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these four principal branches, viz. 1. FRANCIS- space of two miles, five obtuse angles, between CANS, minors, or gray friars; 2. AUGUSTINES ; which the intervening parts of the current are 3. DOMINICANS, or black friars; 4. CARME- parallel to each other. On all sides the descen: LITES, or white friars. From these four the rest to the town is extremely steep : in one place the of the orders descend. See these articles. streets even pass over the roofs of the houses.

Friar, in a more peculiar sense, is restrained Many of the edifices are raised in regular gradato such monks as are not priests; for those in or- tion, like the seats of an amphitheatre; and many ders are usually dignified with the appellation overhang the edge of a precipice in such a manof father.

ner that, on looking down, a weak head would FRIARS OBSERVANT (fratres observantes) were be apt to turn giddy. But the most extraordinary a branch of the Franciscans; thus called because point of view is from the Pont-neuf. On the not combined together in any cloister, convent, north-west a part of the town stands boldly on or corporation, as the conventuals are ; but only the sides and the piked back of an abrupt ridge; agreeing among themselves to observe the rules and from east to west a semicircle of high perof their order more strictly than the conventuals pendicular rocks is seen, whose base is washed did, from whom they separated themselves out of and undermined by the winding Sane, and a singularity of zeal, living in certain places of whose tops and sides are thinly scattered with their own choosing.

shrubs and underwood. On the highest point FRI'ARSCOWL, n. s. Friar and cowl. A of the rocks, and on the very edge of the preciplant. It agrees with arum, from which it dif- pice, appears, half hanging in the air, the gate fers only in having a flower resembling a cowl. called Bourguillon : a stranger standing on the

FRIB’BLE, v. n. & n. s. Fr. frivole ; Lat. bridge would compare it to Laputa, or the FlyFRIB'BLER, n. s.

frivolus, trifling. ing Island in Gulliver's Travels; and would not To trifle : a trifler; a fop; an imbecile.

conceive it to be accessible but by means of a Though cheats, yet more intelligible

cord and pulleys. The houses, constructed with Than those that with the stars do fribble. a gray sandstone, are neat and well built; and

Hudibras. the public edifices, particularly the cathedral, are A fribbler is one who professes rapture for the wo- extremely elegant.' Population 6500. Fribourg man, and dreads her consent.

Spectator. lies sixteen miles south-west of Bern, and seventyFRIBOURG, a canton of Switzerland, be- five of Zurich. The best buildings are the Jetween that of Berne and the Pays de Vaud : its suits' church, and the cathedral of St. Nicholas; extent is computed at 2836 square miles; and its the principal seminary for education is called the population at 68,000. The north division contains college of St. Michael. This town was taken by extensive and fertile plains : southward it is the French in 1798. mountainous and sterile. Its principal river is FRICASSEE', n. s. Fr. A dish made by the Sane, which flows northward through the cutting chickens or other small things in pieces, centre of the canton. Pasturage is the chief oc- and dressing them with strong sauce. cupation of the inhabitants, who export cattle, Oh, how would Homer praise their dancing dogs, butter, and cheese, particularly that known Their stinking cheese, and fricacy of frogs; throughout the continent by the name of gruyere, He'd raise no fables, sing no flagrant lie, and import much of their corn from France. Of boys with custard choaked at Newberry. King. The inhabitants are chiefly Catholics, the Cal- FRICA'TION, n. s. Lat. fricatio. The act vinists not exceeding 8000: in some parts they

hey of rubbing one thing against another.

of rubbing one thin speak German, in others a corrupi French. There are few manufactures; and the govern

Gentle frication draweth forth the nourishment, by ment is a mixture of aristocracy and democracy:

making the parts a little hungry, and heating them : in 1803 the canton was divided into the five dis

this frication I wish to be done in the morning. tricts of Fribourg Proper, Marten, Bulle, Ro

Bacon's Natural History. mont, and Estavayer.

Resinous or unctuous bodies, and such as will fame, FRIBOURG, a large town of Switzerland, the

attract vigorously, and most thereof without frication,

as good hard wax, which will convert the needle alcapital of the foregoing canton, situated on the

most as actively as the loadstone.

Bromeni. Sane, in a most singular and picturesque situation, thus elegantly described by Mr. archdeacor FRICKTHAL, a district in the canton of Coxe :

Aargau, Switzerland, on the south side of the It stands partly in a small plain, partly on bold Rhine, extending from Augst to Botzberg. acclivities on a ridge of rugged rocks, half en- Population about 20,000; chiefly Catholics. circled by the Sane; and is so entirely concealed This district, important as a military position, by the circumjacent hills, that the traveller belonged to the Brisgau until 1801. scarcely catches the smallest glimpse, until he FRICTION, Fr. friction, frictio, from Latin bursts upon a view of the whole town from the frico; à Gr. ppuan, cold (because those who are overhanging eminence. The fortifications, which cold rub themselves).-Ainsworth. The act of consist of high stone walls and towers, enclose a rubbing two bodies together; the resistance in circumference of about four miles; within which machines caused by the motion of one body space the eye comprehends a singular mixture upon another; medical rubbing with the fleshof houses, rocks, thickets, and meadows, vary- brush or cloths. ing instantly from wild to agreeable, from the Frictions make the parts more fleshy and full, as bustle of a town to the solitude of the deepest we see both in men and in the currying of horses ; so retirement. The Sane winds in such a serpen- that they draw a greater quantity of spirits to the tine manner as to form in its course, within the parts.


Do not all bodies which abound with terrestrial Right as the Friday, sothly for to tell,
parts, and especially with sulphureous ones, emit • Now shineth it, and now it raineth fast;
light as often as those parts are sufficiently agitated, Right so can gery Venus overcast
whether the agitation be made by heat, friction, per The hertes of hire folk; right as hire day
cassion, putrefaction, or by any vital motion ?

Is gerfull, right so changeth she aray:
Newton's Opticks. Selde is the Friday all the weke ylike.

Chaucer. The Knightes Tale. Friction is called also attrition. The phe

An' she were not kin to me, she would be as fair nomena arising upon the friction of divers bo- on Friday as Helen is on Sunday. Shakspeare. dies, under different circumstances, are very nu. For Venus, like her day, will change her cheer, merous and considerable. Mr. Hawksbee gives And seldom shall we see a Friday clear. Dryden, a number of experiments of this kind ; particu

Friday, by the Romans, was called dies Velarly of the attrition or friction of glass, under

neris. See FREA. various circumstances, the result of which was

FRIDSTOL, one of the ancient immunities that it yielded light and became electrical All

granted to churches. The word signifies a seat, bodies by friction are brought to conceive heat; chair, or place of peace and security, where crimany of them to emit light; particularly a cat's minals might find safety and protection. Of back, sugar, beaten sulphur, mercury, sea water, these there were many in England; but the gold, copper, &c. but above all diamonds, which

most famous were those at Beverly, and in St. when briskly rubbed against glass, gold, or the

Peter's church at York, granted by charter of king like, yield a light equal to that of a live coal Henry I. when blowed by the bellows. See ELECTRICITY. FRIEDLAND, a town of Mecklenburg, in

FRICTION, in mechanics, arises from the Stargard. It contains 3400 inhabitants; but the roughness or asperity of the surface of the body

neighbourhood is marshy. It is fourteen miles moved on, and that of the body moving : or north-east of New Brandenburg, and twenty-five such surfaces consisting alternately of eminences

south-east of Demmin. and cavities, either the eminences of the one

FRIEDLAND, a town in the circle of Konigsmust be raised over those of the other, or they berg, East Prussia, on the Alle, famous for a must be both broken and worn off; but neither

battle gained by Buonaparte over the Russians can happen without motion, nor can motion be

and Prussians on the 14th of June 1807, which produced without a force impressed. Hence the

led to the peace of Tilsit. Inhabitants 2120. force applied to move the body is either wholly The loss of the allies, in killed and wounded, was or partly spent to this effect; and consequently

nearly 20,000 men. there arises a resistance, or friction, which will be greater, cæteris paribus, as the eminences are

FRIEND, n. s. & v. a.) Saxon freod;

FRIEND'ED, adj. | Belg. vriend vriendthe greater and the substance the harder : and as the body, by continual friction, diminishes.

Friend'less, adj. (schap; Goth. frænd; Messrs. Amontons, De la Hire, Camus, Desa

FRIEND'LINESS, n. s. Dan. frende ; Scot. guliers, Muschenbroek, Ferguson, Euler, and

FRIEND'LY, adj. & adv. frend, all probably other mechanicians, have made a number of in

FRIEND'SHIP, n. s. J from Gothic fræ, genious experiments to settle a principle for the Ir

the fræn, Swed. vred. This word, with its derivatives, exact calculation of the quantity of friction. But

Bu is pronounced frend, frendly : the i totally ne

IS the most successful set of experiments made on

glected. One united to another in mutual bene

ghe this subject are those of the Rev. Samuel Vince,

volence and intimacy; one reconciled to anoA. M. of Cambridge; published in the 75th vo

? ther: distinguished from an enemy or one that lume of the Philosophical Transactions, p. 165.

has hostile intentions; a favorer of our persons Mr. Emerson, in his Principles of Mechanics,

or interests; a familiar compellation. The dehas also made several important remarks on

rivatives speak for themselves, or their illustrathe friction of wood and metals. See MECHANICS.

tions will explain them. FRICTION, in medicine and surgery, is per

Priend, how camest thou in hither? formed with oils, unguents, or other matters, to

Matt. xxii. 12. relieve or cure a diseased part. Frictions with

Some man is a friend for his own occasion, and mercurial ointment are much used in venereal

will not abide in the day of thy trouble. Eccl. vi. 8. cases. The application of mercury externally

Forsoth nature driveth us to love our frendes ; and, by friction is preferred to giving it internally, parfay, our enemies have more nede of love than our to raise a salivation. Frictions with the frendes, and they that more nede have, certes to hem flesh-brush, a linen cloth, or even the hand shal men do goodnesse.

Chaucer. The Persones Tale. alone, contribute greatly to health, in all diseases where the circulation of the blood and humors

Than cometh discord that unbindeth all manner of is impeded, or the power of the nerves weakened.


Id. Persons therefore of weak nerves, and sedentary

Be careful to make friendship the child, and not

the father of virtue; for many strongly knit minds lives, should supply the want of other exercise

are rather good friends than good men; so although by spending half an hour, morning and night, in

they do not like the evil their friend does, yet they

the rubbing their whole body, especially their limbs, like him who does the evil, Sir P, Sidney. with a flesh-brush. This is most advantageously

For Rhodoricke, whose surname shal be Great, performed when the primæ viæ are most shall of himselfe a brave ensample shew, empty.

That Saxon kings his friendship shall intreat; FRIDAY, n. s. Sax. frige dæg. The sixth And Howell Dha shall goodly well endew day of the week, so named of Freya, a Saxon The salvage minds with skill of just and trew. deity.

Spenser's Faerie Queene.

Raw captains are usually sent, only preferred by Let the Naussau-star in rising majesty appear, friendship, and not chosen by sufficiency. Spenser. And guide the prosperous mariner,

God's benison go with you, and with those With everlasting beams of friendly light. Prior. That would make good of bad, and friends of focs. Yet there are watchmen, who with friendly light

Shakspeare. Will teach thy reeling steps to tread aright, Who comes so fast in silence of the night?

For sixpence will support thy helpless arm - A friend.

And home conduct thee safc from nightly harm. -What friend? Your name. Id.

Gay. Here between the armies,

Like friendly colours found our hearts unite, Let's drink together friendly, and embrace ;

And each from each contract new strength and light. That all their eyes may bear those tokens home

Pupe Of our restored love and amity. Id. Henry IV. To what new crime, what distant sky, Not friended by his wish to your high person, Forsaken, friendless, will ye fly?

14. His will is most malignant, and it stretches

His friendships, still to few confined; Beyond you to your friends.

Shakspeare. Were always of the middling kind. Svisl. I know that we shall have him well to friend. Id. What watchful care must fence that weary state, When vice makes mercy, mercy's so extended, Which deadly foes begirt with cruel siege ; That, for the fault's love, is the offender friended. And frailest wall of glass, and trait'rous gate

Id. Strive which should first yield up their woeful siege! Gracious, my lord, hard-by here is a hovel :

By enemies assailed, by friends betrayed Some friendship will it lend you 'gainst the tempest: When others hurt, himself refuses aid : Repose you there.

Id. King Lear. By weakness 'self, his strength is foiled and overThere is little friendship in the world, and least of l ayed.

Fletcher's Purple Island, all between equals, wbich was wont to be magnified; At the same time that you carefully decline the that that is, is between superior and inferior, whose friendship of knaves and fools, if it can be called fortunes may comprehend the one the other. Bacon. friendship, there is no occasion to make either of them

If she repent, and would make me amends, your enemies, wantonly and unprovoked; for they are Bid her but send me hers, and we are friends. numerous bodies; and I would rather choose a secure

Carew. neutrality, than an alliance or war, with either of False friendship, like the ivy, decays, and ruins the them.

Chesterfield. walls it embraces ; but true friendship gives new life

How bright soe'er the prospect seems, and animation to the object it supports. Burton. All thoughts of Friendship are but dreams Hope! thou sad lover's only friend!

If envy chance to creep in ; Thou way that may'st dispute it with the end!

An envious, if you succeed, For love I fear 's a fruit that does delight

May prove a dangerous foe indeed, The taste itself less than the smell than sight.

But not a Friend worth keeping. Couper.

Cowley. Hail to the welcome sbout-the friendly speech! Let all the intervals be employed in prayers, cha. When hand grasps hand uniting on the beach; rity, friendliness and neighbourhood, and means of The smile, the question, and the quick reply, spiritual and corporal health.

Taylor. And the heart's promise of festivity! Not that Nephente, which the wife of Thone

Byron. Corsair. In Egypt gave to Jove-born Helena,

FRIENDLY ISLANDS, a group, or archipelago of Is of such power to stir up joy as this,

islands in the Southern Pacific Ocean, of very To life so friendly, or so cool to thirst. Milton.

considerable extent, and consisting of more than • What supports me, dost thou ask? The conscience, friend, t' have lost mine eyes o'erplyed

100 islands, the greater part of which are either In liberty's defence.

bare rocks or shoals, or barren and desert. The Thou to mankind

following are the most important that have been Be good and friendly still, and oft return. Id. enumerated :-Amsterdam, as it was called by

The friendly loadstone has not more combined Tasman, who discovered it in 1642, now more Than bishops cramped the commerce of mankind. generally known by the native names Tonga, or

Marvell. Tongataboo; Annamooka, or Rotterdam, accordSuch a liking and friendliness as hath brought forth ing to Tasman; Eooa, called by Tasman, Midthe effects.

Sidney. dleburgh; the Hapaee Islands, namely, Haanno, We know those colours which have a friendship Foa, Lefooga, and Hoolawa; Mayorga, a group with each other, and those which are incompatible,

of islands about 100 miles north of Hapaee, dis

of in mixing together those colours of which we would make trial.

Dryden's Dufresnoy.

covered in 1781 by Maurelle, the Spanish naviMy sons, let your unseemly discord cease,

gator, and visited by Edwards in 1791, by whom If not in friendship, live at least in peace.

the group was named Howe's Islands; Neoota

Dryden. bootaboo, and Kootahe, discovered by Schouten The king ordains their entrance, and ascends and Lemaire in 1616, and visited by captain His regal seat, surrounded by his friends. Id. Wallis in 1767, who called them Keppel's and

To some new clime, or to thy native sky, Boscawen's Islands; Toofoa, or Amattafoa; Oh friendless and forsaken Virtue fly.

Id. Hamoa and Vavaoo. The Fedjee Islands have Every man is ready to give in a long catalogue of also been sometimes included. Captain Cook those virtues and good qualities he expects to find in

gave them this name from what he observed of the person of a friend; but very few of us are careful

their friendly disposition; and to his Voyages we to cultivate them in ourselves.

Spectator. Woe to him that is alone, is verified upon none so

owe the principal knowledge of them: but more

!! much as upon the friendless person.

onth. modern navigators have, as we shall see, conLearn to dissemble wrongs, to smile at injuries, siderably qualified his eulogium on their chaAnd suffer crimes thou want'st the power to punish: racter. The general appearance of these islands Be easy, affable, familiar, friendly. Rowe's Ulysses, is throughout very similar.


Tongataboo, i. e. Sacred Island, is the largest estimated at 2,000. The water on the island is and best known of the group, being twenty better than that at Tongatabuo, but yet is indifleagues in circumference E.S. E. and W.N.W. ferent: the best is procured by digging holes The south, east, and west, shores are formed of near the side of the lake. Fruit is more abunsteep coral rocks, ten to twelve feet high, with dant on this island than on the former, and the intervals of sandy beach, on which, at low water, undulating surface gives it a more pleasingly a line of black rocks is observed. The north varied appearance. shore is level with the water, bordered by a sandy Eooa, the Middleburg of Tasman, may be conbeach, and lined with shoals and islets. The sidered as an elevated island, in comparison with whole island is low and level, and its appearance the generality of those of these seas, being visible conveys an idea of the most exuberant fertility; twelve leagues. The highest part is on the souththe entire surface being covered with verdure, east, and is almost flat, whence it declines and amongst the trees the cocoa palm raises its very gently towards the sea, and presents an exhead pre-eminent ; unhappily, however, the tensive prospect, where groves of trees are only island is deficient in fresh water, and what there interspersed at irregular distances, in beautiful is, in general, is very indifferent.

disorder, and the rest of the land covered with The coral rock, which forms the base of the grass. Near the shore it is shaded with trees, island, is in many places naked; but the soil in among which the natives dwell. On the northother parts is of considerable depth, and is in the west side is English Road, where boats may cultivated grounds a black vegetable mould over always land; and captain Cook found some good a sub-stratum of clay. In the lowest ground the water in this direction. soil is a mere coral sand, but still covered with Happee, though considered by the natives as vegetation. The only stones, except coral, ob- one island, is in reality composed of four very served on the island, are small blue pebbles, and low islanas, about half a mile distant from each a smooth black stone, lapis lydius, of which the other, lying north-east and south-west, but all natives make their hatchets; but it is not certain joined by coral reefs, which are dry at low water. that both these are not brought from other islands. The whole occupies a space of nineteen miles in

The following description of a village, from length, and each island is about six or seven captain Cook, will give a general idea of the miles long, and two to four miles broad. Ledwellings of the natives :

fooga is well cultivated and inhabited. Hoola• It is delightfully situated on the bank of the iva, on the contrary, is entirely desert and inlet, where all or most of the principal persons abandoned. On each of these islands is an artiof the island reside, each having his house in the ficial mount, said by the natives to be erected in midst of a small plantation, with lesser houses memory of some of their chiefs. The only water and offices for servants. These plantations are either of these islands possesses is from very neatly fenced round, and, for the most part, have brackish wells. only one entrance. This is by a door fastened Between Happee and Annamooka the sea is on the inside by a prop of wood, so that a per- sprinkled with islets and reefs, two of which only son has to knock before he can get admittance. deserve notice, Toofooa and Kao. The former Public roads and narrow lanes lie between each is a volcano, which, according to the natives, plantation, so that no one trespasseth upon sometimes throws out large stones; and while another. Great part of some of these enclosures captain Cook was here smoke and flames issued is laid out in grass-plats, and planted with such from it. It is inhabited. things as seem more for ornament than use; but Kao is north-west two miles and a half from bardly any were without the kava-plant, from Toofooa, and is a vast rock of a conical figure. which they make their favorite liquor. Every The other islands in the vicinity are mere coral article of the vegetable produce of the island reefs, from a mile to half a mile in circumference,

these, I observed, are not the residence of people cocoa palms. of the first rank. There are some large houses Komango has a pretty large pond of tolerable near the public roads, with spacious smooth water, but no appearance of a running stream. grass-plats before them, and unenclosed. These, Kootoo is two miles long, and nearly the same I was told, belonged to the king; and, probably, breadth. Its north-west end is low, but it rises they are the places where their public assemblies suddenly towards the middle; and on the southare held.' This island has the best harbour of east it terminates in reddish clayey cliffs. It is the group, within several islands and reefs on the cultivated and inhabited. Its only water is from north side.

dirty and brackish ponds. Annamooka, the Rotterdam of Tasman, is more From the situation of the Friendly Islands elevated than the small islands which surround towards the tropic, the climate is more variable it, but still can be considered only as a low than nearer the equator. The winds are usually island. In the centre is a salt lake, one mile and from some point between south and east, and a half broad, round which the land rises with a when moderate the weather is fair, but when gradual ascent, and its surface is covered with fresh there is often rain. They sometimes veer wild ducks. The north shore is composed of to the north, and even north-west, with hot sultry steep coral cliffs, nine or ten feet high, with some weather, and heavy rain; but these winds never intervals of sandy beach. There is no stone but last long, nor blow fresh. All the vegetable toral on the island, except a single rock twenty productions are evergreens : of cultivated fruits to thirty feet high, of a yellow calcareous and the principal are plantains, of which there are very hard stone. The population captain Cook thirteen varieties; the bread-fruit, the jambu, and Vol. IX.


ellvee, the latter a kind of plum, and the shad- The graceful air and firm step with which they dock. Besides cocoa-nuts, they have three other in general walk, are proofs of their personal accomkinds of palms. There is also a species of wild plishments, and their moral qualities have been fig, which is sometimes eaten. The other culti- described as highly estimable: captain Cook vated vegetables are sugar-cane, bamboo, gourds, found them frank, good humored, industrious, turmeric, yams of two sorts, one black and rery ingenious, and persevering; above all, most hoslarge, the other white and small. A large root pitable, and courting an intercourse by barter, called kappe, and one not unlike our white which they seemed to understand perfectly. Both potatoe, the manioc, and the jee jee.

sexes and all ages are said, however, to exhibit The only quadrupeds, besides hogs, are a few a strong propensity to thieving from strangers, rats, and some dogs, which are not originally but thefts among themselves seem to be unnatives of this group, but were introduced by common. captain Cook in his second voyage; and some There are few natural defects or deformities to were also brought from the Fidjee Islands. A be found amongst them, nor do they appear sublarge breed of fowl's is found in a domestic state. ject 10 numerous, or acute diseases. Amongst The birds are parrots and parroquets, owls, those with which they are occasionally afflicted cuckoos, kingfishers, and a bird the size of a are a sort of blindness, caused by a disease of thrush, which is the only one that sings, but the cornea, the ring-worm, and an indolent swelwhich compensates the want of others by the ling of the legs and arms. strength and melody of its notes. The other The dress of both sexes consists of a piece of land birds are rails, of two kinds, one as large as cloth, or matting, wound once and a half round a pigeon, the other not bigger than a lark; coots, the waist, where it is confined by a girdle or fly-catchers, a very small swallow, and three cord; it is double before, and hangs down like a sorts of pigeons, one of which is the bronze-petticoat to the middle of the leg; the upper winged. The water fowl are ducks, blue and part above the girdle is formed into several folds, white herons, tropic birds, noddies, two species so that there is sufficient cloth to draw up and of terns, a small curlew, and a large plover spot- wrap round the shoulders. The size of this garted with yellow. There are also the large bat, ment is in proportion to the consequence of the or flying fox, and the common sort The only wearer, the inferior class being content with very noxious or disagreeable reptiles and insects are small ones, and often wearing nothing but a sea-snakes, scorpions, and centipedes, guanas, piece of narrow cloth, or matting, like a sash, and and small lizards. Amongst the insects are called a maro, which they pass between the beautiful moths, butterflies, and very large spiders, thighs, and wrap round the waist, but the use of making in the whole about fifty species.

it is chiefly confined to the men. In their great The fish of the coasts and reefs are abundan“, entertainments they have dresses made for the and the shell-fish in particular, in great variety : purpose of the same form, but covered with red among them are the true hammer, and pearl- feathers. Both men and women shade their faces oyster.

from the sun with little bonnets of various mateIn all the islands good water is arce. .t is rials. The ornaments of both sexes are neckindeed to be found in most of them, but either in laces of the fruit of the pandanus, and various so small a quantity, or in situations so inconve- sweet-smelling flowers, of small shells, sharks' nient, as rarely to serve the purpose of navigators. teeth, and other things. On the upper part of

The natives of the Friendly Islands seldom the arm they sometimes wear a polished mother exceed the middle size, but are strong, well- of pearl shell ring, rings of tortoise-shell on the made, and of very various features : among them, fingers, and a number of these joined together as we are told, are many true European counte- bracelets. The lobes of the ears, though most nances, and Roman noses. Their eyes and teeth frequently but one, are perforated with two holes, are good, but the latter not very white, or well in which they wear cylindrical bits of ivory or set. The women are not so much distinguished reed, three inches long, thrust in at one hole, and from the men by their features as by their shape, out at the other. The women rub themselves all which is much more delicate; and, though there over with the powder of turmeric. They freare some very beautiful females to be met with, quently bathe in the fresh water ponds, though they are not common. The general color is a the water in most of them stinks intolerably, and slade deeper than the copper brown, but many thesc they prefer to the sea-water, which they of both sexes have an olive complexion, and think hurts their skin. They rub their bodies all some of the women are even much fairer. Their over, and particularly their heads, with cocoahair is in general straight, thick, and strong, nut oil, which preserves the skin smooth and soft. though a few have it brushy or frizzled : the men Their mode of life is a medium between indocut their heards short, and both sexes eradicate lence and labor. The climate, and the natural the hair from under their arms. Both men and fertility of the soil, render the latter unnecessary, women are partially tattooed. The natural color and their active disposition is a bar to the is black, but most of the men, and some of the former. The female employments are generally women, have it stained of a brown, or purple confined to domestic concerns, and the manufaccolor, and a few of an orange cast. Their coun- turing cloth and mats, which latter are used for tenances express cheerfulness, mildness, and dress, for sleeping on, and for mere ornament good nature, though sometimes in the presence of the last being made from the tough membraneous their chiefs they assume an air of gravity, which, part of the stock of the plantain-tree, and those however, is evidently foreign to their general for clothing of the pandanus, cultivated for that character.


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