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FONTANA (Felix), a distinguished Italian but, it being there found inferior to the preparaphysiologist and philosopher, was born 15th of tions already existing in the Ecole de Medicine, April 1730, at Pomarolo, in the Tyrol.
it was sent to Montpelier. Fontana was latterly "He began his education at Roveredo, and engaged in the preparation of a colossal model pursued it in the schools of Verona and Parma; of a man, built up anatomically of all his comwhence he was afterwards removed to the uni- ponent parts, represented in wood; but this deversities of Padua and Bologna. He then sign he never completed. Wearing the habit of visited Rome, and Florence, where he obtained an ecclesiastic (though he never, we believe, took from the emperor Francis I., then grand duke of orders), Fontana was called abbé, and treated Tuscany, the appointment of professor of philo with great respect by the French generals on their sophy at Pisa; but the grand duke Peter Leopold irruptions into Tuscany in 1799; a circumstance (also afterwards emperor) invited him to settle which gave rise to a jealousy on the part of his at Florence, and gave him an establishment as Imperial patrons, and he was for a short time imfisico or naturalist, and director of the cabinet prisoned, on the re-establishment of the Austrian of natural history to his household. In 1757 authorities. His last illness arose from a fall Fontana engaged in an investigation, tending to from his horse, in January 1806: he died the 9th confirm the doctrines of Haller respecting the of March of that year, and was buried near the irritability of the muscles, considered as a dis- tomb of Galileo, in the church of the Holy Cross, tinct inherent quality of those organs, and Haller Florence. published several of his letters as a part of his FONTANA (George), a distinguished Italian maown Memoires upon that subject, Florence, 1775. thematician, brother of the preceding, was born One of the most important of Fontana's works in 1735, and educated at Roveredo and Rome, is his Ricerche fisiche sopra 'l veneno della vi- where he entered the order of the Pia Schola. pera, Lucca, 1767; containing a great variety He early formed an intimacy with the marquis of experiments, calculated to show that the poi- Julio Fagnani, who inspired him with a taste for son of the viper acts by mixing with the blood, the mathematics. In 1763 count de Firmian apand destroying the irritability of the muscles to pointed him professor of logic and metaphysics, which it is conveyed. In 1766 our author pub- and director of the library, at Pavia. Five years lished an essay entitled Nuove Osservazioni after, he succeeded Boscovitch in the chair of masopra i Globetti rossi del Sangue, confuting the thematics, and filled it with the greatest reputaassertions which had lately been advanced by tion during nearly thirty years. In 1796 he was Della Torre, respecting the complicated struc- appointed a member of the legislative body of ture and changes of form of the globules of the the Cisalpine republic. After the battle of Mablood. In the next year Osservazioni sopra la rengo, having become professor emeritus of the Ruggine del Grano, describing an animalcule university, he removed to Milan. On the new like an eel, to which he attributes the rust of organization of the republic of Italy, he became coin. There is also a Lettre sur l'ergot. Journ. a member of the electoral college De' Dotti; but, Phys. VII. p. 42. The Lettera sopra le Ida- in the midst of his literary and political labors, tidi e le Tenie, Opuscoli Scelti. VI. p. 108, was seized by a violent fever, which caused his Milan, 1783, contains an account of the hydatids death, August the 24th, 1803. which produce the symptoms of vertigo in sheep. FONTÄNES (M. de), a political writer and
Fontana entered also minutely, but not very member of the French Institute, was born of a accurately, into the chemical discoveries which noble family at Mort in 1761. He edited in occupied so much attention throughout Europe the commencement of the French revolution a in the latter half of the last century, and seems journal, entitled The Moderator, and after the to have had the merit of first applying the disco- fall of Robespierre joined La Harpe and others veries of Priestley respecting nitric oxide to the in Le Memorial, which was, together with about examination of the qualities of the atmosphere, forty more of the same description, suppressed by means of the eudiometer. This is the subject by the National Convention on the 6th of of his Descrizione e usi di alcuni stromenti per September, 1797, the proprietors, editors, &c., misurar la salubrità dell'aria, 8vo. Flor. 1774, being all included in a common sentence of ba4to. 1775; and it is further illustrated in his nishment. M. de Fontanes now came to EngRecherches Physiques sur la Nature de l'Air land, where he contracted an intimacy with M. Dephlogistique et de l'Air Nitreux, 8vo. Par. 1776. de Chateaubriand, in company with whom he The Philosophical Transactions for 1779, p. 187, returned to his native country, and joined Ontain his Experiments and Observations on Messrs. Ronald and La Harpe in conducting the Inflammable Air breathed by various Ani- the Mercure de France. Shortly after he obmals, consisting of a repetition of Scheele's at- tained a seat in the corps legislatif, of which tempt to breathe hydrogen gas. To the Memoirs body he becaine the president. In 1808 he was of the Italian Society Fontana also contributed appointed grand-master of the university of several short essays.
Paris; and, in 1814, possessing the dignity of a la 1790 our author remarks that his chemical senator, he made a decided speech in favor of the pursuits had, of late, been interrupted by the restoration of the Bourbons. He was placed on
ention required for the completion of his the committee for drawing up the constitutional wax models of anatomical subjects, and by the charter; and, on the re-establishment of that duplicates which he was preparing for the ca- body, raised to the peerage. M. de Fontaines binet of Vienna at the request of the emperor. At died at Paris, March 17th, 1821. a later period, a series of copies of these models FONTENELLE (Bernard de), a celebrated was ordered by Buonaparte to be sent to Paris; French author, born in 1657. He discharged VOL. IX.-Part 2,
the office of perpetual secretary to the Academy F. antipyretica, with purple stalks. The of Sciences above forty years with universal ap- Scandinavians line the insides of their chimneys plause; and his History of that Academy throws with this moss, to defend them against the fire; great light upon their memoirs. In his poetical for, contrary to the nature of other mosses, it is performances, and his Dialogues of the Dead, difficult of combustion. the spirit of Voiture was discernible, though FOOD, n. s. Gr. BoTEIV; Low German, more extended and more philosophical. His FOOD'Ful, adj. fode, or foder; Sax. fæ ban; Plurality of Worlds is a singular work, the Food'y, adj. S Dutch, veeden, to feed ; Scot. design of which was to present that part of phi- feed. The general term for what is eaten : regilosophy to view in a pleasing dress. In his men and diet are specific; both are particular advanced years, he published comedies, which modes of living: the latter respects the quality of were little fitted to the stage; and An Apology food; the former the quantity, as well as quality. for Des Cartes's Vortices. Voltaire, who de- Food specifies no circumstances, and is appliclares him to have been the most universal genius cable to all living creatures. See Crabbe. Food, the age of Louis XIV. produced, says, "We then, is victuals; provision for the mouth; any must excuse his comedies, on account of his thing that nourishes: the adjectives signify full age, and his Cartesian opinions, as they were of food; plenteous : eatable; fit for food. those of his youth.' He died in 1756, nearly 100 Worldely fode and sustenaunce I desire none; years old.
Soche living as I finde, soch wol I take, FONTENOY, a village of France, in the depart- Rotes that growen on the craggy stone ment of Yonne, and ci-devant duchy of Bur- Shal me suffise with water of the lake. gundy, remarkable for a bloody battle, in 841,
Chaucer. Lament of Mary Magdeleine. between the Germans and the French, in which
On my knees I beg, the Germans were defeated, and above 100,000 That you'll vouchsafe me raiment, bed, and food. men killed. It lies twenty miles south-east of
Give me some musick ; musick, moody food FONTEVRAULD, a town of France, in the Of us that trade in love. Id. Antony and Cleopatra. department of Maine and Loire, and late pro
O dear son Edgar, vince of Anjou ; famous for its abbey, in the
The food of thy abused father's wrath,
Might I but live to see thee in my touch, church of which several kings and queens of
I'd say I had eyes again. id. King Lear. England lie interred. It is six miles south-east
To vessels, wine she drew; of Saumur, and 160 south-west of Paris.
And into well-sewed sacks poured foody meal. FONTEVRAULD, or FRONTEVAUX, ORDER OF, in
Chapinan. ecclesiastical history, a religious order instituted Under my lowly roof thou hast vouchsafed by Robert d'Arbrissel, about the end of the To enter, and these earthly fruits to taste; eleventh century; taken under the protection of Food not of angels, yet accepted so, the holy see, by pope Pascal II. in 1106; con As that more willingly thou could'st not seem firmed by a bull in 1113, and invested by his
At heaven's high feasts t' have fed. Milton. successors with extraordinary privileges. The They give us food, which may with nectar vie, chief of this order is a female, who is appointed and was that does the absent sun supply. Waller. to inspect both the monks and the nuns. It is There Tityus was to see, who took his birth divided into four provinces, which are those of From heaven, his nursing from the food ful earth. France, Aquitaine, Auvergne, and Bretagne, in
Dryden. each of which they have several priories.
Food. Although in the article ALIMENT we FONTICULUS, or FONTANELLA, in surgery, have presented the reader with extensive Tables an issue, seton, or small ulcer, made to eliminate of human food, and in that of MEDICINE and the latent corruption of the body.
STOMACH purpose to treat more fully of the modern FONTINALIA, or FONTANALIA, in antiquity, theories of digestion, we feel disposed here a religious feast held among the Romans in honor to offer for the benefit of our unprofessional of the deities who presided over fountains or readers some general observations on the subject springs. Varro says, it was the custom to visit of diet, in the course of which we shall be the wells on those days, and to cast crowns into largely indebted to the late valuable work of Dr. fountains. Scaliger, in his conjectures on Varro, Paris on this subject. takes this not to be a feast of fountains in general, The most remarkable distinction of foods, in as Festus insinuates, but of the fountain which a medical view, is into those which are already had a temple at Rome, near the Porta Capena, assimilated into the animal nature, and such as called also Porta Fontinalis; and that of this are not. Of the first kind are animal substances fountain Cicero speaks in his second book De in general; which, if not entirely similar, are Legibus. The fontinalia were held on the 13th nearly so, to our nature. The second compreof October
hends vegetables, which are much more difficultly FONTINALIS, water moss, in botany, a assimilated. But as the nourishinent of all anigenus of the natural order of musci, belonging to mals, even those which live on other animals, the cryptogamia class. The anthera is hooded ; can be traced originally to the vegetable kingdom, the calyptra, or covering of the anthera, sessile, it is plain, that the principle of all nourishment enclosed in a perichætium or empalement of leaf- is in vegetables. Though there is perhaps no lets different from those of the rest of the plant vegetable which does not afford nourishment to There are four species, all natives of Britain. some species of animal or other; yet, with regard They grow on the banks of rivulets, and on the to mankind, a very considerable distinction is to trunks of trees. The most remarkable is the be made. Those vegetables which are of a mild, bland, agreeable taste, yield proper nourishment; variety in food? Is it necessary and allowable, while those of an acrid, bitter, and nauseous or universally hurtful ? Variety of a certain taste are generally improper. We use, indeed, kind seems necessary; as vegetable and animal several acrid substances as food; but the mild, foods have their mutual advantages, tending to the bland, and palatable, are in the largest pro- correct each other. Another variety, which is portion in almost every vegetable. Such as are very proper, is that of liquid and solid food, very acrid, and at the same time of an aromatic which should be so managed as to temper each nature, are not used as food, but as spices or other; for liquid food, especially of the vegetable condiments which answer the purposes of medi- kind, is too ready to pass off before it is properly cine rather than any thing else. Sometimes, in- assimilated, while solid food makes a long stay. deed, acrid and bitter vegetables seem to be ad- But this does not properly belong to the question, mitted as food. Thus celery and endive are used whether variety of the same kind is necessary or in common food, though both are substances of proper, as in animal foods, beef, fish, fowl, &c. considerable acrimony; but they are previously It does not appear that there is any inconveniblanched, which almost totally destroys their ence arising from this mixture or difficulty of asacrimony. Or, if we employ other acrid sub- similation, provided · a moderate quantity be stances, we generally, in a great measure, de- taken. When any inconvenience does arise, it prive them of their acrimony by boiling. In probably proceeds from this, that one of the pardifferent countries the same plants grow with ticular substances in the mixture, when taken by different degrees of acrimony. Thus, garlic sel- itself, would produce the same effects; and indom enters our food; but in the southern coun- deed it would appear, that this effect is not tries, where the plants grow more mild, they are heightened by the mixture, but properly obviated frequently used for that purpose. The plant by it. There are few exceptions to this, if any, which furnishes cassada, being very acrimonious, e. g. taking a large proportion of acescent suband even poisonous in its recent state, affords an stances with milk. The coldness, &c., acidity, instance of the necessity of preparing acrid sub- flatulency, &c., may appear; and it is possible stances even in the hot countries; and there are that the coagulum, from the acescency of the other plants, such as arum roots, which are so ex- vegetables being somewhat stronger induced, ceedingly acrimonious in their natural state, that may give occasion to too long retention in the they cannot be swallowed with safety; yet, stomach, and to acidity in too great degree. when deprived of that acrimony, afford good Again, the mixture of fish and milk often occanourishment.
sions inconvenience. The theory of this is difAnimal food, although it gives strength, yet ficult, though, from universal consent, it must loads the body; and Hippocrates long ago ob- certainly be just. Can we suppose that fish served, that the athletic habit, by a small increase, gives occasion to such a coagulum as runnet? was exposed to the greatest hazards. In the If it does so, it may produce bad effects. Befirst stage of life animal food is seldom necessary sides, fishes approach somewhat to vegetables, in to give strength ; in manhood, when we are ex- giving little stimulus; and are accused of the posed to active scenes, it is more proper; and in same bad effects as these, viz. bringing on the the decline of life a considerable proportion of cold fit of fever. Thus much may be said for it is necessary to keep the body in vigor. There variety. But it has also its disadvantages, are some diseases, says Dr Cullen, which come provoking to gluttony; this and the art of cookon in the decay of life, that are at least aggravated ery making men take in more than they properly by it: among these he ranks the gout as the can digest; and hence, perhaps very justly, most remarkable. But the late Dr. Brown, from physicians have almost universally recommended repeated experience, found that the gout was simplicity of diet; for, in spite of rules, man's highly aggravated by vegetable food, and that eating will only be measured by his appetite, and animal food was the most proper regimen in that satiety is sooner produced by one than by many disease, and all others arising from debility. It substances. But this is so far from being an is allowed, however, on all hands, by the friends argument against variety, that it is one for it; as of both the old and new systems of medicine, that the best way of avoiding a full meal of animal animal food, although it gives strength, is yet of food, and its bad effects, is by introducing a some hazard to the constitution, which, by the quantity of vegetables. Another means of prefrequent repetition of this stimulus, is sooner ex- venting the bad effects of animal food is to take hausted than by a diet chiefly vegetable. There a large proportion of liquid ; and hence the bad fore it is to be questioned, whether we should effects of animal food are less felt in Scotland desire this high degree of bodily strength, with on account of their drinking much with it, all the inconveniences and dangers attending it. and using broths, which are at once excellent Those who are chiefly employed in mental re- correctors of animal food and preventives of searches, and not exposed to much bodily labor, gluttony. should avoid an excess of animal food. But in Dr. Paris thus compares the relative advannervous disorders, hysterical and hypochondriacal tages of an animal and vegetable diet, particularly cases, and in general all diseases arising from in this country. “As every description of weakness, fresh animal food, given frequently, food,' says he, whether derived from the animal and not in too great quantities, either in the form or vegetable kingdom, is converted into blood, it of soup, or that of a steak, will be found a much may be inferred that the ultimate effect of all more speedy and effectual restorative.
aliments must be virtually the same; and that Another question, Dr. Cullen observes, has the several species can only differ from each been much agitated, viz. What are the effects of other in the quantity of nutriment they afford,
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in the comparative degree of stimulus they im- ' flesh and milk ; but, before any valid conclusion part to the organs through which they pass, and can be deduced from this circuinstance, the habits in the proportion of vital energy they require of the people must be compared with those of for their assimilation. Were the degree of ex- their descendants. The history of later times citement which attends the digestion of a meal will furnish us with a satisfactory answer to those commensurate with the labor imposed upon the who deny the necessity of vegetable aliment. organs which perform it, less irritation and heat We learn from the London bills, that scurvy would attend the digestion of animal than of raged to such an excess in the seventeenth century vegetable food; for, in the one case, the aliment as to have occasioned a very great mortality: at already possesses a composition analogous to that this period the art of gardening had not long of the structure which it is designed to supply, been introduced. It appears that the most and requires little more than division and depu- common articles of the kitchen garden, such as ration; whereas, in the other, a complicated se- cabbages, w?re not cultivated in England until ries of decompositions and recompositions must the reign of Catharine of Arragon; indeed, we be et cted before the matter can be animalised, or are told that this queen could not procure a assilated to the body. But the digestive fever, salad until a gardener was sent for from the Neif we may be allowed the use of that expression, therlands to raise it. Since the change thus and the complexity of the alimentary changes, happily introduced into our diet, the ravages of would appear, in every case, to bear an inverse the scurvy are unknown. It follows, then, that relation to each other. This must depend upon in our climate a diet of animal food cannot, with the fact of animal food affording a more highly safety, be exclusively employed. It is too highly animalised chyle, or a greater proportion of that stimulant; the springs of life are urged on too principle which is essentially nutritive, as well as fast; and disease necessarily follows. There upon the immediate stimulus which the alimen- may, nevertheless, exist certain states of the systary nerves receive from its contact. In hot tem which require such a preternatural stimulus; countries therefore, or during the heats of sum- and the physician may, therefore, confine his mer, we are instinctively led to prefer vegetable patient to an animal regimen with as much profood; and we accordingly find that the inhab- priety as he would prescribe opium, or any other itants of tropical climates select a diet of this remedy. By a parity of reasoning, the excludescription : the Brahmins in India, and the sive use of vegetable food may be shown to be people of the Canary Islands, Brasils, &c., live inconsistent with the acknowledged principles of almost entirely on herbage, grains, and roots, dietetics, and to be incapable of conveying a while those of the north use little besides animal nourishment sufficiently stimulating for the active food. On account of the superior nutritive exertions which belong to our present civilised power of animal matter, it is equally evident condition. At the same time it must be allowed, that the degree of bodily exertion, or exercise, that an adherence to vegetable diet is usually sustained by an individual should not be over- productive of far less evil than that which follooked in an attempt to adjust the proportion in lows the use of an exclusively animal regimen.' which animal and vegetable food should be Dr. Paris quotes some curious experiments mixed. Persons of sedentary habits are op- made by M. Majendie to ascertain the relative pressed, and ultimately become diseased, from quantities of azote (nitrogen) yielded by animal the excess of nutriment which a full diet of and vegetable food. He took a small dog of animal food will occasion ; such a condition, by three years old, fat, and in good health, and pat some process not understood, is best corrected it to feed upon sugar alone, and gave it distilled by acescent vegetables. It is well known that water to drink : it had as much as it chose of artizans and laborers, in the confined manufac- both. It appeared very well in this way of living tories of large towns, suffer prodigiously in thoir for the first seven or eight days; it was brisk, health whenever a failure occurs in the crops of active, ate eagerly, and drank in its usual mancommon fruits; this fact was remarkably striking ner. It began to get thin in the second week, in the years 1804 and 1805. Young children although its appetite continued good, and it took and growing youths generally thrive upon a ge- about six or eight ounces of sugar in twenty-four ncrous diet of animal food; the excess of nu- hours. Its alvine excretions were neither fretritive matter is consumed in the development quent nor copious; that of the urine was very of the body, and, if properly digested, imparts abundant. In the third week its leanness instrength without repletion. Adults and old creased, ito strength diminished, the animal lost persons comparatively require but a small pro- its liveliness, and its appetite declined. At this portion of aliment, unless the nutritive move- period there was developed upon one eye, and ment be accelerated by violent exercise and hard then on the other, a small ulceration on the centre labor.
of the transparent cornea; it increased very 'Those who advocate the exclusive value of quickly, and in a few days it was more than a animal food, and deny the utility of its admixture line in diameter; its depth increased in the same with vegetable matter, adduce in proof of their proportion; the cornea was very soon eutirely system the rude health and Herculean strength perforated, and the humors of the eye ran out. of our hardy ancestors. The British aborigines, This singular phenomenon was accompanied when first visited by the Romans, certainly do with an abundant secretion of the glands of the not appear to have been conversant with the cul- eyelids. It, however, became weaker and weaker, tivation of the ground, and according to the and lost its strength; and, though the animal early writers, Cæsar, Strabo, Diodorus, Siculus, ate from three to four ounces of sugar per day, and others, their principal subsistence was on in became so weak that it could neither chew nor
vallow; for the same reason every other motion Class IX. Acidulous Aliments.--Oranges, apas impossible. It expired the thirty-second ples, and other acescent fruits. ty of the experiment. M. Majendie opened To these we may add condiments; such as e animal with every suitable precaution. He salt, the varieties of pepper, mustard, horseund a total want of fat; the muscles were re- radish, vinegar, &c. aced more than five-sixths of their ordinary .In classing the different species of potations, ze ; the stomach and intestines were also much we may, in like manner, be governed by the m inished in volume, and strongly contracted. chemical composition which distinguishes them. he gall and urinary bladders were distended by They may be arranged under four divisions, viz. eir proper fluids, which M. Chevreul was Class I. Water-Spring, river, well water, &c. lled upon to examine. That distinguished Class II. The Juices and Infusions of Vegesemist found in them nearly all the characters tables and Animals.-Whey, tea, coffee, &c. hich belong to the urine and bile of herbivo- Class III. Fermented Liquors.-Wine, beer, us animals; that is, that the urine, instead of &c. eing acid, as it is in carnivorous animals, was Class IV. The Alcoholic Liquors, or Spirits.nsibly alkaline, and did not present any trace Alcohol, brandy, rum, &c. ' uric acid, nor of phosphate. The bile con- ‘By cookery,' he says, 'alimentary substances ined a considerable portion of picromel; a undergo a twofold change; their principles are raracter considered as peculiar to the bile of chemically modified, and their textures mee ox, and, in general, to that of herbivorous chanically changed. The extent and nature, aimals. The excrements were also examined however, of these changes, will greatly depend y M. Chevreul, and were found to contain very upon the manner in which heat has been applied ttle azote, whereas they usually furnish a con- to them; and if we enquire into the culinary derable quantity..
history of different countries, we shall: trace its • M. Majendie considered that such results re- connexion with the fuel most accessible to them. uired to be verified by new experiments : he This fact readily explains the prevalence of the ccordingly repeated them on other dogs, but peculiar species of cookery which distinguishes ways with the same conclusions. He there- the French table, and which has no reference, as re considered it proved, that sugar, by itself, some have imagined, to the dietetic theory, or
incapable of supporting dogs. This want of superior refinement, of the inhabitants.' le nutritive quality, however, might possibly be By boiling, according to this author, “the prineculiar to sugar: he therefore proceeded to ciples not properly soluble are rendered softer, nquire, whether other substances, non-azotised, more pulpy, and, consequently, easier of digesut generally considered as nutritive, would be tion; but the meat, at the same time, is dettended with the same consequences. He fed prived of some of its nutritive properties by the wo dogs with olive oil and distilled water, upon removal of a portion of its soluble constituents : hich they appeared to live well for about fifteen the albumen and gelatin are also acted upon; the ays : but they afterwards underwent the same former being solidified, and the latter converted eries of accidents, and died on the thirty-sixth into a gelatinous substance. If, therefore, our ay of the experiment. In these cases, however, meat be boiled too long or too fast, we shall obhe ulceration of the cornea did not occur.' tain, where the albumen predominates, as in
The result of these experiments, in M. Ma- beef, a hard and indigestible mass, like an overendie's opinion, was, that the azote of the organs boiled egg; or, where the gelatin predominates, s produced by the food, and consequently that as in young meats, such as veal, a gelatinous 10 substance which does not contain this prin- substance equally injurious to the digestive iple can support life. Dr, Paris distributes organs. Young and viscid food, therefore, as vhat he calls the Nutrientia, into the following veal, chickens, &c., are more wholesome when lasses.
roasted than when boiled, and are easier diClass I. Fibrinous Aliments.—Comprehend gested. Dr. Prout has very justly remarked, ng the flesh and blood of various animals, es that the boiling temperature is too high for a jecially such as have arrived at puberty: ve great many of the processes of cooking, and rison, beef, mutton, hare.
that a lower temperature and a greater time, or a Class II. Albuminous.-Eggs; certain animal species of infusion, are better adapted for most natter.
of them. This is notorious with substances inClass III. Gelatinous Aliments. The flesh tended to be stewed, which, even in cookery of young animals : veal, chickens, calf's foot, books, are directed to be boiled slowly (that is, certain fishes.
not at all), and for a considerable time. The Class IV. Fatty and Oily Aliments.-Animal ignorance and prejudice existing on these points fats, oils, and butter; cocoa, &c.; ducks, pork, is very great, and combated with difficulty; yet, geese, eels, &c.
when we take into account their importance, and Class V. Caseous Aliments. The different how intimately they are connected with health, kinds of milk, cheese, &c.
they will be found to deserve no small share of Class VI. Farinaceous Aliments. - Wheat, our attention. The loss occasioned by boiling barley, oats, rice, rye, potatoe ; sago, arrow- partly depends upon the melting of the fat, but root, &c.
chiefly from the solution of the gelatine and osSS VII. Mucilaginous Aliments.-Carrots, mazone: mutton generally loses about cne-fifth, turnips, asparagus, cabbage, &c.
and beef about one-fourth, of its original weight. Class VIII. Sweet Aliments.—The different Boiling is particularly applicable to vegetables, kinds of sugar, figs, dates, &c.; carrots.
rendering them more soluble in the stomach, and