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the game he designs to kill. The barrel should ties of each to their full strength, and revealed Je well polished and smooth within, and the bore to the world the ultimate resources of two of an equal size from one end to the other; of the most distinguished men that ever strugwhich may be proved by putting in a piece of gled for superiority, by eloquence and wispasteboard cut to the exact roundness of the top, dom. The nearness of their deatns, too, secures for if this goes down without stops or slipping, the complete coincidence of their histories ; so you may conclude the bore good. The bridge that, in all future periods, the name of the one pan must be somewhat above the touch hole. must naturally suggest that of the other, and each As to the locks, choose such as are well filled communicate to his rival a portion of his own with true work, whose springs must be neither renown, It is fair, however, to observe that, if too strong nor too weak. The hammer ought their comparative merit is to be weighed by their to be well hardened, and pliable to go down to celebrity alone, the balance must incline towards the pan with a quick motion.
the claims of him who, without place or power, FOX, n. $. Sax. fox; Belg. vos, vosch, from and acting more as a commentator on great Goth. for. A wild animal of the canine kind, national measures, than as their author, created with sharp ears and a bushy tail, remarkable for for himself a splendor of repatation equal to his cunning, living in holes, and preying upon that of an opponent, who enjoyed nearly through fowls or småll animals; by way of reproach, life the most eminent and efficient station. No applied to a knave or cunning fellow.
antagonist of Godolphin or Harley, of Walpole The sely widewe, and hire daughter troo,
or Pelham, fills so large a space in the eye of the Har len these hennes crie and maken wo;
historian, as these long established dispensers of And out at the doors sterten they anon;
profit and preferment : and even of the great And saw the fox toward the wode is gon,
Chatham it is the glorious administration, not the And bare upon luis back the cok away ;
animated opposition, that is most frequently in They crieden, out harou and wala wa'
the mouths of his admirers. If Fox, therefore, • A ha the foc" and after him they ran
contrary to all former example, contrived, during And eke with staves many another man.
a life of political adversity, to acquire an equal Chaucer. The Nonnes Preestes Tule. The fux barks not when he would steal the lamb.
name with his more fortunate competitor, it is Shakspeare.
natural to ascribe to him a superiority of that He that trusts to you,
genius which captivates popular attention. Where he should find you lions, finds you ha res ;
Mr. Fox was born on the 13th of January, Where fores, geese.
Id. Macbeth. 1749. He was the second son of Henry lord These retreats are more like the dens of robbers, or Holland, who, by a public career in an opposite holes of fores, than the fortresses of fair warriours. direction to that of his son, at once ennobled
Locke. and enriched his family. The former was as Fox, in zoology. See Canis. The fox is a zealous in maintaining, as the latter in resisting, great nuisance to the husbandman, by taking the principles of the court; yet, notwithstanding away and destroying his lambs, geese, poultry, this contrariety of conduct, some features of a &c. The common way to catch him is by gins; family likeness may be traced between the father which being baited, and a train made by drawing and the son. We find in both a certain mascuraw flesh across in his usual paths or haunts to line vigor of character, united with a kind, indulthe gin, it proves an inducement to bring him gent, and affectionate temper; political activity to the place of destruction. The fox is also a with domestic indolence; and an equal ardor beast of chase, and is taken with greyhounds, in public enmities and private friendships. The terriers, &c. See HUNTING.
more pleasing qualities in lord Holland's characFox (Charles James), an illustrious states- ter were remarkably displayed towards his favoman, who took a large and important share in rite boy, whose genius he had sufficient peneall the public business of the British empire, tration very early to discern. To its growth he from 1768 to 1806. The period of Mr. Fox's is reported to have given the fullest scope, by political life was filled with measures of such freeing him from every species of restraint; Interest and magnitude as would have conferred conversing with him on state affairs; and, at celebrity on a meaner agent ; while his talents times, even profiting by his suggestions. His were so considerable as to exalt and dignify even mother was lady Georgina Caroline Lennox, sisthe ordinary course of affairs. His era and ter to the late duke of Richmond, through whom character, therefore, mutually aid each other's he inherited the blood, and even the features, of immortality; and, when taken together, com- the royal house of Stuart; but in character, as mand a double portion of that historical interest has been observed by Mr. Burke, he bore a much which either of them would have separately pos- closer resemblance to Henry IV. of France, anosessed. Another accessary circumstance, which ther of his royal progenitors. He enjoyed the full serves to augment his natural and intrinsic claims advantage of a public education, having been sent to fame, was the distinguished eminence of his to Eton, during the mastership of Dr. Barnard, chief political opponent. The mind, like the and under the private tuition of Dr. Newcome, body, is generally disposed to exert no more of the late primate of Ireland. Pitt spent his boyits power than the occasion reqnires; and, from hood at home, and it is amusing to remark how the want of a sufficient stimulus, many have complete a contrast, in every particular, these allowed their intellectual vigor to degenerate by illustrious men have been destined to exhibit to inaction, and its extent to remain unknown both the world; since they even assist us to appreciate, to others and themselves. But the co-existence in minds nearly of equal force, the comparative and competition of Fox and Pitt tasked the facul- benefits of public and private education. Fox, by mingling with society, and acting in that little the same. At both places he was so lavishly world, where all the principles and passions, supplied with money, that similar supplies which are afterwards to operate in the great one, became necessary to the companions who wished are exercised and disciplined on a narrow scale, to keep pace with him in his amusements; and acquired, together with literary accomplish- larger sums were, about that period, risqued at ments, a wider knowledge of human nature and the gaming table, than was ever previously known human conduct, than his rival ever attained. to be the case, either at school or college. It is There, he was formed to that companionable reported that one member of this dissipated circle cordiality; that open and friend-making benig- demanded of another, in after life, a debt of nity; and that skill to manage, to attach, and to £10,000, which had been contracted while they act with others, which distinguished him through were fellow students. And though the latter life; and probably also to that love of dissipation declared that he never believed this sum to have and profuseness, which can be indulged only in been seriously staked, yet the rate of the frolic society. In Pitt, on the contrary, were seen that may serve, in some measure, as a standard by sobriety and caution, that backwardness and re- which we may estimate the rate of their play. serve, that deficiency in interestingness, attrac- From Oxford Mr. Fox, according to the tion, and power of popular captivation, and fashionable plan of education, set out on a tour perhaps that high sense of his own sufficiency, to the continent, during which his expenses which are too often the effect of privacy and were supplied by his father with an injudicious seclusion, and of the want of an early necessity indulgence, which betrayed him into habits of to conciliate and compare ourselves with others. unbounded extravagance. The present writer is His attachments, we have reason to believe, had enabled to give some idea of the prodigious sums more steadiness than enthusiasm; his manner which he carelessly squandered, having been was more unexceptionable than engaging; and personally informed by an eminent banker, that his conduct more guarded by discretion, than the in the house, of which he was a partner, £100,000 strength of his passions appeared to require. had been paid, by lord H's order, to discharge Fox passed through all the gradations of boy- the debts contracted by his son before he was of hood, youth, and maturity, with that change of age ! On his return to England, and at the age of character which is naturally created by each; nineteen, he was elected into parliament for Midbut Pitt, like the northern year, in which sum- hurst. Here he was the advocate, under the mer commences without any spring, seemed to duke of Grafton, and afterwards under lord leap at once froin infancy to manhood, without North, of the unpopular proceedings against any intervening period of adolescence. Nature Wilkes, and against the liberty of the press; and had, no doubt, laid the foundation of this diffe- drew upon himself the distinction of a sarcasm rence; but what nature began was consummated from Junius. As his talents gave himn early by education.
importance, he was placed, in 1770, on the Though, in the traditionary history of Eton, board of admiralty; and, in 1772, promoted to Mr. Fox is better remembered for his extrava- the Treasury. But on the death of his father in gances than for his literary industry, yet he by no 1774, finding himself possessed not only of a means neglected the proper business of the patrimonial independence, but perhaps too of place. His active and elastic mind found no more freedom of action than he had before enenjoyment in idleness. Dissipation requires fre- joyed, he attached himself to the opposition, quent intervals : and every pause in its pursuit Whether the minister, as has been affirmed, had was occupied by the acquisition of knowledge. disappointed his ambitious solicitations, or was He was not the first scholar of his day, but cer- himself disappointed with Mr. Fox's support in tainly, parvo intervallo proximus. As a specimen some favorite design, it is now almost impossible of his boyish talents, we shall quote from his to discover : but, on the 12th of March, a new school exercises the concluding lines of his commission of treasury was issued; in which, as address to the dove :
lord North laconically informed him, his name Quis cæli tibi claudet iter? dum lumina fallens was not observable. It was fortunate for his
Vana virûm, scindis tuta sub astra fugam. future consistency, that this happened before be Sævit unda maris, moveant insana tumultus had been called upon to deliver any decided
Æquora, et eversas concitet Eurus aquas. opinion on the controversy with America: as be Tu fugis incolumis, volucri pernicior Euro, was thus left free to reprobate, with all his natural Carpis et aerias inviolata vias.
vehemence, the conduct of his former colleagues Garrulitas nostræ quondam temeraria lingu æ
through the whole of that unhappy contest. Indicio prodit multa tacenda levi :
Leagued in the same cause with Mr. Burke, his At tibi vox nulla est ; nec, si loquereris, amoris
penetration enabled him immediately to perceive Furta Cytheriacæ lingua loquatur avis. Hoc Venus ipsa vetat, te sæpe experta fidelem,
and justly to estimate the vast intellectual supeUsa ministeriis in sua furta tuis :
riority of that accomplished senator. Under his Nempe alis invecta tuis, tibi semper amores
tuition he, in a manner, recommenced and rew. Fidit in amplexus Martis ilura Venus.
modelled his political studies; and declared Nunc quoque (dilectam docet hoc Cytherea volu. afterwards that," if all he had learned from other crem)
sources were put in one scale, and what he Nunc quoque amatori, fida columba, fave. had been taught by Burke in the other, the I, pete per cælos nostram festina Susannain, latter would preponderate.' The brilliancy of his Sic mihi, sic Veneri grata futura tuæ.
parliamentary course, during the American war, From Eton he was removed to Oxford, where was attended with more public curiosity than his associates and mode of life continued nearly public favor. We are old enough to remember that he was then less talked of as a statesman, spicuous exertion was on the 19th of February, who could occasionally be a dissolute wit, than 1781, when he was highly complimented by Mr. as a dissolute wit who could occasionally be a Dundas, then opposing him, but probably forestatesman. Business appeared to be a subordi- seeing, with his usual sagacity, the possibility of nale object of his attention: and he was repre- their future concurrence. When the Shelburne sented as one of those intellectual prodigies, in administration was formed, Mr. Pitt became whom singular extremes were united ; whose chancellor of the exchequer, and having thus powers a life of irregularity could neither cloud embraced a party, which Mr. Fox had just innor enfeeble; and who, issuing from the orgies dignantly abandoned, an opposition began beof Brookes's, or the squabbles of Newmarket, tween these two conspicuous statesmeo, which could drop, as if accidently into the senate, and never ceased during the remainder of their lives. astonish the world by unpremeditated invectives, As the latter found himself now embarked in the far surpassing the eloquence of those who had same interest, and contending on the same side, devoted their days and nights to laborious study, with his former opponent, lord North, a daily This procured him universally the familiar and agreement in argument began to blunt the rememcompanionable appellation of Charles Fox, and brance of their past animosity A cordial allito this idol of the sprightly and unscrupulous, ance, indeed, was gradually formed; and they every epigrammatic sally, every gambling anec- united their power, to accomplish another revodote, and every humorous subterfuge to disarm lution in the cabinet. From the number and importuning creditors were at that time ascribed. attachment of their respective adherents, whom Towards the end of the war, however, whether lord Shelburne had not thinned, by the usual exfrom the effect of time, of disgust at dissipation, pedient of a dissolution, this was an easy achieveor of connecting himself with a female compan.on, ment; and, on April 1783, the new allies took which rendered his habits more domestic, he their seat on the treasury bench, Mr. Fox occuseemned to apply his mind more assiduously to pying his former office of foreign secretary. By public affairs, and his parliamentary exertions a step so unexpected, this gentleman lost a portion increased both in frequency and force. In No- of the popular favor, which he never afterwards vember, 1779, in a debate on the address, having recovered. It was thought an indecent violation used some expressions, which were interpreted and public mockery of his previous professions; by Mr. Adam into a personal insult, he was induced suspicions of the apparent simplicity and challenged by that gentleman; and, on the 27th, sincerity of his conduct; and cherished a comreceived a wound, by which he was for some fortless belief that the attachments and aversions time confined. On his recovery, however, he of statesmen are always guided by their interest renewed his attacks with unabated vigor. and convenience. Its defenders pleaded the
The ministry at last, beginning to give way, necessity of constituting a vigorous government, his ardor increased with the prospect of success; which could be effected by no other means; but and he pressed them so powerfully and uncea- those who censured it were more numerous, and singly by his logical invectives, that, in March seemed only on the watch for a favorable occa1782, they were driven from their stations. sion, to make the effects of their censure sub
On the arrangement of a new administration, stantially felt. Such an occasion was soon the office generally held by the premier was presented, by the first business of national imgiven to the marquis of Rockingham; but Mr. portance which occupied the attention of the Fox, and lord Shelburne, the secretaries of state, coalition, as this administration was significantly were understood to be the efficient ministers. named. It was a plan for the better governThe cabinet had no sooner begun their delibera- ment of India. The affairs of the company had, tons for restoring peace, than a considerable under their own uncontroled direction, fallen into difference of opinion, however, was found to great disorder; and had been conducted with exist, particularly with regard to the acknow- such disregard, both to policy and justice, as ledgment of American independence: Mr. Fox was extremely hurtful, not merely to the najudging that it should be made without delay or tional interests in that quarter of the empire, but solicitation, and the States afterwards treated to those of the mercantile sovereigns themselves. with, as an independent power; and the earl of It was absolutely necessary, therefore, that goShelburne that it should be granted as part of vernment should interfere; and a bill, prepared, the concessions, necessary to purchase peace. as is supposed, by Mr. Burke, was brought into On the 1st of July, the marquis of Rockingham parliament by Mr. Fox, soon after its meeting in died, and Mr. Fox, foreseeing that he would be the end of 1783. By this bill, the rights and outvoted in the cabinet, resigned his office. Of property of the company, and the management his motives for this step, which was blamed by of their affairs, were to be vested in a board of several of his friends, as inexpedient and preci- commissioners named by the legislature. It was pitate, he gave a full account, both to parlia- certainly a bold, direct, and unequivocal meament and to the electors of Westminster, who sure; and was supported by its advocates on the had chosen him their representative in 1780. plea that the company, having become insolvent,
The present period was an important one, on were disqualified for the direction of their own many accounts, to Mr. Fox; and more so on affairs, and that no palliative, nothing short of a none, than by introducing to public notice his radical remedy, could be of any avail. The susfuture antagonist, Mr. Pitt. This gentleman picion, however, was very general that its authors, took his seat, in his twenty-second year, for the finding themselves neither the personal favorites bciough of Appleby, in 1780, and his first con- of the crown, nor firmly established in the ap
probation of the country, wished to augment of which the execution fell upon the proposers their strength by seizing a portion of the execu- Mr. Fox displayed his usual ability, and an untive power, and a patronage so valuable as would expected extent of legal erudition, during the soon have enabled them to purchase popular course of this trial, which lasted seven years; support. Though opposed in parliament, as a and began now to acquire that graver character, breach of faith with the company, and as creating essential to the abiding influence of a public an imperium in imperio, prejudicial to the con- man. He appears to have divided his time bestitution, the bill passed the lower house: but tween political business and domestic retirement. the king, if we may credit the universal whisper, For this change he was probably, in part, inbeing alarmed at the prospect of seeing his ser- debted to the embarrassment of his affairs, and vants possess themselves of a power which might partly to his connexion already alluded to, with render them independent of his prerogative, a lady whom he is supposed privately to have communicated his apprehension through lord married in 1780. He is likewise said to have Thurlow to some members of the upper house, had a son, though not by this lady, on whom he by whose influence the bill was rejected. With bestowed an affectionate attention. the failure of this bill, the second short adminis- In the summer of 1788 Mr. and Mrs. For tration of Mr. Fox unexpectedly expired: and made an excursion to the Continent, and were though still supported by a majority of the com- enjoying the charms of Switzerland, when he was mons, by the family interest of the highest and recalled by notice of the king's indisposition, wealthiest nobles, and hy associates of the most aud travelled with a rapidity which evinced the splendid and diversified genius, he was forced ardor of his expectations on this occasion. On by the union of royal and popular displeasure, his arrival, a few days previous to the meeting of to retire into an opposition, which he subse- parliament, he found a doctrine prepared by his quently continued to direct for more than twenty party for its promulgation and support, which we years.
think would scarcely have suggested itself to his To assume the reins of government, in defi- own mind; but wbich he adopted with that inance of such an opposition, required a character dolent facility, and at the same time with that of no ordinary force. Such a one, however, was zeal, which, from constitutional temperament, found in Mr. Pitt, who immediately succeeded to were equally natural to him. This was, that the premiership, and who, contrary, as it was there belonged to the Prince of Wales a right, on contended, to the spirit, thougb not to the letter, the incapacity of the king being declared, to asof the constitution, maintained his place, in con- sume the exercise of the royal authority, in the tradiction to the will of the commons, expressed same way as if the crown had actually demised. by repeated reprehensory votes. But as the na- On the statement of this proposition, Mr. Pitt tional business could not proceed, under such having whispered to a friend that he would now circumstances, and as Mr. Pitt relied securely unwbig his opponent for ever, instantly seized on the favor of the people, parliament was dis- the more constitutional ground of asserting that, solved in March 1784. At the general election, in a case so unprecedented and unprovided for, Mr. Fox, standing again for Westminster, had to it belonged solely to parliament to decide upou combat the whole influence of government, over the means by which the deficient part of the wbich, however, after a tumultuous contest, and legislature should be supplied. Mr. Fox immetedious scrutiny, he finally prevailed. During the diately perceived, from the general opinion, time when the issue of the election was undecided, both within and without the house, that he had he sat for the boroughs of Orkney and Caithness. advanced with too much impetuosity, and was
For some years after, the history of his poli- obliged, next day, to declare, that, though the tical life must chiefly be traced by the measures existence of this right was not retracted, its aswhich he resisted. The first of these was the sertion at present should be waived. But Pitt new India bill, by which the property and con- would not suffer him to escape, without taking cerns of the company were left in their own farther advantage of his error; and, on the 16th hands, but their appointments to office subjected of December, brought the question to a debate, to the control and correction of a board, to be at which the narrator had the felicity of being named by the crown. This plan differed little, present, and of thus seeing the powers of the in some points, from that of Mr. Fox; but, in two greatest men of his age fairly matched and form, was more palateable both to the company fully exerted. Seldom indeed has such a conand the public; and was certainly exempted from test been presented to the world; whether we the charge of a tendency to give undue prepon- consider the splendid theatre in which it was derance to any particular party. Mr. Fox also, exhibited the importance of its consequences during 1785 and 1786, opposed the propositions the greatness and novelty of the subject--the for regulating trade with Ireland, and the treaty eminence and equality of the combatants-or the of commerce concluded with France: but ex- numbers whose eyes were anxiously fixed on its pressed, with a candor which does him the result. highest honor, bis approbation of the measures pur- In Mr. Pitt, who opened the discussion, and sued by the ministry in 1787, for re-establishing whose mind was elevated by the popularity of the Stadtholder, and destroying the French ascen- his cause, were to be admired the clearness and dancy in Holland. But the attention of Mr. Fox precision with which he stated the principles of and his colleagues in opposition, was now, and the constitution; the extent and exactness of his for some succeeding years, principally directed historical knowledge; the luminous arrange to the impeachment of Mr. Hastings ; a measure ment, the consecutive relation, and the increasing which was acquiesced in by administration, but force of his arguments; the aptness and beauty of his illustrations; the classical purity of his poignancy delighted the violent, in every rank expression; the stately richness and magnifi- as much as the graver and more solemn repre. cent swell of his periods; the distinct and sylla- hensions of Pitt were applauded by the lofty. bic emphasis of his articulation; the mellow and Better stored than his rival with general knowmajestic sublimity of his tones; the dignified ledge, and practised in the compression of his enérgy, and commanding animation of his man- thoughts into verse, Fox was richer in allusion, ner; and the disciplined co-operation of all wider in his range of analogy, and more able to these concentrated powers, to overwhelm the give power to his sarcasms, by drawing them to mind with complete and permanent conviction, a focus. On the present occasion, almost every Mr. Fox, on the other hand, was no less dis- sentence was a stinging epigram, and, like a tinguished for the masterly skill with which he Parthian, he inflicted the severest wounds while repaired by eloquence the faults of indiscretion; he retired. In Fox all the parts were separately and for appearing with as much splendor, in excellent, though ungraced by formal connexion. managing a retreat from aukward and imprac- In Pitt the happy connexion gave artificial exticable ground, as his rival in conducting an cellence to the parts. Fox charmed by a attack under every propitious circumstance. By caustic brevity; Pitt by a finished rotundity. rising late, he gave himself credit for having 'Densior ille, hic copiosior: illi nihil adjici wished to decline a contest, which his previous potuit, huic nihil detrahi. Their exertions conexplanation had rendered unnecessary, and of tinued equally brilliant and characteristic, being forced up only by the wretched and pro- during the further progress of the regency bill, voking sophistry of his opponent. Adopting a which was rejected in the upper house on the looseness of method, which seemed excusable, king's recovery. In this affair, the adherents of when thus starting under an involuntary impulse Fox applauded his reverence for the monarchical into the debate, he began, not with the first, nor principles of the constitution; and those of Pitt the last, but with the weakest and most ques- his respect for the supremacy of parliament. It tionable of the opposite positions, exposing its was, however, triumphantly observed by those absurdity, stating it in a variety of ridiculous who disbelieve the existence of political integrity, shapes, challenging a vote upon it under these that the personal interest of each was on the corrected statements, and artfully passing, with side which he embraced : and it may be preslighter notice, or with a happy sarcasm, all that sumed, without any harsh impeachment of their was more invulnerable. With a repetition of sincerity, that they, like other men, were partly his departure from the claim of right, he had the influenced by this coincidence. Quod volumus, address to blend the best arguments for its truth; says Tacitus, facile credimus. and to discuss every part of the subject, in an In 1791 the powerful remonstrances of Mr. argument against the propriety of the discussion. Fox prevented a war with Russia, to which the Confounding, with imperceptible subtlety, the minister was disposed, for the purpose of checkquestion of superior pretension with that of ab- ing the aggrandisement of that extensive empire ; solute right, and giving the mind, by his vehe- and, by preserving Turkey still formidable on mence, no time to make the distinction, he hur- her southern frontier, to counteract any design, ried it on to a belief that Pitt had mistaken the she might afterwards entertain, of making new nature of the constitution, and had uttered sen- aggressions towards the west. The danger of timents the most indecent, and offensive, if not Poland was, we believe, not specified in the disactually seditious. We felt qur ideas, as if cussion, because that kingdom had not been parunder the influence of sorcery, become dim and ticularly threatened; but we know, on the best confused, by a change in the position of their authority, confirmed by the distinct declaration objects, and by the intervention of new ones; of Mr. Dundas on the 13th of December, 1792, seemingly as substantial as those which they that it was what chiefly influenced the minister eclipsed. We were conscious, for the moinent, in proposing an armed interference. From this of two co-existent, yet contradictory, impressions; affair we may learn the shortness of political a conviction of Pitt's doctrine, and astonishment foresight. Mr. Fox, by preventing the embarthat it could have been produced, by arguments rassment of Russia, promoted the final partition so false, so absurd, and so detestable. Decep- of Poland, an event which took place almost tion, we knew, must somewhere have existed, immediately after, and which he never ceased to but we were unable to detect it, while undulating deplore: wbile, if Mr. Pitt had been indulged on the line between two parallel but contrary in his project, he would have weakened, with a currents. In his satire, Pitt kept at a dignified view to maintain the balance of Europe, that distance from his adversary, seldom applying power which, with the same view, it soon became harsh or contemptuous epithets to bis reasonings, his object to strengthen to the utmost. but contenting himself with showing what they The French revolution had now taken place, deserved by their refutation; and contriving, and Mr. Fox, on the 9th of February, 1790, prowith a proud forbearance from personal severity, nounced its unqualified panegyric, declaring not as unworthy of his opponents, but of him- that this event was the most glorious effort of self, to involve in general remarks the most human wisdom, for the promotion of human galling censure of their principles. Fox, on the happiness;' Mr. Burke, if not more wisely, more contrary, grappled closely and familiarly with warily remarked, 'I do not rejoice to hear that his foe; frequently introducing with objurgatory men may do what they please, unless I know epithets the argument by wbich they were to be what it pleases them to do' On this topie Mr. justified. For this he was peculiarly qualified, Fox had ultimately the disappointment of drawby his concise and pointed style; of which the ing on himself the bitter censure of his friead