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may be able to defend themselves, for a considerable moor, twelve north-east of Inverness, and 165 time, against the assaults of a numerous army without. north of Edinburgh.

Harris.

FORT AUGUSTINE, and FORT WILLIAM, were The Phænicians, though an unwarlike nation, yet fortresses of Inverness, of some consequence in the understood the art of fortification.

Broome. last rebellion in favor of the house of Stuart. They battle it beyond the wall, and not

The former had accommodation for 400, the As in late midnight conflict in the very

latter for 2000 troops: it was the garrison of Chambers : the palace has become a fortress Inverlochy in Cromwell's time. But orders were Since that insidious hour; and here within issued by goverument in 1818 to dismantle both The very centre, girded by vast courts

these forts. And legal halls of pyramid proportions,

Fort Sr. David, a town of Hindostan, situaWhich must be carried one by one before, ted on the coast of the Carnatic, and on the river They penetrate to where they then arrived :

Tripapolore. Two other rivers of considerable We are as much shut in even from the sound

size are found in this neighbourhood; and the Of peril as from glory. Byron. Sardanapalus.

town is the emporium of the country for fine FORT (Francis Le), a Russian military and dimitties and painted cottons. An English facnaval commander, was descended from a noble tory was established here as early as 1686 or 1691, family of Geneva, where he was born in 1656. when a small territory was purchased from a At the age of fourteen he entered the French Mahratta rajah. When Madras was captured service; but afterwards, in hopes of preferment, by the French in 1746, the English were bejoined a German colonel who was enlisting á sieged here, but made a successful resistance. body of men for the czar Alexis. He returned The town was taken however in 1785, by M. de with him to Moscow, and became secretary to Lally, and the fortifications destroyed. It is fifthe Danish resident there. The young czar,

teen miles S. S. W. of Pondicherry, and 100 Peter, now made him a captain of foot and S.S. W. of Madras. his confidant. Le Fort suggested to this ori- Fort William. See CALCUTTA. ginal despot many of his plans for the improve- FORTALICE, in Scots law, signified anment of Russia. Being employed to raise a body ciently a small place of strength, originally built of 12,000 men intended to awe the Strelitzes, he for the defence of the country; and which on was made their general. Soon after created an that account was formerly reckoned inter regalia, admiral; and, though previously unacquainted and did not go along with the lands upon which with maritime affairs, was very useful in form- it was situated without a special grant from the ing the commencement of the Russian marine. crown. Now, fortalices are carried by a general In 1696 his conduct at the seige of Asoph was grant of the lands; and the word is become syso admirable that the czar gave him the chief nonymous with manor place, messuage, &c. command of his troops both by land and sea. FORTESCUE (Sir John), lord high chanHe was also appointed to the government of cellor of England, under Henry VI., was deNovogorod, and the first place in the ministry. scended from an ancient family'in Devonshire. On the czar's determination to travel he created He studied the municipal law in Lincoln's Inn, Le Fort his ambassador to the different courts of which he was made a governor, in the fourth he intended to visit, and travelled in his train as and seventh years of Henry VI. In 1430 he a private person. He retained his influence was made a serjeant at law, and, in 1441, king's until his death, which happened at Moscow in serjeant. In 1442 he was made lord chief 1699.

justice of the king's bench; and afterwards lord Fort GEORGE, a fortress in the county of Inver- high chancellor. During the reign of Edward ness, Scotland, situated on a low peninsula, pro. IV. he was many years in exile with queen jecting from the south side upwards of a mile Margaret and prince Edward her son. When into the Moray frith. It is an irregular polygon they returned to England, Sir John Fortescue of six bastions, constructed on the principles of accompanied them, but soon after the decisive Vauban, and mounting eighty pieces of ordnance. battle of Tewksbury, he was thrown into prison All the sides but one are washed by the sea : and attainted, with other Lancastrians ; but was the one facing the land is defended by a ditch pardoned by Edward IV. He wrote, 1. A that may be kept wet or dry at pleasure, a Commentary on the Politic Laws of England; to ravelin, lunettes, a covered way, and glacis. one edition of which Selden wrote notes. 2. These communicate with the body of the fort by The difference between an absolute and a lidraw-bridges. Although the position is low, mited Monarchy, as it more particularly regards no neighbouring ground commands it; and its the English constitution (which was published, guns ranging on the sea fronts, from shore to with some remarks, by John Fortescue, aftershore of the frith, protect the entrance of the bay wards lord Fortescue, in 8vo. in 1714, and a leading to the Caledonian canal. Within the second edition was published with amendments, works are barracks for 3000 troops, good quar- in 1719): and several works which still remain ters for a governor and staff, bomb-proof maga- in Ms.' He died, nearly ninety years of age, zínes, an armoury, chapel, storehouses, hospital, and was buried in the parish church of Ebburton, workshops, excellent water, &c. In two of the where a monument was erected to his memory curtains are bomb-proof casemates, where a con- in 1677. siderable number of men could retire. This FORTEVENTURA, or FUERTEVENTURA, one fort was begun in 1746, and completed in 1764. of the Canary Isles, and next to Teneriffe the It has since been frequently garrisoned by High- largest of the group, is about fifty miles in length, land regiments. It is ten miles north of Culloden and twenty-four in its greatest breadth; it con

tains several large sandy plains, and is inferior Ev'n that sunshine brewed a shower for him, in fertility and population to several others of this That washed his father's fortunes forth of France. group. The camel has been introduced here, it is

1d. said, with advantage. In those spots which are

You, cousin, sufficiently watered, vegetation is luxuriant, and

Whom it concerns to hear this matter forth, corn is an object of exportation. The goats are

Do with your injuries as seems you best.

Id. numerous, and their flesh excellent: a great part

And here's a prophet that I brought with me of their milk is made into cheese. Of late years

From forth the streets of Pomfret.

Id. soda has been produced on the coast; and in

Carry this mad knave to jail : I charge you see that 1798 49,373 quintals were exported to Teneriffe.

he be forthcoming. Id. T'aming of the Shrew.

Here's a maze trod, indeed,
The principal towns are Pajara, Oliva, and St.
Maria de Betencuria, the last being so called

Through forthrights and meanders.

Id. Tempest.

Neither did the martial men dally or prosecute the from De Bethencourt, the first settler in the service faintly, but did forthwith quench that fire. Canaries. The population is estimated by St.

Davies on Ireland. Vincent at 8600, by Humboldt at 9000. In

Some forth their cabins peep, 1745 it was only 7382. Long. 14° W. and lat. And trembling ask what news, and do hear so 28° S.

As jealous husbands, what they would not know, FORTH, adv. & prep. Sax. ford, whence

Domne. Fortu'COMING, adj.

further and furthest. You may set forth the same with farmhouses. FORTH'ISSUING, The Saxon word is

Peacham, FORTI'RIGHT, adv. from old Fr. fors, says The notes of wrath, the musick brought from hell,

Forthwith began these fury-moving sounds, Forri'WITH. Mr. Tooke, as that is The rattling drums.

Daniel's Civil War. from the Latin foris, the door. Forward, 'foreout,' or out beyond the door; onward in time Of sov'reign power, throughout the host proclaim

The winged heralds, by command or place; abroad: hence beyond any limit or

A solemn council forthwith to be held boundary of place or character; completely or At Pandæmonium.

Milton's Paradise Lost. thoroughly out; and as a preposition, out of. He ever going so just with the horse, either forthForthcoming is coning, or ready to come ; for- right or turning, that it seemed as he borrowed the ward. Forthright, straight-forward. Forthwith, horse's body, so he lent the horse his mind. Sidney. immediately; with promptitude, forwardness, or The river not running forthrighi, but almost contireadiness : forward, onward in time.

nually winding, as if the lower streams would return For then the nightingale, that all the day

tu their spring, or that the river had a delight to play with itself.

Id. Had in laurer sete, and did hire might The whole service to sing longing to May;

But when your troubled country called you forth, All sodainly, began to take hire fight;

Your faming courage, and your matchless worth,

To fierce contention gave a prosperous end. Waller. And to the lady of the lefe forthright, She flow, and set hire on hire hand softly;

Mad Pandarus steps forth, with vengeance vowed

For Bitias' death. Which was a thing I mervailed at gretly.

Dryden's Æneid. Chaucer. The Floure and the Leafe.

When winter past, and Summer scarce begun, And when this prince, this lustie knight,

luvites them forth to labour in the sun. Dryden. With his peple in armes bright,

Thither forthright he rode to rouse the prey. Id. Was comen where he thought to pas;

In his passage thither one put into his hand a note And knew, well, none abiding wos

of the whole conspiracy, desiring him to read it forthBehind, but all were there present;

with, and to remember the giver of it as long as he lived.

South. Forthwith anon, all his intent He told them there. Id. Boke of the Duchesse.

I repeated the Ave Maria : the inquisitor bad me From that day forth I loved that face divine ;

say forth; I said I was taught no more.

Memoir in Strype. From that day forth I cast in careful mind To seek her out.

Faerie Queene.

Hence we learn, how far forth we may expect justi

fication and salvation from the sufferings of Christ; They will privily relieve their friends that are forth; they will seng the enemy secret advertise

no further than we are wrought on by his renewing grace.

Hammond. inents ; and they will not also stick to draw the enemy privily upon them.

Spenser.

Forthissuing thus, she gave him first to wield
Arrived there, they passed in forthright;

A weighty ax, with truest temper steeled,
And double edged.

Pope's Odyssey. For still to all the gate stood open wide.

Faerie Queene.

I understand thee—thou would'st have me go Forthwith he runs, with feigned faithful haste,

Forth as a conqueror. By all the stars Unto his guest; who, after troublous sights

Which the Chaldeans read! the restless slaves And dreams, 'gan now to take more sound repast.

Deserve that I should curse them with their wishes,

And lead them forth to glory. Byron. Sardanapalus.

Spenser. Few things are so restrained to any one end or

Since it must be, and this churl has checked purpose, that the same being extinct, they should Thy gentle spirit, go; but recollect forthwith utterly become frustrate.

Hooker. That we must forthwith meet : I had rather lose Look at the second admonition, and so forth, where An empire than thy presence they speak in most unchristian manner. Whitgifte.

Fortu, in geography, one of the finest rivers We'll see your trinkets here forthcoming all.

of Scotland, and the largest of the island of Great Shukspeare. Henry VI.

Britain. It takes its rise in the Lomond hills; Uncle, I must come forth.

Id. Othello. I have no mind of feasting forth to-night.

and, running from west to east, receives, in its

Shakspeare. passage, many considerable streams, derivin Attend you here the door of our stern daughter? their waters from the eminences in the midland Will she got forth?

Id.

counties of Scotland. Between Stirling and

Alloa, it winds in a most beautiful and pictu- dance of fish. Whales have frequented it during resque manner: so that, though it is but four several centuries: the porpoise is common. At miles by land, it is twenty-four by water between Stirling salmon are exceedingly plentiful; cod those two places. Below Alloa the river ex- and haddocks are taken in great quantities; and pands itself to a great breadth between the coun- it is frequented by myriads of herrings. At ties of Lothian and Fife, till at Queensferry times these are so plentiful that they are sold at It is contracted by promontories shooting into the cheap rate of sixpence a hundred. Crabs it from both coasts; so that, from being four are caught in many places ; lobsters are not rare, to five miles broad, it becomes not above two but bear a much higher price; and oysters and miles. Here in the middle of the channel lies muscles are in great profusion. Valuable minea small island called Inchgarvy, and, a little rals are obtained from almost every part of the below that, those of Inchcolm and Inch-keith. environing shores. The beds of coal are inexThe north and south shores receding, below baustible, apparently lying under the whole bed Queensferry, the body of the water gradually en- of the river between Čulross and Borrowstownlarges till it becomes two or three leagues broad, ness. Lime is wrought on both sides, but chiefly affording several safe harbours on both sides, and at Charleston, in the county of Fife, about thirexcellent roads throughout, unembarrassed with teen miles north-west of Edinburgh. Along the latent rocks, shoals, or sands; and allowing se- coast numerous petrifactions occur. Ironstone cure anchorage to the largest ships within a league is plentifully obtained from pits, or collected in of the coast in almost any part of the Frith, and scattered nodules ; and small portions of fine to vessels of a smaller size within a mile or less. jasper are frequently seen. The Forth contains The Forth was known to the ancients by the several islands, of which the chief are Inchgarvie, name of Bodotria, or, as Ptolemy calls it, Bode- Inchcolm, Inchkeith, the Bass, and the isle of ria, and has been ever famous for the number of May. Light-houses are erected on Inchkeith its havens. It is navigable for merchantmen as and on the Isle of May; and the ruins of castles high as Alloa, fifty miles from the sea ; and, for or religious houses appear on all the islands. coasters, as far as Stirling, twenty-four miles The towns connected with the river, though they, further by water, though only four by land in a in general, drive a brisk trade, are principally direct line, as already observed. The tide flows small; for, excepting Stirling, Alloa, and Leith, only a full mile above Stirling. The direct few of them contain 3000 inhabitants. Batteries course of this river is scarcely less than 100 miles, have been erected on different parts of the banks, and its sinuosities do not occupy a shorter space as also on the island of Inchcolm, for the purthan 200. Its depth is from three to thirty-seven pose of protecting the channel. fathoms, or more; the bottom, in many or per- 1774 it was proposed to render the Forth navihaps most places, covered with 'sleach, especially gable from Stirling bridge to Gartmore, and to above the ferries. The principal tributary rivers cut a canal in a straight line from Stirling to of the Forth are the Goodie, Teith, and Allan, Alloa, whereby the navigation would be shortened above Stirling bridge; and, below it, the Devon, from twenty-four miles to six. At a later period, Carron, Avon, Almond, Leith, Esk, Leven, Tyne, namely, in 1806, a project was entertained of and others: these chiefly flow into the river on excavating a tunnel under the bed of the river, the south shore. A navigable canal, com- to obviate the interruption which passengers trencing near Grangemouth, communicates with experience at the two ferries, and elsewhere, from te Clyde.

occasional storms; but, after an elaborate survey, In the Forth are found great variety and abun- the plan was abandoned.

In the year

FORTIFICATION.

FORTIFICATION. The origin of fortification exercise : they afforded sufficient space for the was doubtless that principle of rapacity, which defenders to use them as stations for attack, and has influenced too many of mankind in all ages they were crowned by other and smaller works, and nations to invade the rights and properties through which they discharged missiles. Long of those whom they considered weak or defence- before Rome was founded, the ancient Grecians less. In the first ages of the world men were used brick, and rubble stone, with which they dispersed over the earth in separate families, as built a vast wall, joining Mount Hymettus to the appears in the records of the Jews and Scythi- city of Athens. The Babylonian walls, built by ans, and they wandered from place to place in Semiramis

, or, as others state, by Belus, were search of pasture for their cattle. But families thirty-two feet thick, and 100 feet high, with soon became numerous, and formed large com- towers ten feet higher built upon them, cemented munities which settled in one place; even with bitumen or asphaltus. Those of Jerusalem before the deluge the earth was filled with vio- seem to have come but little short of them, since, lence,' and towns and cities arose. It was now

in the siege by Titus, all the Roman batteringfound necessary, for the common security, to rams, joined with Roman art and courage, could surround these towns with walls, and the first, remove but four stones out of the tower of of course, were of the simplest construction; Antonia in the assault of a whole night. they were single, and perhaps perforated. Then The square towers at first used would suffi. they were built of more solid materials; the ciently protect every part of the wall, adjacen best arts of masonry were here called into to the sides of these towers. But, as there al. ways remained one of the faces of the towers tance from each other, as are those still to be seen which fronted the field that could not be seen at Antwerp, their gorges narrow, and their flanks from any other part, the circular form was early and faces short. For the invariable practice preferred. This had also the recommendation then, and for some time after the introduction of presenting a better resistance to battering of them, was to attack the curtains and not the engines

. Still there remained parts of these faces of the bastions. But since that time they towers unseen and incapable of being defended; have been considerably improved and enlarged, which caused a second change in their figure, and are now arrived to that degree of strength, i. e. they made them square as before; but, that it has been a received opinion, that the art instead of presenting a face to the field as for- of fortification is at its height, and incapable of merly, they presented an angle, the origin of our being carried to greater perfection. This, howmodern bastion; and thus was effected such a ever, Mr. Glenie, p. 9, Military Construction, disposition of the works, that no part could be disputes, and M. Carnot seemed resolved, a few attacked without being seen or defended from years since, to confirm his opinions as to all some other part. Ditches were added; and past methods. thus remained long stationary the art of fortifi- Offensive fortification is a term improperly cation : indeed until the invention of that terri- applied to the besieging and taking fortified ble assailant gunpowder. This entirely changed places; it is said further to teach a general how the mode of attack, and by consequence that of to take all advantages for his troops; the manner defence.

of encamping, and method of carrying on either In the history of fortification we find this a regular or irregular siege, according as circumobvious division, and we need not take back the stances may direct. It may with much greater modern reader beyond the period of this cele- propriety be called the war of sieges. See brated invention.

SIEGES. When the besiegers began regularly to use Fortification has been sometimes treated of artillery, it became requisite that the besieged under the terms regular and irregular. should also employ it; and, to furnish room for Regular fortification is that which is erected this, a rampart was first raised behind and close according to the rules of art, and is particularly to the main wall of fortresses : the towers were applied to a construction made from a figure or enlarged; and the smaller walls were thickened polygon, which has all its sides and angles equal. by parapets of earth behind, so as to secure the The Aanked or salient angles in such a foruficabesieged from the fire of the enemy.

tion are equal to one another, equally distant For a length of time fortified towns were from one another, and are each of them at the placed, by these means, in a situation to take distance of about that of serious musket shot their full advantage of the new art of war. from the flanks which defend it. For an irreSieges were by no means diminished in their gular fortification having the flanked angles, as ordinary length: a wall of Magdebourg is re- also the flanks and lines of defence, unequal, corded to have received 1550 cannon-shot, in the may be constructed from the sides of a regular early part of the seventeenth century, without polygon, as well as froni those of an irregular injury to it. If the siege of an important place polygon, by drawing the perpendiculars to the was not early successful, it generally terminated regular polygon from points different from those in the loss of the major part of those who as- of their bisections. See Glenie's General Rule saulted it.

for Irregular Construction. But the great modern proficient in this art, M. Irregular fortification, on the contrary, is Vauban, now appeared, and effected at the end of that where the sides and angles are not uniform, the seventeenth century a complete revolution in equi-distant, or equal; which is owing to the it. He invented a method of attack, against which irregularity of the ground, valleys, rivers, hills, no mode of defence hitherto adopted has been &c. able finally to stand; and though, during the Most fortifications are a mixture of regular latter part of his life, he applied his great talents and irregular works. The position of waters, also to a system of defence, upon which hills, and other principal geographical features Coehorn, Cormontaingne, and others as of a site of ground, previous plans adopted, shall see have improved, nothing has as yet fully and various other considerations induce the counteracted the mode of ricochet firing intro- ablest engineer to be content with arriving only duced by this celebrated commander at the at the utmost practical regularity. In this arsiege of Ath. We shall not fail, in the sketch ticle, therefore, we shall pursue the main divisions of this art that follows, to include every princi- of permanent and field® fortification, as embrapal suggestion that has been made on this sub- cing all the principal topics we need discuss; ject, and, among others, the plan of M. Carnot, and shall present under each a brief sketch of the so justly celebrated for his mathematical skill and most approved systems from that of M. Vauban military talents. But we have completely satis- downwards. We shall subjoin a few observafied ourselves that the vertical fire on which he tions on the mode of attacking fortified places. mainly relies is a chimera. Modern fortification treats of the plan of de

PART I. fence now used, i.e. turning the walls into ram- OF PERMANENT FORTIFICATIONS. parts, and square and round towers into bastions,

Sect. I.-M. VAUBAN's First SYSTEM. defended by numerous outworks; all which are made so solid that they cannot be beaten down, M. Vauban was clearly indebted to his predecesbut by the continual fire of batteries. These sor in this art, the count de Pagan, for his general bastions at first were small, and at a great dis- definitions and dispositions, especially in his first

we

system. The former has the same divisions of arcs, their parts a b, bc, &c., together with these the art into little, mean, and great fortifications, arcs, will represent the outline of the ditch. &c. But his line of defence was too long to It will be now necessary to attend to the folallow the musquetry fire of the flanks to bear lowing Definition of Terms:-1. The part, properly, and his ravelins were two small. The FEALN, is called the bastion. 2. A E, A L, farge size of his orillons was also objectionable, the fuces of the bastion. 3. E F, L N, the flanks. and the faces of his cavaliers were not flanked. 4. F G, the curtain. _5. FN, the gorge of the Vauban also materially improved his covert bastion. 6. AG, BF, the lines of defence. 7. way. His first system adopted, as we said, Pagan's A B, the exterior side of the polygon. 8. CD, divisions of little, mean, and great fortification; the perpendicular. 9. Any line, which divides a by the first he intended the construction of ci- work into two equal parts, is called the capital tadels; by mean fortification, that of all sorts of of that work. 10. abc, the counterscarp of the towns; and by great, that of particular and im- ditch. 11. A, M, the flanked angles. 12. H, portant places. We shall give the construction E, L, the angles of the shoulder, or the shoulder of the mean as being most useful; and refer only. 13. G, F, N, the angles of the flank. 14. to the table hereafter inserted for those dimen- Any angle whose point turns from the place is sions which are different in other fortifications. called a saliunt angle, such as AM: and any

Inscribe in a circle a polygon of as many angle whose point turns towards the place, resides as the fortification is designed to have entering angle, such as b, F, N. 15. If two fronts; let AB, fig. 1, FORTIFICATION, plate I. be lines be drawn parallel to the principal or outone of the sides of half an hexagon, which bi- line, the one at three toises distance, and the sect by the perpendicular CD; divide half of other at eight from it; then the space yr init A C into nine equal parts, and one of these cluded between the principal one and that farthest into ten others; then these divisions will serve distant, is called the rampart. And the space as a scale to construct all parts of the fortifica- xx, contained by the principal line, and that tion, and each of them is supposed to be a toise near to it, and which is generally stained black, or fathom, that is six French feet; and, there- is called the parapet. 16. There is a fine line fore, the whole side A B is supposed to be 180 drawn within four feet of the parapet, which extoises. As the dividing a line into so many equal presses a step called banquette. parts is very troublesome, it is much easier to N. B. All works have a parapet of three have a scale of equal parts by which the works toises thick, and a rampart of eight to ten, bemay be constructed.

sides their slopes. If, therefore, in this case, the radius is taken 17. The rampart is elevated more or less above equal to 180 toises, and the circle described with the level of the place, from ten to twenty feet, that radius be divided into six equal parts, or according to the nature of the ground and the the radius be carried six times round, we shall particular constructions of engineers. have an hexagon inscribed; A B being bisected 18. The parapet is a part of the rampart eleby the perpendicular C D as before, set off thirty vated from six to seven feet and a half above toises from C to D, and draw the indefinite the rest, in order to cover the troops which are lines A DG, B D F; in which take the parts A E, drawn up there from the fire of the enemy in a BH, each equal to fifty toises; from the centre siege ; and the banquette is two or three feet E describe an arc through the point H, meeting higher than the rampart, or about four feet lower AD in G, and from the centre H describe an than the parapet; so that when the troops stand arc through the point E, meeting B D in F; or, upon it, they may just be able to fire over the which is the same, make each of the lines EG, parapet. HF, equal to the distance E H; then the lines 19. The body of the place, is all that which is joining the points A, B, F, G, H, B, will be the contained within the first rampart; for which principal or outline of the front.

reason it is often said to construct the body of If the same construction be performed on the the place; which means, properly, the construcother sides of the polygon, we shall have the prin- tion of the bastions and curtains. cipal or outline of the whole fortification. If, 20. All the works which are constructed bewith a radius of twenty toises, there be de- yond the ditch before the body of the place are scribed circular arcs, from the angular points, called outworks. B, A, M, T, and lines drawn from the oppo- M. Vauban gives the following Table of Disite angles, E, H, &c., so as to touch these mensions :

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Sides of polygons . 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 260 Perpendiculars . . 10 11 12 14 15 16 20 21 23 25 30 31 25 32

20 20 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 is

200 26

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