us.

Shakspeare. of London.

Can you, when you have pushed out of your gates FRO'MWARD, prep. Sax. fpam and beard. the very defender of them, think to front his revenges Away from; the contrary to the word towards. with easy groans ?

Id. Not now in use.

Some are either to be won to the state in a fast As cheerfully going towards as Pyrocles went fro- and true manner, or fronted with some other of the ward fromward his death.

Sidney. same party that may oppose them, and so divide the The horizontal needle is continually varying to reputation.

Bacon's Essays. wards East and West ; and so the dipping or inclining Both these sides are not only returns, but parts of needle is varying up and down, towards or fromwards the front; and uniform without, though severally the zenith.

Cheyne. portioned within, and are on both sides of a great FRONDESCENTIÆ TEMPUs, in botany, the and stately tower, in the midst of the front. Bacon. precise time of the year and month, in which each The access of the town was only by a neck of land: species of plants unfolds its first leaves. All our men had shot, that thundered upon them from plants produce new leaves every year; but all the rampier in front, and from the gallies that lay al do not renew them at the same time. Amony sea in flank. woody plants, the elder, and most of the honey

His forward hand, inured to wounds, makes way suckles; among the perennial herbs, the crocus pon the sharpest fronts of the most fierce. Daniel. and tulip are the first that push'or expand they stand not front to front, but each doth view their leaves. The time of sowing the seeds The other's tail, pursued as they pursue. Creech. decides with respect to annuals. The oak and

Part fronted brigades form. ash are constantly the latest in pushing their 'Twixt host and host but narrow space was left, leaves ; the greatest number unfold them in A dreadful interval! and front to front spring; the mosses and firs in winter. These Presented, stood in terrible array. striking differences seem to indicate that each

Id. Paradise Lost. species of plants has a temperature proper or

Next do the lawyers sordid band appear, peculiar to itself, and requires a certain degree of

Finch in the front and Thurland in the rear.

Marvell. heat to extricate the leaves from the buds. This

Palladius adviseth the front of his edifice should so temperature, however, is not so fixed or constant

a respect the South, that in its first angle it receive the as it may at first view appear. Among plants rising rays of the Winter's sun, and decline a little of the same species, there are some more early from the winter setting thereof.

Browne. than others; whether that circumstance depends, The prince approached the door, as it most commonly does, on the nature of the Possessed the porch, and on the front above plants, or is owing to differences in heat, exposure, He fixed the fatal bough. Dryden's Æneid. and soil. In general, it may be affirmed that Thee, frontless man, we followed from afar, small and young trees are always earlier than Thy instruments of death and tools of war. larger or old ones. The pushing of the leaves

Dryden. is likewise accelerated or retarded, according to For vice, though frontless, and of hardened face, the temperature of the season ; that is, according Is daunted at the sight of awful grace.

Id. as the sun is sooner or later in dispensing the The square will be one of the most beautiful in degree of heat suitable to each species.

Italy when this siroue is erected, and a town house built at one end to front the church that stands at the sea, but fronts another country; bordering; con other.

Addison on Italy. terminous. One sees the front of a palace covered with painted Draw all the inhabitants of those borders away, or pillars of different orders.

Id. plant garrisons upon all those frontiers about him. His front yet threatens, and his frowns command.

Spenser on Ireland. Prior.

I upon my frontiers here keep residence, Strike a blush through frontless faltery. Pope. That little which is left so to defend. Milton. Where the deep trench in length extended lay,

Yet had his temple high Compacted troops stand wedged in firm array,

Reared in Azotus, dreaded through the coast A dreadful front.


of Palestine, in Gath anil Askalon, The patriot virtues that distend thy thought,

An Accaron and Gaza's frontier bounds. Spread on thy front and in thy bosom glow.

Id. Paradise Lost. Thomson.

A place there lies on Gallia's utmost bounds, The high moon sails upon her beauteous way, Where rising seas insult the frontier grounds. Serenely smoothing o'er the lofty walls

Addison. Of thuse tall piles and sea-girt palaces,

Beyond the frontiers, his anxious view could disWhose porphyry pillars, and whose costly fronts, cover nothing, except the ocean, inhospitable deserts, Fraught with the orient spoil of many marbles, hostile tribes of barbarians of fierce manners and un. Like altars ranged along the broad canal,

known language, or dependant kings who would Seem each a trophy of some mighty dced

gladly purchase the emperor's protection by the sacriReared up from out the waters.

fice of an obnoxious fugitive.

Gibbon. Byron. The Doge of Venice.

FRONTIERS are the extremes of a kingdom or They erred, as aged men will do ; but by country, which the enemies find in front when And by we'll talk of that; and if we don't

they would enter it. They were anciently called 'Twill be because our notion is not high

marches. Of politicians, and their double front

FRONTINAC, Fort, a fortress of Canada, or. Who live by lies, yet dare not boldly lie. Byron. the north-west side of Lake Ontario, three miles They reached the hotel : forth streamed from the

from its mouth, and 300 from Quebec. It was front door

taken from the French, in August 1759, by the A tide of well clad waiters; and around

British under colonel Bradstreet, though deThe mob stood, and as usual several score

fended by 110 men and sixty pieces of cannon, Of those pedestrian Paphians, who abound In decent London, when the day light's o'er. Id. besides Indians.

FRONTINUS (Sextus Julius), an ancient Front, in architecture, denotes the principal Roman anthor, of consular dignity, who flouface or side of a building, or that presented to rished under Vespasian, Titus, Domitian. Nerva, their chief aspect or view.

and Trajan. He commanded the Roman armies FROʻNTAL, n. s. Fr. frontale ; Lat. frontale.

in Britain ; was made city prætor when VespaAny external form of medicine to be applied to

sian and Titus were consuls ; and curator of the the forehead, generally composed among the an

aqueducts by Nerva, which occasioned his writing cients of coolers and hypnoticks.

De Aquæductibus Urbis Romæ. He wrote four We may apply intercipients upon the temples of books upon the Greek and Roman art of war; a mastick. : frontales may also be applied. Wiseman tract De re Agrariâ, and another De Limitibus,

The torpedo, alive, stupefies at a distance ; but These have been often separately pr nted; but after death produceth no such effect ; which had were all collected in a neat edition at Amsterthey retained, they might have supplied opium, and dam, in 1661, with notes by Robert Keuchen. served as frontals in phrensies.

Browne. He died under Trajan. FRONTAL, FRONTLET, or brow-band, in the FROʻNTISPIECE, n. s. Fr. frontispice ; Lat. Jewish ceremonies, consists of four several pieces frontispicium, id quod in fronte conspicitur. That of vellum, on each of which is written some text part of any building or other body that directly of scripture. They are all laid on a piece of meets the eye. black calf's leather with thongs to tie it by. The With frontispiece of diamond and gold Jews apply the leather with the vellum on their Embellished, thick with sparkling orient geins foreheads in the synagogue, and tie it round the The portal shone. Milton's Paradise Low head with the thongs.

Who is it has informed us that a rational soul can FROʻNTATED. adj. Lat. frons. In bctany, inhabit no tenement, unless it has just such a sort of

Locke. the frontated leaf of a flower grows broader and frontispiece? broader, and at last perhaps terminates in a right,

ted in a richi The fronti.piece of the townhouse has pillars of a line: used in opposition to cuspated, which is,

beautiful black marble, streaked with white.

Addison when the leaves of a flower end in a point. FROʻNTBOX, n. s. Front and box. The

FROʻNTLET, n. s. Fr. fronteau ; Lat. frons box in the playbouse from which there is a direct A bandage worn upon the forehead. view to the stage.

They shall be as frontlets between thine eyes.

Deut. vi. 8. How vain are all these glories, all our pains, How, now, daughter, what makes that frontlul Unless good sense preserve what beauty gains ! on? You are too much of late i' the frown. That men may say, when we the front box grace,

Shakspeare. Behold the first in virtue, as in face. Pope. To the forehead frontlets were applied, to restrain

FROʻNTIER, n. s. & adj. Fr. frontiere. The and intercept the influx. Wiseman's Surgery. limit or utmost verge of any territory; the bor. FRONTO(Marcus Cornelius), a Roman orator, der; properly that which terminates not at the preceptor to the emperor Marcus Aurelius and Pope.

Lucius Verus. The former made him consul, and when the frost seizes upon wine, only the more erected a statue to his honor.

waterish parts are congealed; there is a mighty spiFRONTROOM. n. s. Front and room. An rit which can retreat into itself, and within its own partment in the fore part of the house.

compass lies secure from the freezing impression. If your shop stands in an eminent street, the front

South. rooms are commonly more airy than the backrooms;

: The rich brocaded silk unfold, and it will be inconvenient to make the frontroom

Where rising flowers grow stiff with frosted gold. shallow. Moron,

Gay. FRONZELLA, one of the seventeen almost

Behold the groves that shine with silver frost, inaccessible passes through the mountains of

through the mountains of Their beauty withered, aud their verdure lost. Vicenza, in Italy, commencing in the Valley of Brenta. It is the narrowest of them, and is so The Hours had now unlocked the gate of day,

covered by perpendicular rocks, 300 feet high, When fair Aurora leaves her frosty bed, that a ray of the sun can scarcely penetrate into

Hasting with youthful Cephalus to play the pass, and the eye cannot perceive the sky.'

Unmasked her face, and rosy beauties spread : Yet this road (says, Dr. Oppenheim), is the

Tithonus' silver age was much despised;

Ah! who in love that cruel law devised, easiest and most passable' of the seventeen,

That old love's little worth, and new too highly : except during rain or snow, when it is the most

prized ?

Fletcher's Purple Island. perilous.' FRORE, adj. 2 Dutch bevrozen, frozen.

Tis the same landscape which the modern Mars FRORNE.

saw I Frozen. This word is not

Who marched to Moscow, led by Fame the Syren! used since the time of Milton.

To lose by one month's frost some twenty years 0, my heart-blood is well nigh frorne I feel,

Of conquest and his guard of grenadiers. Byron. And my galage grown fast to my heel.

Spenser's Past. FROST, in physiology. Having under the The parching air

articles Cold, CONGELATION, and FREEZING, Burns frore, and cold performs the effect of fire. entered fully into the various phenomena of

Milton. freezing, we shall only here add a few miscellaFROST, n. 8. Sax. frost; Dan. Swed. neous observations on particular effects of frost. Fros'ted, adj. and Teut. frost : Belg. Being derived from the atmosphere, (see METEFROS'TILY, adv Svrost. The last effect of OROLOGY), frost naturally proceeds from the upper FROST'INESS, n. s. ( cold; the power or act of parts of bodies downwards, as the water and the

Fros'ty, adj. congelation; the appear- earth: so, the longer a frost is continued, the ance of plants and trees sparkling with congela- thicker the ice becomes upon the water in ponds, tion of dew: the adjective is applied to whatever and the deeper into the earth the ground is in appearance resembles this : the adverb is ap- frozen. In about sixteen or seventeen days plied not only to natural cold but to want of frost, Mr. Boyle found it had penetrated fourteen animal warmth, and to coldness of affection;

inches into the ground. At Moscow, in a hard likewise to the head that is gray with age.

season, the frost will penetrate two feet deep in His eyen twinkeled in his bed aright,

the ground; and captain James found it peneAs don the sterres in a frosty night.

trated ten feet deep in Charlton Island, and the Chaucer. Prologue to Cant, Tales.

water in the same island was frozen to the depth There they doe finde that godly aged sire, of six feet. Scheffer assures us, that in Sweden With snowy lockes adowne his shoulders shed; the frost pierces two cubits or Swedish ells into As hoary frost with spangles doth attire

the earth, and turns what moisture it finds there The mossy branches of an oke halfe ded.

into a whitish substance, like ice; and standing Spenser's Faerie Queene.

waters to three ells, or more. The same author This is the state of man ; to-day he puts forth also mentions sudden cracks in the ice of the The tender leaves of hope, to-morrow blossoms

lakes of Sweden, nine or ten feet deep, and many And bears his blushing honours thick upon him;

leagues long; the rupture being made with a The third day comes a frost, a killing frost, And when he thinks, good easy man, full surely

noise not less loud than if many guns were disHis greatness is a ripening, nips his root,

charged together. By such means, however, the And then he falls. Shakspeare. Henry VIII.

fishes are furnished with air; so that they are Where is loyalty ?

rarely found dead. In the norther parts of the If it be banished from the frosty head,

world the most compact bodies are affected by Where shall it find a harbour in the earth? frost. Timber is often apparently frozen, and

Shakspeare. rendered exceedingly difficult to saw. Marl, What a frosty spirited rogue is this!

chalk, and other less solid terrestrial concretions, For all my blood in Rome's great quarrel shed, will be shattered by strong and durable frosts. For all the frosty nights tbat I have watched, Metals are contracted by frost, thus, an iron Be pitiful to my condemned sons.

tube twelve feet long, upon being exposed to the 12. Titus Andronicus.

air in a frosty night, lost two lines of its length. The air, if very cold, irritateth the flame, and

On the contrary, frost swells or dilates water maketh it burn more fiercely; as fire scorcheth in

nearly one tenth of its bulk. Mr. Boyle made frosty weather.

Bacon. Courtling, I rather thou should'st utterly

several experiments with metalline vessels, erDispraise my work, than praise it frostily.

ceedingly thick and strong; which being filled

Ben Jonson. with water, close stopped, and exposed to the : A gnat half-starved with cold and kunger, went out cold, burst by the expansion of the frozen fluid one frosty morning to a bee-hive. L'Estrange. within them. Trees are often destroyed by frost,

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as if burnt up by the most excessive heat; and, most severe one which happens to them under in very strong frosts, walnut trees, ashes, and more favorable circumstances. It is plain from even oaks, are sometimes split and cleft, so as to the accounts of the injuries trees received by the be seen through, and this with a terrible noise, frost in 1709, that the greatest of all were owing like the explosion of fire-arms. In cold coun- to repeated false thaws, succeeded by repeated tries, the frost often proves fatal to mankind; new frosts. But the frosts of the spring furnish producing gangrenes, and even death itself. abundantly more numerous examples of this Those who die of it have their hands and feet first truth; and some experiments made by the count seized, till they grow past feeling it; after which de Buffon, in his own woods, prove incontestably, the rest of their bodies are so invaded, that they that it is not the severest cold or most fixed frost are taken with a drowsiness, which if indulged, that does the greatest injury to vegetables. This they awake no more, but die insensibly. It also is an observation directly opposite to the common sometimes seizes the abdomen and viscera, which opinions, yet it is not the less true, nor any way on dissection are found to be mortified and discordant to reason. black.

We find, by a number of experiments, that it The great power of frost on vegetables is is humidity that makes frost fatal to vegetables; sufficiently known : but the differences between and therefore every thing that can occasion huthe frosts of a severe winter, and those which midity in them, exposes them to these injuries, happen in the spring mornings, in their effects on and every thing that can prevent or take off an plants and trees, were never perfectly explained over proportion of humidity in them, every thing till by Messrs. Du Hamel and Buffon, in the that can dry them, though with ever so increased Memoirs of the Paris Academy. The frosts of a cold, must prevent or preserve them from those severe winters are much more terrible than those injuries. Numerous experiments and observaof the spring, as they bring on a privation of all tions tend to prove this. It is well known that the products of the tenderer parts of the vegetable vegetables always feel the frost very desperately world; but then they are not frequent, such in low places where there are fogs. The plants winters happening perhaps but once in an age; which stand by a river side are frequently found and the frosts of the spring are in reality greater destroyed by the spring and autumnal frosts, injuries to us than these, as they are every year while those of the same species, wuich stand in repeated. In regard to trees, the great difference a drier place, suffer little or perhaps not at all by is this, that the frosts of severe winters affect them; and the low and wet parts of forests are even their wood, their trunks and large branches; well known to produce worse wood than the whereas those of the spring have only power to high and drier. The coppice wood in wet and hurt the buds. The winter frosts happening at low parts of common woods, though it push out a time when most of the trees in our woods and more vigorously at first than that of other places, gardens have neither leaves, flowers, nor fruits yet never comes to so good a growth; for the upon them, and have their buds so hard as to be frost of the spring killing these early top shoots, proof against slight injuries of weather, espe- obliges the lower part of the trees to throw out cially if the preceding summer has not been too lateral branches : and the same thing happens in wet; in this state, if there are no unlucky cir- a greater or less degree to the coppice wood cumstances attending, most trees bear moderate that grows under cover of larger trees in great winters very well : but hard frosts, which happen forests; for here the vapors, not being carried late in winter, cause very great injuries even to off either by the sun or wind, stagnate and freeze, those trees which they do not utterly destroy. and in the same manner destroy the young These are, 1. Long cracks following the direc- shoots, as the fogs of marshy places. It is a tion of the fibres. 2. Parcels of dead wood en- general observation, also, that the frost is never closed round with wood yet in a living state. hurtful to the late shoots of the vine, or to the And 3. That distemperature which foresters call flower-buds of trees, except when it follows the double blea, which is a perfect circle of blea, heavy dews, or a long rainy season, and then it or soft white wood, which, when the tree is after- never fails to do great mischief, though it be wards felled, is found covered by a circle of hard ever so slight. The frost is always observed to and solid wood.

be more mischievous in its consequences on The opinions of authors about the exposition newly cultivated ground than in other places; of trees to the different quarters, have been and this is because the vapors, which continually very different, and most of them grounded on arise from the earth, find an easier passage from no rational foundation. Many are of opinion that those places than from others. Trees also which the effects of frosts are most violently felt on those have been newly cut, suffer more than others by trees which are exposed to the north, and others the spring frosts, which is owing to their shooting think the south, or the west the most strongly af- out more vigorously. Frosts also do more fected by them. There is no doubt but the north damage on light and sandy grounds, than on the exposure is subject to the greatest cold. It does tougher and firmer soils, supposing both equally pot, however, follow from this, that the injury must dry; and this seems partly owing to their being be always greatest on the trees exposed to the north more early in their productions, and partly to in frosts: on the contrary, there are abundant their lax texture suffering a greater quantity of proofs, that it is on the south side that trees are vapors to transpire. It has also been frequently generally most injured by frost : and it is plain observed, that the side-shoots of trees are more from repeated experiments, that there are par- subject to perish by the spring frosts than those ticular accidents, under which a more moderate from the top; and M. Buffon, who examined frost may do more injury to vegetables, than the into this with great accuracy, always found the

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