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department of the Channel contains five districts, its principal town is Colmar. The department forty-eight cantons, and 669 communes; its ter- of the Lower Rhine contains four districts, ritorial extent is 6890 kilometers; its principal thirty-seven cantons, and 616 communes; its town is Coutances.
territorial extent is 5695 kilometers; its principal 5. The province of the Isle of France is di- town is Strasburg. vided into the departments of the Aisne, the Oise, 9. The province of Brittany comprehends the the Seine, the Seine and Marne, and the Seine and departments of the Ille and Villaine, the Lower Oise. The department of the Aisne contains Loire, Morbihan, the North Coast, and Finisterre. five districts, thirty-seven cantons, and 853 The department of the Ille and Villaine contains coinmunes; its territorial extent is 74223 kilo- six districts, forty-three cantons, and 352 commeters; its principal town is Laon. The de- munes; its territorial extent is 7185 kilometers; partment of the Wise contains four districts, its principal town is Rennes. The department thirty-five cantons, and 738 communes; its ter- of the Lower Loire contains five districts, fortyritorial extent is 6082; kilometers; its principal five cantons, and 209 communes; its territorial town is Beauvois. The department of the Seine extent is 7660 kilometers; its principal town is contains three districts, twenty càntons, and Nantes. The department of Morbihan contains seventy-nine communes; its territorial extent is four districts, thirty-seven cantons, and 231 com453} kilometers; its principal town is Paris. munes; its territorial extent is 7067} kilometers: The department of the Seine and the Marne its principal town is Vannes. The department contains five districts, twenty-nine cantons, and of the North Coast contains five districts, forty561 communes; its territorial extent is 6127} seven cantons, and 376 communes; its territorial kilometers; its principal town is Melun. The extent is 7567} kilometers; its principal town is department of the Seine and Oise contains five Saint Brieux. The department of Finisterre districts, thirty-six cantons, and 696 communes; contains five districts, forty-three cantons, and its territorial extent is 5880 kilometers; its prin- 287 communes; its territorial extent is 7292) cipal town is Versailles.
kilometers; its principal town is Quimper, 6. The province of Champagne contains the 10. The province of Maine is divided into departments of the Ardennes, of the Marne, of the department of the Maine and the Sarthe. the Higher Marne, of the Aube, and the Yonne. The department of the Maine contains three The department of the Ardennes contains five districts, twenty-seven cantons, and 288 comdistricts, thirty-four cantons, and 599 communes; munes; its territorial extent is 54521 kilometers; its territorial extent is 62421 kilometers; its its principal town is Laval. The department of principal town is Mezieres. The department of the Sarthe contains four districts, thirty-three the Marne contains five districts, thirty-two cantons, and 413 communes; its territorial excantons, and 699 communes; its territorial ex- tent is 64671 kilometers; its principal town is tent is 8486 kilometers; its principal town is Leillans. Chalons. The department of the Higher Marne 11. The province of Anjou forms the departcontains three districts, twenty-eight cantons, and ment of the Maine and Loire, which contains 552 communes; its territorial extent is 6540 ki- five districts, thirty-four cantons, and 385 comlometers; its principal town is Chaumont. The munes; its territorial extent is 7637} kilometers; department of the Aube contains five districts, its principal town is Angers. twenty-six cantons, and 423 communes; its ter 12. The province of Touraine forms the deritorial extent is 6242 kilometers; its principal partment of the Indre and Loire, which contown is Troyes. The department of the Yonne tains three districts, twenty-four cantons, and 311 contains five districts, thirty-four cantons, and communes; its territorial extent is 6452kilo484 communes; its territorial extent is 7740 ki- meters; its principal town is Tours. lometers; its principal town is Auxerre.
13. The province of Orleannois comprehends 7. The province of Lorraine is divided into the departments of the Eure and Loire, the the departments of the Meuse, the Moselle, the Loire and Cher, and the Loiret The departMeurthe, and the Vosges. The department of met of the Eure and Loire contains five districts, the Meuse contains four districts, twenty-eight thirty-six cantons, and 843 communes; its tercantons, and 591 communes; its territorial ex- ritorial extent is 6182} kilometers; its principal tent is 6275 kilometers; its principal town is town is Chartres. The department of the Loire Bar-le-duc. The department of the Moselle and Cher contains three districts, twenty-four contains four districts, thirty cantons, and 934 cantons, and 309 communes; its territorial excommunes; its territorial extent is 6552; kilo- tent is 6717} kilometers; its principal town is meters; its principal town is Metz. The de Blois. The department of the Loiret contains partment of the Meurthe contains five districts, four districts, thirty-one cantons, and 363 comtwenty-nine cantons, and 718 communes; its munes; its territorial extent is 7047} kilometers; territorial extent is 6430 kilometers; its principal its principal town is Orleans. town is Nancy. The department of Vosges 14. The province of Poitou comprehends the contains five districts, thirty cantons, and 550 departments of Vievere, the Two Seures, and La communes ; its territorial extent is 65221 kilo- Vendée. The department of Vievere contains meters ; its principal town is Epinal.
five districts, thirty-one cantons, and 344 com8. The province of Alsace is divided into the munes; its territorial extent is 7340 kilometers; departments of the Lower and the Higher Rhine. its principal town is Poitiers. The department The department of the Higher Rhine contains five of the Two Sevres contains four districts, thirtydistricts, thirty-nine cantons, and 703 com- one cantons, and 363 communes ; its territorial munes • its territorial extent is 6030 kilometers; extent is 6337} kilometers; its principal town is Niort. The department of La Vendée contains territorial extent is 5902) kilometers; its printhree districts, twenty-nine cantons, and 324 cipal town is Gueret. communes; its territorial extent is 7242) kilo- 23. The Limosin forms the department of meters; its principal town is Fontenay.
Correge, which contains three districts, twenty15. The province of Berry comprehends the nine cantons, and 294 communes; its territorial departments of the Indre and the Cher. The extent is 58573 kilometers; its principal town is department of the Indre contains four districts, Tulles. twenty-three cantons, and 275 communes; its 24. The province of Auvergne comprehends territorial extent is 7395 kilometers; its chief the departments of Puy de Dome and Cantal. town is Chateauroux. The department of the The department of Puy de Dome contains three Cher contains three districts, twenty-nine can- districts, fifty cantons, and 458 communes; its tons, and 307 communes; its territorial ex- territorial extent is 8450 kilometers; its printent is 7385 kilometers; its principal town is cipal town Clermont. The department of CanBourges.
tal contains four districts, twenty-three cantons, 16. The Nivernois forms the department of and 270 communes; its territorial extent is 59374 the Nievre, which contains four districts, twenty- kilometers; and its principal town is Aurillac. five cantons, and 330 communes; its territorial 25. The province of Lyonnois is divided into extent is 7365 kilometers; its principal town is the departments of the Rhone, and the Loire. Nevers.
The department of the Rhone contains two dis17. The Bourbonnois forms the department tricts, twenty-five cantons, and 261 communes ; of the Allier, which contains four districts, its territorial extent is 2935 kilometers; its twenty-six cantons, and 350 communes ; its ter- principal town is Lyons. The department of ritorial extent is 74277 kilometers; its principal the Loire contains three districts, twenty-eight town is Moulins.
cantons, and 327 communes ; its territorial ex18. The province of Burgundy forms the de- tent is 5135 kilometers; its principal town is partments of the Cote d'Or, the Suone and Loire, Monbrison. and the Ain. The department of the Côte d'Or 26. The province of Guienne is divided into contains four districts, thirty-six cantons, and the departments of the Gironde, the Dordogne, 733 communes: its territorial extent is 9192) the Lot and Garonne, the Lot, Aveyron, the Gers, kilometers ; its principal town Dijon. The de- the Higher Pyrenees, and the Landes. The department of the Saone and Loire contains five partment of the Gironde contains six districts, districts, forty-eight cantons, and 609 communes : forty-eight cantons, and 580 communes; its terits territorial extent is 8912 kilometers; its ritorial extent is 1170 kilometers; its principal principal town Macon. The department of town is Bourdeaux. The department of the the Ain contains four districts, thirty-two can- Dordogne contains five districts, forty-seven tons. and 416 communes ; its territorial ex- cantons, and 642 communes; its territorial ex. tent is 5675 kilometers; its principal town is tent is 94824 kilometers; its principal town is Bourg.
Perigueux. The department of the Lot and 19. The province of Franche Compté com- Garonne contains four districts, thirty-eight prehends the departments of the Higher Saone, cantons, and 469 communes; its territorial exThe Doubs, and Jura. The department of the tent is 6100 kilometers; its principal town is Higher Saone contains three districts, twenty- Agen. The department of the Lot contains seven cantons, and 640 communes; its terri- four districts, forty-one cantons, and 440 comtorial extent is 5582; kilometers; its principal munes; its territorial extent is 74324 kilometers; town is Vesoul. The department of the Doubs its principal town is Cahors. The department of contains four districts, twenty-five cantons, and Aveyron contains five districts, forty-three can605 communes; its territorial extent is 5340 ki- tons, and 589 communes; its territorial extent lometers; its principal town is Besançon. The is 9477) kilometers; and its principal town is department of Jura contains four districts, Rhodez. The department of Gers contains five thirty-two cantons, and 728 communes; its ter- districts, thirty cantons, and 700 communes; its ritorial extent is 5237} kilometers; its principal territorial extent is 7047} kilometers; and its town is Lons-le-Saulnier.
principal town is Auch. The department of the 20. The Pays d'Aunis forms the department Higher Pyrenees contains three districts, twentyof the Lower Charente, which contains six dis- six cantons, and 501 communes; its territorial tricts, thirty-seven cantons, and 506 communes; extent is 49371 kilometers; and its principal its territorial extent is 7247 kilometers; its town is Tarbes. The department of the Landes principal town is Saintes.
contains three districts, twenty-eight cantons, 21. The province of Saintonge forms the de- and 368 communes; its territorial extent is partment of the Churente, which contains five 9475 kilometers; its principal town is Mont de districts, twenty-eight cantons, and 455 com- Marsan. munes; its territorial extent is 6310 kilometers; 27. The province of Bearn forms the departits principal town is Angouleme
ment of the Lower Pyrenees, which contains five 22. The province of Marche comprehends the districts, forty cantons, and 660 communes; its departments of the Higher Vienne, and the territorial extent is 8072; kilometers; its principa. Creuse. The department of the Higher Vienne town is Pau. contains four districts, twenty-six cantons, and 28. The province of Foix forms the depart224 communes; its territorial extent is 60021ment of the Arriege, which contains three diskilometers; its principal town is Limoges. The tricts, twenty cantons, and 337 communes; its department of the Creuse contains four districts, territorial extent is 5050 kilometers; its printwenty-five cantons, and 296 communes; its cipal town is Foix.
29. The province of Roussillon, forms the de- twenty-eight cantons, and 360 communes; its partinent of the Eastern Pyrenees, which con- territorial extent is 6927 kilometers; its printains three districts, seventeen cantons, and 249 cipal town is Valence. The department of the communes; the territorial extent is 3371 kilo- Higher Alps contains three districts, twentymeters; its principal town is Perpignan. three cantons, and 185 communes; its territo
30. The province of Languedoc is divided rial extent is 5650 kilometers; its principal town into the departments of the Tarn, the Higher is Gap. Garonne, the Herault, the Aude, the Garde, the 32. The province of Provence contains the Ardeche, the Higher Loire, and the Lozere. The departments of the Lower Alps, the Var, and department of the Tarn contains four districts, the Mouths of the Rhone. The department of thirty-five cantons, and 356 communes ; its ter. the Lower Alps contains five districts, twentyritorial extent is 6080 kilometers; its principal eight cantons, and 260 communes; its territorial town is Castres. The department of the Higher extent is 7412} kilometers; and its principal Garonne contains five districts, forty-two cantons, town is Digne. The department of the Var and 691 communes; its territorial extent is contains four districts, thirty-two cantons, and 80771 kilometers; its principal town is Tou- 210 communes; its territorial extent is 7510 kilouse. The department of the Herault contains lometers; its principal town Toulon. The defour districts, thirty-six cantons, and 333 com- partment of the Mouths of the Rhone contains munes; its territorial extent is 65124 kilometers; three districts, twenty-six cantons, and 108 comits principal town is Montpellier. The depart- munes; its territorial extent is 5315 kilometers; ment of the Aude contains four districts, thirty- its principal town is Aix. one cantons, and 436 communes; its territorial Avignon and the adjoining territory, which extent is 65424 kilometers ; its principal town is belonged to the pope before the revolution, are Carcassone. The department of the Garde con- now incorporated with France, and form the tains four districts, thirty-eight cantons, 365 department of Vaucluse, which contains four communes; its territorial extent is 6280 kilo- districts, twenty-two cantons, and 150 commeters; its principal town is Nismes. The de- munes; its territorial extent is 3700 kilometers; partment of the Ardeche contains three districts, its principal town is Avignon. thirty-one cantons, and 335 communes; its ter- The island of Corsica is formed into the two ritorial extent is 5710 kilometers; its principal departments of the Golo and the Liamone. town is Privas. The department of the Higher The departmeut of the Golo contains three disLoire contains three districts, twenty-eight can- tricts, thirty-nine cantons, and 235 communes; tons, and 272 communes; its territorial extent its territorial extent is 3267} kilometers; its is 5282} kilometers; its principal town is Le principal town is Bastia. The department of Puy. The department of the Lozere contains the Liamone contains three districts, twenty-one three districts, twenty-four cantons, and 193 cantons, and 156 communes; its territorial communes ; its territorial extent is 5390 kilo- extent is 2955 kilometers; its principal town is meters ; its principal town is Mende.
Ajaccio. 31. The province of Dauphiny comprehends France is divided into twenty-two military the departments of the Isere, the Drome, and provinces, each containing a certain number of the Higher Alps. The departments of the Isere the civil departments. These are each under contains four districts, forty-four cantons, and the command of a general, who is stationed at a 558 communes; its territorial extent is 8940 central town, whence the division or province kilometers; its principal town is Grenoble. The commonly derives its name, and are as follows: department of the Drome contains four districts, the departments included in each division, are, Resident Towns.
Departments in each Division. 1. Paris. . . Seine, Seine and Oise, Aisne, Seine and Marne, Oise, Loiret, Eure and Loire. 2. Chalons. . Ardennes, Meuse, Marne. 3. Metz. .. Moselle. 4. Nancy. . . Murthe, Vosges. 5. Strasburg. . Upper Rhine, Lower Rhine. 6. Besançon .. Upper Saône, Doubs, Jura and Ain. 7. Grenoble. i Isere, Drôme, Upper Alps. 8. Marseilles. • Lower Alps, Vaucluse, Nouths of the Rhone, Var. 9. Montpellier. Ardeche, Gard, Lozere, Herault, Tarn, Aveyron. 10. Toulouse 10. Toulouse. }
S Aude, Eastern Pyrenees, Ariege, Upper Garonne, Upper Pyrenees, Gers, Taro,
and Garonne. 11. Bordeaux.. Lower Pyrenees, Landes, Gironde. 12. Rochelle : Charente-Inferieure, Deux-Sevres, Vendée, Loire-Inferieure, Vienne. 13. Rennes. . . Ille and Villaine, Morbihan, Finisterre, Côtes du Nord. 14. Caen. . . . Manche, Calvados, Orne. 15. Rouen. . Seine-Inferieure, Somme, Eure. 16. Lisle.... Nord, Pas-de-Calais. 17. Dijon. .. Aube, Upper Marne, Yonne, Côte-d'Or, Saonne and Loire. 18. Lyons... Rhone, Loire, Cantal, Puy-de-Dome, Upper Loire. 19. Perigueux. . Correze, Lot, Lot and Garonne, Dordogne, Charente. 20, Bourges. . Cher, Indre, Allier, Creuze, Nievre, Upper Vienne. 21. Tours... Sarthe, Indre and Loire, Maine and Loire, Mayenne, Loir and Cher. 22. Bastia. i . Corsica.
The articles of the definitive treaty between be placed to the west of the Jura, so that the whole of France and the allied powers relative to the the Pays de Gex, shall be without that line. boundaries of that kingdom, signed at Paris, IV.-From the frontiers of the canton of Geneva, 20th November, 1815, are so important, and so
as far as the Mediterranean, the line of demarcation clearly mark the outline of her present territory,
France from Savoy, and from the county of Nice, that we think proper to subjoin them.
The relations which the treaty of Paris of 1814 had Article I.- The frontiers of France shall be the
re-established between France and the principality of same as they were in the year 1790, save and except Monaco, shall cease for ever, and the same relations the modifications on one side and on the other, which shall exist between that principality and his majesty are detailed in the present article. First, on the nor- the king of Sardinia. thern frontiers, the line of demarcation shall remain V.-All the territories and districts included (enas it was fixed by the treaty of Paris, as far as op- clavés) within the boundary of the French territory, posite to Quiverain ; from thence it shall follow the as determined by the present article, shall remain ancient limits of the Belgian provinces, of the late united to France: bishopric of Liege, and of the duchy of Bouillon, as VI.-The high contracting parties shall name, within they existed in the year 1790, having the territories three months after the signature of the present included (enclavés) within that line of Phillipeville treaty, commissioners to regulate every thing relating and Marienbourg, with the fortresses so called, to- to the designation of the boundaries of the respective gether with the whole of the duchy of Bouillon without countries, and as soon as the labors of the commisthe frontiers of France. From Villers near Orval sioners shall have terminated, maps shall be drawn, upon the confines of the department Des Ardennes, and land-marks shall be erected, which shall point
upon the great road leading from Thionville to Treves, the line shall remain as it was laid down by the treaty Such are the general and departmental outof Paris, From Perle it shall pass by Lauensdorf, lines of this important part of Europe. The Walwich, Schardorff, Niederveiling, Pelweiler (all surface of France is in general fat; not rising these places with their banlieus or dependencies re- into any elevations that can be called mountainous, maining to France) to Houvre; and shall follow from except in the central and southern provinces in thence the old limits of the district (Pays) of Sarre
upwards of 300 miles south of Calais, where bruck, leaving Sarrelouis and the course of the Sarre,
among the sources of the Meuse, the Moselle, together with the places situated to the right of the line above described, and their banlieus or de
the Seine and the Saône, we meet with the pendencies without the limits of France. From the mountains of Auvergne. Hence the Cevennes. limits of the district of Sarrebruck, the line of a long range of mountains, proceeds from north demarcation shall be the same which at present se- to south in a course at first parallel with that of parates from Germany the departments of the Moselle the Saône and subsequently of the Rhone, until, and of the Lower Rhine, as far as to the Lauter, which on approaching the Mediterranean, it branches river shall from thence serve as the frontier until it off to the south-west and joins the Pyrenees. falls into the Rhine. All the territory on the left The greatest height of this range is in Auvergne, bank of the Lanter, including the fortress of Landau, about lat. 45°, where this chain, or more properly shall form part of Germany. The town of Weissen- a branch of it, attains, at the mountains called bourg, however, through which that river runs, shall
Cantal and Puy de Dôme, an elevation of 6000 remain entirely to France, with a rayon on the left
feet, and is covered in its higher parts with bank, not exceeding 1000 toises, and which shall be more particularly determined by the commission
snow during a great part of the year. Another,
but a much less lofty range, extends from Bornation of the boundaries.
deaux to the south-east, a distance of 150 miles, II.-Leaving the mouth of the Lauter, and con- until it reaches the Pyrenees. The smaller cinuing along the departments of the Lower Rhine, hains are numerous in the east and south-east the Upper Rhine, the Doubs, and the Jura, to the of the kingdom, viz. in Lorraine, the Nivernois, canton de Vaud, the frontiers shall remain as fixed Dauphiny, Provence; also in part of the interior, by the treaty of Paris. The Thalweg of the Rhine particularly the Limousin and Guienne. They shall form the boundary between France and the states
are interspersed with extensive plains, but conof Germany, but the property of the islands shallvert the whole of the south and south-east of remain in perpetuity, as it shall be fixed by a new From
France into rugged and elevated tracts. Down survey of the course of that river, and continue, unchanged, whatever variation that course may undergo
the eastern frontier, and nearly parallel to the in the lapse of time. Commissioners shall be named
course of the Rhine, run the Vosges, until they on both sides by the high contracting parties, within join Mount Jura, in the Alps, north of the lake the space of three months, to proceed upon the said of Geneva. The grandest range, however, for survey. One-balf of the bridge between Strasbourg scenery is that portion of the Alps which sepaand Kehl, shall belong to France, and the other half rates France from Switzerland. Here is found to the grand duchy of Baden.
the towering Mont Blanc, the highest point of III.-In order to establish a direct communication Europe, and so much above the surrounding between the canton of Geneva and Switzerland, that Alps as to be illuminated by the sun twenty part of the Pays de Gex, bounded on the east by the minutes earlier and later. See our articles lake Leman ; on the south, by the territory of the
the Blanc Mount, and EUROPE. Other remarkable
Be canton of Geneva ; on the north, by that of the Can
peaks in this direction are Reculet and Dole, ton de Vaud ; on the west by the course of the Versoix, and by a line which comprehends the communes
which are 5660 feet above the level of the sea. of Collex, Bossy, and Meyrin, leaving the commune
On the south of France the chain of the Pyrenees of Ferney to France, shall be ceded to the Helvetic stretches from the port of Vendres, on the coast of confederacy, in order to be united to the canton of the Mediterranean, to the Atlantic Ocean on the Geneva. The line of the French custom-houses shall coast of Spain. Its greatest breadth is forty leagues; its highest summit 1751 toises above the level of Garonne, are the other great streams. The the sea; the length about 212 miles. Mont Perdu Rhone enters France from the lake of Geneva, is the highest elevation of the Pyrenees; Mont and enters the Mediterranean by several mouths Canigou the chief of the Eastern Pyrenees: the a few miles west of Marseilles. It passes in its hill is of difficult ascent, and is 1440 toises course Lyons, Vienne, Valence, Montelimart, above the Mediterranean. The Pyrenean chain Avignon, Beaucaire, Tarascon, and Arles. The appears at a distance like a shaggy ridge, pre- Seine, having a direction generally towards the senting the segment of a circle fronting France, north-west, rises in the department of Cote d'Or, and descending at each extremity. To the south and waters a series of beautiful valleys previous and west they are sterile, but on the north to its arriving at Paris ; whence it follows a siand east, where the descent is more gradual, they nuous course to the English Channel, receiving afford frequent woods and excellent pasturage : a great number of tributary streams. The prinnear the summit of Mont Perdu is a large cipal towns on its bauks are Troyes, Melun, lake, upwards of 9000 feet above the level of the Paris, and Rouen. Toe Loire has its source in Bea, which discharges its waters into Spain. the western side of the Cevennes, and flows to
The forests of France constitute one of its wards the north for about half its way. It then principal geographical features. They are es- turns to the west and falls into the Bay of Biscay timated to cover altogether a surface of 29,220 after a course of more than 450 miles. It receives square miles, or upwards of 18,000,000 English about forty of the central rivers of the country, acres; that is about an eighth of its territorial and is navigable for nearly ninety miles. The surface. Since the time of Cæsar, that of Ar- principal places it passes are Nevers, Orleans, dennes has been the largest in France : it then Blois, Tours, Saumur, and Nantes. extended from the Rhine to the Rhone, but is The Garonne, rising in the northern side of now much diminished at its extremities. The the Pyrenees, flows nearly north-west into the forest of Fontainbleau covers a space of about Bay of Biscay: having most of its course through 25,000 acres. That of Orleans, including several a flat country. It is joined by the Dordogne plains and villages, is fifteen leagues in length, before it reaches the sea, and after the junction and from three to eight in breadth. It contains is called the Gironde. It passes Toulouse, Agen, great variety of timber, such as oak, elm, fir, and Bourdeaux, below which it opens into a large aspen, &c. Before the revolution the value of estuary, having an entire course of above 200 its timber annually was 100,000 livres: the miles. profit being part of the appanage of the duke of Other rivers in the northern departments are Orleans.
the Somme, which falls into the British Channel M. Chaptal, in his treatise d'Industrie Fran- ' below Abbeville; the Oise and the Marne caise, estimates the woods which are
which enter the Seine; the Aisne tributary to Hectares.
the Oise; and the Meuse, the Moselle, and the Regularly cut for fuel, equal to . 6,612,000
Scheldt (l'Escaut) watering the central departThose allowed to grow for timber 460,000
ments. The Vilaine discharges its waters into And the chestnut woods.. 406,000
the ocean below La Roche-Bernard. The
Sarthe and the Loir unite above Angers, and, 7,478,000
having joined the Mayenne at that town, they
augment the Loire a little below. These collect The hectare is about two-fifths of the English their waters on the north of that river. The acre. Under the old government, the national for- Creuse joins the Vienne, which with the Cher ests yielded about 12,000,000 francs to the royal and the Indre enter the Loire from the south. treasury. By the revolution, all forests formerly The Yonne discharges itself into the Seine at held by the corporate bodies and the emigrants Montereau. The Saone and the Doubs unite were annexed to those of the state, which were and afterwards fow into the Rhone. Of the thus increased to upwards of 4,000,000 arpents, southern rivers the three which fall into the or about one-fourth. These, added to the Garoune are the Dordogne, the Lot, and the forests in Belgium, and on the left bank of the Tarn. The Adour runs into the sea at Bayoone. Rhine, in the year 1806, yielded rather more The Allier discharges itself into the Loire at than 70,000,000 francs, according to the budget Nevers; while the Isere and the Durance are for that year. All forests above 300 acres were both tributary to the Rhone. also added to the national domains, and declared The canals of France are few, and the general inalienable. In the year 1800 the national management of them very far behind that of our forests were exempled from the land-tax. But own internal navigation. The principal existins the revolution did not abolish the arbitrary laws canals are:-1. The Canal de Briare, which to which the private proprietors of woodlands unites the Loire near Briare, with the Loing at were subject. According to these laws, the go- Cepoix ; where also it receives the canal dOr vernment appoints persons, who are proper leans. From this place the canal of MIontaras judges of ship timber, to examine all the woods, continues the navigation to the Seine. By means and to mark such trees as they deem fit for their of these, and the connecting rivers, France may purpose, after which the proprietor must not lay be traversed from north to south. This canai the axe to them.
contains forty-two locks, and is about fifty-fix The rivers of France are munerous, and inter- miles in length.-2. The Canal du Centre, alsu sect and beautify the country in every direction. called the Canal of Charollois, and the Canal of The Rhine now only waters the eastern frontiers of the Three Seas, or of Digoin, is about twenty two departments. The Rhone, Seine, Loire, and French leagues in length, and by means of the