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story is told of his last moments. When on his the payment of a sum of money. Whence a death-bed he said to his wife, who was lying near farm was originally a place that furnished its him dangerously ill, "Oh, my wife, I am going!' landlord with provisions. And among the Nor.I will go with theel replied she; and they died, mans they still distinguish between farms that it is added, almost at the same moment. pay in kind, i. e. provisions, and those which pay

FARM, n.s.&v.a./ Sax. feorm, provision in money; calling the former simply fermes, and

FARM'ER, n. s. or feeding; Fr. ferme; the latter blanche ferme, white ferm. Spelman Goth. and Swed. fura (to cultivate). Ground shows, that the word firma anciently signified cultivated, or let out for cultivation; the state of not only what we now call a farm, but also a lands let out for culture: to farm is either to cul- feast or entertainment, which the farmer gave the tivate or let out land at certain rates for cultiva- proprietor, for a certain number of days, and at tion; hence to let out or bargain for the culture a certain rate, for the lands he held of him. Thus or current expenses of things or persons gene- fearme in the laws of king Canute is rendered, by rally; thus we hear of .farming out the poor,' Mr. Lambard, victus; and thus we read of redbut find, happily, no instance of it: it is also a dere firmam unius noctis; and, reddebat unum common phrase among the agriculturalists of diem de firma; which denoté provision for a some districts that a man ‘farms his own land.' night and day, the rents about the time of the A farmer is the actual cultivator of ground, conquest being all paid in provisions; which whether his own or another's; one who rents any custom is said to have been first altered under thing.

Henry I. It is great wilfulnes in landlords to make any longer

It might have been expected, that the first farnus unto their tenants.


essays of improvement on a farm, should have The lords of land in Ireland do not use to set ont been, to make it both advantageous and delighttheir land in farm, for term of years, to their tenants; ful; but the fact was otherwise: a small spot but only from year to year, and some during pleasure. was appropriated to pleasure; the rest was

Id. on Ireland. reserved for profit only. And this seems to Thnu hast seen a farmer's dog bark at a beggar, and have been a principal cause of the vicious taste the creature run from the cur: there thou might'st which long prevailed in gardens. See GARbehold the great image of authority ; a dog's obeyed in Dening. It was imagined that a spot apart from office.


the rest should not be like them; this introduced We are enforced to furm our royal realm, The revenue whereof sball furnish us

deviations from nature, which were afterwards For our affairs in hand.

Id. Richard II.

carried to such an excess, that hardly any objects Touching their particular complaint for reducing truly rural were left within the enclosure, and the lands and farms to their ancient rents, it could not be view of those without was generally excluded. done without a parliament.

Hayward. The first step, therefore, towards a reformation, They received of the bankers scant twenty shillings was by opening the garden to the country, and for thirty, which the Earl of Cornwall farined of the that immediately led to assimilating them; but king.

Camden's Remains. still the idea of a spot appropriated to pleasure Nothing is of greater prejudice to the farmer than only prevailed, and one of the latest improvethe stocking of his land with cattle larger than it will ments has been to blend the useful with the bear.

Mortimer's Husbandry. agreeable: even the ornamental farm was prior I entered on this farm with a full resolution, in time to the more rural; and we have at last “Come, go to, I will be wise !" I read farming books; returned to simplicity by force of refinement. I calculated crops ; I attended markets; and, in short, The country in the time of our ancestors was in spite of “the devil, and the world, and the flesh," neither entirely cleared nor distinctly divided ; I believe I should have been a wise man. Burns.

the fields were surrounded by woods, not by For gold the merchant ploughs the main, hedges; and, if a considerable tract of improved The farmer ploughs the manor;

land lay together, it still was not separated into But glory is the sodger's prize ;

a number of enclosures. The farms, therefore, The sodger's wealth is honour.

most approaching to this character, are those in Farm, Farin, or Ferm, (Firma,) in law, sig- which cultivation seems to have encroached on nifies a country messuage or district; containing the wild, not to have subdued it; those, for inhouse and land, with other conveniences; hired, stance, at the bottom of a valley where the sides or taken by lease, either in writing, or parole, are still overgrown with wood : and the outline under a certain yearly rent. See LEASE. This of that wood is indented by the tillage creeping in some parts is differently termed : in Scotland, more or less up the bill. If the pastures are it is a tack; in Lancashire, fermeholt; in some here broken by straggling bushes, thickets, or parts of Essex a wike, &c. In corrupted Latin coppices, and the scattered trees beset with firma signified a place enclosed or shut in; whence brambles and briars, these are circumstances in some provinces, Menage observes, they call which improve the beauty of the place; yet closerie or closure, what in others they call a appear to be only remains of the wild, not infarm. We find locare ad firmam signifies to let tended for embellishment. Such interruptions to farm; probably on account of the sure hold the must, however, be less frequent in the arable tenant here has in comparison of tenants at will. parts of a farm; there the opening may be Spelman and Skinner however, derive the word divided into several lands, distinguished, as in farm from the Saxon fearme, or feorme, provi- common fields, only by different sorts of grain. sion; because the country people and tenants These will sufficiently break the sameness of the anciently paid their rents in victuals and other space; and tillage does not furnish a more necessaries, which were afterwards converted into pleasing scene, than such a space so broken, if


the extent be moderate, and the boundary beau- crops, nor of the dung, may require to be drawn tiful. As much wood is essential to the imitation against the hill at one time. A dip, or shallow of the farms of our ancestors, a spot may easily valley, with a natural stream falling down it, and be found, where turrets rising above the covert, with lands in the lower part of it, which are or some arches seen within it, may have the capable of being converted into watered mowingresemblance of a castle or abbey. The partial ground, will, speaking generally, prove a desiraconcealment is almost necessary to both; for to ble site for a home-stead. accord with the age, the buildings must seem to An inhabited estate however, with the farmbe entire; the ruins of them belong to later days: steads and fences fixed, and the buildings the disguise is, however, advantageous to them substantial, requires much thought and care to as objects; none can be imagined more pic- reform as to its general distribution. The lands turesque than a tower bosomed in trees, or a of different farms often lie scattered and intercluster appearing between the stems and the mixed through circumstances perhaps that were branches. Pieces of water are also a great addi- originally unavoidable; through indulgencies to tional beauty in such a scene; and all the varieties favorite tenants; or through the ignorance or of rills are consistent with every species of farm. negligence of managers; but something may

Farming is, however, a serious and very im- generally be done towards lessening or remedyportant pursuit with a large portion of our coun- ing this evil; opportunities may be watched, trymen ; who can but very slightly regard the and amicable changes between tenants made. mere external beauties of the scene of their la- Lands which lie compact and convenient to the bors. In our article AGRICULTURE we have home-stall are worth far more to an occupier largely discussed the scientific basis and connec- than those of the same intrinsic value, scattered tions of that pursuit; and referred, as we must at a distance; so that by this sort of exchange an here do, to that of HUSBANDRY for the practical advantage may sometimes be secured to two or rules and details of farming. We shall only in more tenants at the same time. this place suggest a few principal considerations Where the farms are too large, or the farmon the laying out of farm-lands, the construction steads very improperly placed, but the existing of farm-buildings, or farmeries, as they have been buildings are in a substantial state, it requires to called of late, and the keeping of farm accounts; be calculated whether the increase of rent, by any topics, which may with propriety be thus de- proposed alteration of them, will pay for the tached from our larger articles.

money required to be laid out in making it, 1. On the Laying out of Farm Lands.-On taking into the account the superiority of new the supposition of our being able to follow na- buildings. The erecting of an entire range of ture in the distribution of farm lands, or indeed farm-buildings, with the requisite appendages, is in almost any ordinary departure from her dic- an undertaking which of course demands mature tates, the first object of atłation to the proprie- consideration. There are cases, however, in tor of an estate should be its natural characteris- which it may be effected with profit, and many tics. He should consider it as in a state of in which it may be done with credit and respecnature, and without inhabitants; observing the tability to those employed. elevation and general turn of its surface, whether Where the farms of an estate have been made it consists of mountain, upland, vale, or water- too small, suitable consolidations should be formed land; ascertaining at the same time its made, and each of these be colored on the maps soils, the absorbency or retentiveness of the sub- as one farm, the alterations being afterwards made strata, determining to what uses its several parts as circumstances may direct; preference being are adapted. Having, for instance, determined ever given to the most deserving managers, and on the sheep-walk and grazing ground, he should every fair opportunity taken to dismiss the untrace the natural and fortuitous lines of the cultu- deserving. By this easy means, giving the most rable lands; as the feet of steep hills, the ridges impressive lesson on good management to tio of uplands, large rivers, public roads, &c. tenantry of the estate, the best effects are proWhere an extent of newly appropriated lands is duced. concerned, he must endeavour to lay them out It is to be further remarked, on the subject of into what may be termed natural farms, of such laying out farm-lands into suitable tenements, sizes as will bring the most permanent rent at that although compactness of form, and centralthe least expense of buildings, yards, separate ity of home-stall are always desirable, they are roads, and fences.

not the only objects to be attended to. The A first object of consideration will now be, specific qualities of the lands of the estate are the most natural or eligible sites for farm-steads; another subject of consideration. If the lands of laying to those which are the most eligible such an estate are naturally adapted to different purlands as by natural situation and quality belong poses, as cool strong lands, fit for perennial to them. The principal requisites of a home- mowing-grounds, especially if they can be stall, for a farm in mixed cultivation, are shelter profitably watered, and dry uplands that are suitand water for domestic and farm-yard purposes, able for mixed cultivation only; a portion of with some permanent grass ground below the each ought, according to long-established ideas, yards, to receive the overflowings of the dung- to be included in every farm: a principle this, basins, that nothing of manure may escape or be however, which is very often destructive of the lost. If lands lie in a shelving situation, it is de- compactness of form. A more modern opinion sirable to have the home-stead near the midway is, that perennial grass-lands are not at all necesof the slope; thus having lands above as well as sary to profitable farming, cultivated herbage below the yards; so that neither the whole of the and roots being equal to all the wants of modein, husbandry. Nevertheless, where a suit of meadow two sets of arable fields can be laid out, the and pasture-grounds can be properly united with works of tillage and semination will not be liable arable lands, it will generally be for their mutual to be interrupted by a shower, and the stock of benefit. But this is to be done by a general the farm, be the season wet or dry, will not be arrangement, not by making up disjointed farms distressed for pasturage. On a large farm, the with lands lying in distinct and perhaps distant lands of which are uniformly absorbent, and parts of a parish, as we not unfrequently see. consequently adapted to the turnip husbandry, For the extra carriage of crops and manure, or it is proper to have more than one set of arablo the unnecessary and injurious drift of stock, and fields, in order that a sufficient choice of conthe waste of manure incurred, together with the tiguous or near fields may be had, over which mischiefs arising from stock being left at a dis- to distribute the crop, and thus prevent an untance from the eye, and the time lost in passing, necessary length of carriage. But on rich retenon every occasion, between distinct parts of a tive lands, in situations where a good supply of scattered farm, eventually fall on the proprietor. extraneous manure can be procured, or where In fact, where an estate consists of arable lands such lands are united with marsh and ineadow of different sub-strata, so that some parts are re- grounds, to furnish a sufficiency of hay and pastentive of moisture, and others not, it ought to turage, without the assistance of arable land, one be the aim of the planner to include portions of set of arable fields may be sufficient : four or five each in every farm, in order that each occupier fields or divisions are generally found on a small may have a regular succession of employment for farm. On those numerous English farms, on his teams in a moist season, and in order that, which a number of manure-making stock are whether the summer prove wet or dry, he may necessary to be supported by the arable lands, a not be destitute either of grass or herbage. In greater diversity of " fields is required. It is in districts of a mixed nature or strata, where a this case necessary that the land should be in a variety of lands are found, this, by due attention, state of cultivated heroage two, three, four, or may not unfrequently be done, without much five years. If the arable rotation occupy four deranging the compactness of the farms. years, therefore, taking three crops of corn with

In the distribution of particular fields, the a fallow crop or fallow intervening, the number benefit of having a water meadow below the of arable fields required for one set of lands would home-stead has already been pointed out, be six, seven, eight, or nine. The conclusive When this cannot be accomplished, the yard- argument in favor of large arable fields, is, that liquor may be profitably expended on a farm where fields are small, much time and labor are garden ground, to be watered by means of paral- wasted by short turnings; and it is now ascerlel trenches, formed across the slope or descent tained, that if fields are of a regular shape, and of the ground to receive it; thus conveying the the ridges of a proper length, five ploughs may nutritious particles which have escaped from the do as much work as six ploughs in fields of a dung-yards immediately to the fibrils of the small size, and of an irregular shape; while every plants while growing, or to the base of the soil other branch of labor (such as dunging, sowing, into which they are required to strike. And, on harrowing, reaping, and carrying in the harvest), every farm in which there is not a sufficiency of can be executed, though not altogether, yet nearly watered garden ground, a garden field of some in the same proportion. Husb.of Scot.vol.i.p.41. acres for the culture of green herbage and roots Sometimes, in a bleak situation, it will be with the plough, for horses, cattle, and swine, as found requisite to subdivide the arable fields not well as for culinary purposes, ought to be laid only for shelter, but for the greater convenience out near the farm-yard. A pasturing paddock of shifting and separating stock. The shape, or two near the house is likewise a requisite ap- even, of an arable field ought not, in all cases, pendage to a home-stead.

to be thought a matter of indifference. It should Where the dairy is a principal object, dairy- be regulated mainly by the water-courses and grounds ought in like manner to be laid out near roads of the farm, as well as by the nature of its the house, and open into the lobby, green, or lands, the turn of its surface, and its aspect or milking-yard. But the meadows, or perennial exposure. A perfect square, or parallelogram, is mowing-grounds, may be laid out at a distance a desirable shape, if circumstances admit of it

. with better effect, as it is always convenient to Two sides at least ought to run parallel to each stack hay in the field; and, if not wanted near other; and it is equally, or more desirable, that the spot, it may generally be brought home, with each field should have a uniformity of soil and little inconvenience and expense, as it is wanted. sub-soil, as on these depend the uses to which But arable lands cannot lie at a distance from it is applicable. Yet, where the natural line of home with propriety; as, in this case, not only division is irregular, it is improper always to follow the crops and manure require a length of draughi, its windings. The planner ought rather to draw a but the time taken up by the plough-teams in judicious line between the two, and the cultivator passing to and fro, is an inconvenience. Nor to alter the qualities of the lands, which happen should the pasture-grounds for working stock, to be unnaturally severed, by draining, manurwhether oxen or horses (where these are pas- ing, &c. tured) be far from the home-stall. But those for The general direction of the fields should be store cattle and sheep, woodlands, coppice- the same as that in which the land ought to be grounds, &c., may lie at a distance.

ploughed for a crop. On a level surface, or on Arable lands must be laid out according, as one which is gently inclining, the direction of the We have before noticed, to their sizes, the absor- beds of retentive lands that require to be laid up bent or retentive nature of their soils, &c. Where in round ridges ought to be nearly north and

south; in order that the crops on either side of accomplished till the field has been completed. them may receive equal sun. In this case, con- Hence the advantages of having the size of the sequently, the fences, which form the two longer fields in some degree commensurate to the stock sides of the quadrangle, should take that direc- of working animals upon the farm.' tion. But, where the surface is steep, this prin- “Though on large farms, continues this writer, ciple of direction must give way to another of fields should, in general, be formed on an extengreat importance. If the land be retentive, and sive scale, there is a convenience in having a few the soil require to be laid up into round beds, smaller fields near the farm-house for keeping across the slope, the direction of the ridges must the family cows; for lurning out young horses, be guided by the face of the slope; and the mares, and foals; for raising a great variety of fences, on the general principle, ought to take vegetables ; and for trying experiments vu à the same direction; observing, in this case, where small scale, which may afterwards be extended, circumstances will admit, to let them wind to if they shall be found to answer. Where enclothe right of a person standing on the brink of sures are too large for particular purposes, and the slope, and facing towards it; as the beds where no small fields, as above recommended, ought to take that direction for the greater ease have been prepared, large fields may be subdiin ploughing them. Where the face of a hill is vided by sheep-hurdles, a sort of portable fence steep, and the land absorbent, the soil requires well known to every turnip-grower. In this to be turned downwards of the slope with a turn- way great advantage may be derived from the wrest or Kentish plough ; and the fences to be constant use of land that would otherwise have directed by the natural lines of the hill. been occupied by stationary fences; and the ex

The supply of water is the main consideration pense of subdivisions, which, on a large farm, in laying out grazing grounds, cow grounds, and would necessarily have been numerous, is thereby pasture grounds in general. Wherever good water avoided. This fence is perfectly effectual against is found naturally, or can be conveniently brought sheep, though it is not so well calculated for by art, to that point a pasture ground ought to stronger animals. On dry soils, where sheep are tend, in order to enjoy the supply as much as generally pastured, it is not unlikely that, by possible. In laying out water-meadows, where using moveable hurdles, the expense of permanent they are situated on sloping grounds, or the fences might, in a great measure, be saved. higher sides of which adjoin to upper lands, the In the Code of Agriculture it is observed, that main conductor (where a proper fall from the when a whole farm is divided into fields of source of the water will admit of it) ought to define various sizes, it is difficult to form a plan, so as the outline of the meadow on that side; and the to suit a regular rotation of crops, or to keep fence which separates the meadow lands from the very accurate accounts. Whereas, by having the dry grounds ought to run immediately along the fields in general of a large size, the whole strength upper side of the water-course; the two thus of a farm, and the whole attention of the farmer, becoming natural guards to each other. Within is directed to one point; while an emulation is an extended flat, or an extent of gently shelving excited among the ploughmen, when they are ineadow grounds, belonging to different propri- thus placed in circumstances which admit their etors, and where deep ditches are required to be work to be compared. Some small fields are sunk on the upper sides of the fences, to drain certainly convenient on any farm, for grazing and the lands that lie above them, the plan here re- other purposes, to be afterwards explained. On commended would be improper. But in the elevated situations, also, the shelter derived from situations described above it is perfectly eligible, small enclosures is of use. and ought not, in ordinary cases, be departed Sometimes a farm is situated on both sides of from.

a highway; in which case all the fields may be The size of fields, it has been observed by a made to open into it, either directly or through modern writer, must bear some proportion to an intervening field. Here no private road is the strength of the farmer with regard to ploughs wanting, excepting a few yards to reach the farand horses. “For instance, where six two-horse mery. But when, as is most generally the case, the ploughs are kept, and where it is difficult, from lands are situated at a distance from a great the nature of the soil, to have the fields of a large road, and approached by a lane or bye-road, then extent sufficiently dry, from eighteen to twenty- from that bye-road a private road is required to five English acres are considered to be a conve- the farmery, and a lane or lanes from it so connient size. With twelve horses a field of this trived as to touch at most of the fields of the extent can always be finished in four, or at the farm. In wet and clayey soils, these lanes must utmost in five days. There is less risk, therefore, be formed of durable materials; but in dry of being overtaken by bad weather, and prevented soils, provided attention be paid to fill in the from completing the preparation of the land for cart ruts as they are formed by the leading out the internal crop. When the fields are of too of dung, or home of corn,) by small stones, great an extent, in proportion to the stock kept, gravel, or even earth, the lane may remain green; a considerable interval must occur between the and being fed with sheep or caitle will not be sowing of the first and of the last part; and it will altogether lost. It is essentially necessary to in general be desirable to have each field cleared make a piece of road at the gate of every enat the same time in harvest. The harrowing also closure, being the spot which is most frequently is done more economically, when the field is in use. Without this precaution, it often becomes sown at once, than in several portions; and a mire where corn is thrown down and spoiled where rolling is required, that operation being in harvest, or if it is attempted to avoid the most effectuallv done across, it cannot well be mire, the gate-posts and neighbouring fence are often damaged. (Communications to the board leave his country and his family, is an estate well of Agriculture, vol. ii.) With good private roads stocked with such trees. a farmer will perform his operations at much 2. Of the arrangement of farm buildings, and less expense; the labor of the horses will be the enclosures of a farmery.--According to much easier; a greater quantity or weight of Beatson, the first thing to be taken into considegrain and other articles may be more expedi- ration upon this subject is the nature and protiously carried over them; manure can be more duce of the farm: hence may be judged the easily conveyed to the fields; the harvest can be different kinds of accommodation that will be carried on more rapidly; and wear and tear of necessary. Every farm, for example, must have, every description will be greatly reduced. (Code 1. A dwelling-house; 2. A barn suitable to the of Agriculture, p. 158.) The gates of fields, it extent of arable land in the farm, either with or has been observed, should in most cases be without a threshing mill, but always with one if placed in the middle of that side of the field possible; and it should be endeavoured to place which is nearest the road; and not in an angle, it so that it may go by water, if a supply can be or at one corner, unless particular circumstances had; 3. Stables, the dimensions of which must point out this as the preferable mode.

be determined according to the number of On the subject of fences in general see Hus- horses necessary for the farm; 4. Cow-houses, or BANDRY. Respecting one conspicuous boundary feeding-houses, or both, according to the number of some farms, hedge-row trees, a great dit of cows and cattle, and so on, till the whole acference of opinion prevails. While they im- commodations and their dimensions are fixed upon. prove the landscape, it seems to be agreed by Having ascertained these, and the situation for the most intelligent agriculturists that they are building on being also settled, the ground must extremely hurtful to the fence, and for some dis- be carefully and attentively viewed; and, if not tance to the crops on each side; and it is evi- very even, the different levels must be observed, dent, that in many instances the highways, on the and the best way of conducting all the necessary sides of which they often stand, suffer greatly drains, and carrying off all superfluous moisture. from their shade. It has therefore been doubted, Also the best situation for dung and urine-pits, whether such trees be profitable to the proprie- or reservoirs, which will, in a great degree, ascertor, or beneficial to the public; to the farmer tain at once where the cattle-houses and stables they are almost in every case injurious, to a de- should be. These being fixed on, the barn should gree beyond what is commonly imagined. (Sup- be as near them as possible, for the convenience plement to the Encyclopædia Britannica article of carrying straw to the cattle; and the barn-yard AGRICULTURE.) Loch, however, a well informed should be contiguous to the barn. These main improver of landed property, is of a different points being determined on, the others will opinion. He says, there is no change in the rural easily be found; always observing this rule, to economy of England more to be regretted, than consider what is the nature of the work to be the neglect which is now shown to the cultivation done about each office, and then the easiest and and growth of hedge-row timber. The injury least laborious way to perform that work, so far which it does to the cultivation of the land is as it is connected with other offices. In case much exaggerated, especially if a proper selec- this should not be sufficiently explicit, suppose, tion of trees is made; but even the growth of by way of illustration, the situation of a feedingthe ash, so formidable to agriculturists, might be house is to be considered of. The nature of the defended on the ground that, without it, the best work to be performed here is, bringing food and implements employed in the cultivation of the litter to the cattle, and taking away their dung. soil could not be made. It is well known that The place from whence the greatest part perhaps good hedge-row timber is by far the most valua- of their food and all their litter comes, is the ble both for naval and domestic purposes. Its barn; therefore the feeding-house should be as superior toughness rendering it equally valuable near the barn as possible. If turnips, or other to the ship and to the plough-wright. The value roots, or cabbages, make a part of their food, which it is of, in affording shelter, is also of ma- the most commodious way of giving these must terial use; besides, the raising of grain is not the be determined on; whether by having a rootonly purpose of life, or the only matter to be house adjoining the cattle-house, and that filled attended to, nor the only object worthy of atten- occasionally, or by having a place to lay them

The purposes of war and the national down in, near the heads of the stall, from whence glory, the protection and extension of our com- they are thrown_in at holes left in the wall for merce, the construction and repair of buildings, that purpose. The easiest method of clearing and even the enjoyment arising from the rich and away the dung must also be considered, and the beautiful effect produced by such decoration and distance from the main dung-pit and urine reornament, are all objects of material importance servoir. The same general rule being observed to the well-being and constitution of a highly in determining on the site of all the other offices cultivated state of society. Even upon the more or accommodations, together with a careful exnarrow basis of individual utility, this practice amination of the ground to be occupied (upon might be defended and recommended; for it is which the arrangement of the offices in a great not useless to consider how many families and measure should depend), any person conversant estates have been preserved, when pressed by in rural affairs, who attends to these particulars, temporary difficulties (from which none are ex- and can lay down his ideas in a drawing, may empted), from a fall of hedge-row timber. One easily direct the planning and building of a very of the best legacies, that a great proprietor can commodious set of offices. With respect to the


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