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mode of taking the fish is this :-At the be- Ube's, St. Martin's, and Oleron; and that foreign ginning of the season, the drag-net is used, salt is generally preferred for that purpose in the which, being drawn along the banks, brings up West of England; Dr. Henry, of Manchester, various kinds of fat fish, as soles, plaice, thorn. examined in 1809 the comparative strength and backs, and turbots; but, when the warm weather purity of British and foreign salt, and the result has driven the fish into deeper water, and upon of his investigation has proved, that the quantity banks of a rougher surface, where the drag-net of pure muriate of soda contained in the large is no longer practicable: fishermen have then grained fishery salt of Cheshire, is considerably recourse to the hook and line. Each line ex- more than what exists in the celebrated salt of tends from one to nearly three miles in length, Oleron, which is the strongest of the foreign and is armed with 600, 700, or 800, hooks, fixed salts; and that the proportion of sulphate and to it at the distance of several yards from each muriate of magnesia is ten times, and of other other. To keep these long lines properly stretched, impurities in foreign salt, three times as much, and prevent their being carried away by the tide, as in the Cheshire salt. An account of this lead is used or small anchors. The Dutch are analysis was read before the Royal Society, in said to supply turbot to the value of £80,000 per January 1810, and published at Liverpool, in annum to the London market.

1811. Dr. Henry's Table of the result of his exIt having been said that the English salt does periments is so curious that we here insert it. not answer for curing fish, so well as that of St.

One Thousand Parts by Weight consist of
Muriate | Total Suiph. Sulph. Total Total Pure Ma-
Insol.

of earthy of of Mag- Sul. fimpuri- riate of Matter.

Magnesia. Muriates. Lime. | nesia. | phates. ties. Soda.

Kind of Salt.

Foreign Bay Salt.
St. Ube's . . . .
St. Martin's ...

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Oleron

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3641

.

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Fishing, Right Of. It has been held, that them bona et catalla, if they be not in trunks. where the lord of the manor hath the soil on There needs no privilege to make a fish-pond, both sides of the river, it is a good evidence that as there doth in the case of a warren. See he hath right of fishing; and it puts the proof Franchise. upon him who claims liberam piscariam; but, FisHING-FLY, a bait used in angling for divers where a river ebbs and flows, and is an arm of kinds of fish. Of the artificial fly there are the sea, there it is common to all, and he who reckoned no fewer than twelve sorts, of which claims a privilege to himself, must prove it; for the following are the principal :- 1. For March, if the trespass is brought for fishing there, the dun fiy, made of dun wool, and the feathers the defendant may justify, that the place is of the partridge's wing; or the body made of brachium maris, in quo unusquisque subditus black wool, and the feathers of a black drake. domini regis habet et habere debet liberam pis- 2. For April, the stone-fly: the body made of cariam. In the Severn the soil belongs to the black wood, dyed yellow under the wings and owners of the land on each side; and the soil of tail. 3. For the beginning of May, the ruddy the river Thames is in the king, but the fishing fly; made of red wool, and bound about with is common to all. He who is owner of the soil black silk, with the feathers of a black capon of a private river, hath separata piscaria; and hanging dangling on his sides next his tail. .4. he that hath libera piscaria, hath a property in For June, the greenish fly; the body made of the fish, and may bring a possessory action for black wool, with a yellow list on either side, the them; but communis piscaria is like the case of wings taken off the wings of a buzzard, bound all other commons. One that has a close pond, with black broken hemp. 5. The moorish fly, in which there are fish, may call them pisces the body made of duskish wool, and the wings suos, in an indictment, &c., but he cannot call of the blackish mail of a drake. 6. The tawny

fly, good till the middle of June: the body made hooks to whip the artificial fly upon, or bait of tawny wool, and the wings made to stand with the natural fiy. 4. Springers, or spring contrary, one against the other, of the whitish hooks; a kind of double hooks, with a spring mail of a white drake. 7. For July, the wasp which flies open upon being struck into any. fly; the body made of black wool, cast about fish, and so keeps its mouth open. with yellow silk, and the wings of drakes' fea- FISHING-LINE, a line made either of hair thers. 8. The steel fly; proper in the middle twisted, or silk; or the Indian grass. The best of July; the body made with greenish wool, colors are the sorrel, white, and gray; the two cast about with the feathers of a peacock's last for clear waters, the first for muddy ones. tail, and the wings made of those of the buzzard. The pale watery green color is given artificially, 9. For August, the drake fly; the body made by steeping the hair in a liquor made of alum, with black wool cast about with black silk; the soot, and the juice of walnut-leaves, boiled towings of the mail of a black drake, with a black gether. head. The best rules for fishing with the artifi- FISHING-Rod, a long slender rod or wand, to cial fly are: To fish in a river somewhat dis- which the line is fastened, for angling. Of these turbed with rain: or in a cloudy day, when the there are several sorts; as, 1. A troller, or trolwaters are moved by a gentle breeze; the south ling rod, which has a ring at the end of the rod, wind is best; and if the wind blow high, yet for the line to go through when it runs off a not so but that you may conveniently guard reel. 2. A whipper, or whipping rod; a top your tackle; the fish will rise in plain deeps; but, rod, that is weak in the middle, and top heavy, if the wind be small, the best angling is in but all slender and fine. 3. A dropper, which swift streams. Keep as far from the water-side is a strong rod, and very light. 4. A snapper, as may be; fish down the stream with the sun or snap rod, which is a strong pole, peculiarly at your back, and touch not the water with your used for the pike. 5 A bottom rod; being line. Always angle in clear rivers, with a small the same as the dropper, but somewhat more fily and slender wings; but in muddy places, use pliable. a larger. When, after rain, the water becomes FIS'SILE, adj. Lat. fissilis, fissura, brownish, use an orange fly; in a clear day, a FissiL'ITY, n. s. from findo, to cleave. light colored fly; a dark fly for dark waters, &c. Fis'sURE, n.s. & v.a.) Easy to cleave; fissility Let the line be twice as long as the rod, unless is the quality of admitting to be cloven : fissure the river be encumbered with wood. For every a cleft made; a narrow chasm or breach. sort of fly, bave several of the same, differing in This crystal is a pellucid fissile stone, clear as water color, to suit with the different complexions of or crystal of the rock, and without color; enduring several waters and weathers. Let the fly fall a red heat without losing its transparency, and in a first into the water, and not the line, which will very strong heat calcining without fusion,

Newton scare the fish. In slow rivers, or still places, cast the fly across the river, and let it sink a .

The stone was distinguished intu strata or layers;

those strata were divided by parallel fissures, that little in the water, and draw it gently back with

were inclosed in the stone. the current. Flies for salmon should be made

Woodward's Natural History. with their wings standing one behind the other, By a fall or blow the skull may be fissured or fracwhether two or four. This fish delights in the tured.

Wiseman's Surgery. gaudiest colors that can be; chiefly in the wings, If the bone be much depressed, and the fissure which must be long, as well as the tail.

considerably large, it is then at your choice, whether FISHING-Floats are little appendages to the you will enlarge that fissure, or continue it for the line, serving to keep the hook and bait suspended evacuation of the matter, and forbear the use of the at the proper depth. to discover when ihe fish trepan : not doubting but a small depression of the bas hold of them. &c. Of these there are divers bone will either rise, or cast off, by the benefit of

nature.

Wiseman. kinds; some made of Muscovy duck quills, 1 which are the best for slow waters; but, for

The gaping fissures to receive the rain.

Thomson. strong streams, sound cork, without flaws or There is a fissure eight or ten feet wide, in a gravelholes, bored through with a hot iron, into wbich bed on the eastern side of the hollow and ascending is put a quill of exact proportion, is preferable : the hill about a mile from l'rentham in Staffordshire, pare the cork to a pyramidal form, and make it leading toward Drayton in Shropshire, which fissure smooth.

is filled up with nodules of iron ore. Darwin. FISHING-Frog. See LOPHIUS.

FISSURE OF A Bone, in surgery, is when it is FISHING-Hook, a small instrument made of divided either transversely or longitudinally, steel wire, of a bent form, to catch and retain not quite through, but cracked after the manner fish. The fishing-hook, in general, ought to be of glass, by any external force. See SURGERY. long in the shank, somewhat thick in the cir- FIST, nis. &va, Sax, fyst; Goth. fast; cumference, the point oven and straight. The Fisticuffs. Teut. faust ; i.e. the hand bend should be in the shank. For setting the in a fast or closed state. "The hand clenched book on, use strong, but small silk, laying the either to strike or hold: as a verb, to strike hair on the inside of your hook; for if it be on or grasp with the fist : fisticuffs are cuffs with the the outside, the silk will fret and cut it asunder. fist There are several sizes of fishing-hooks, some

I commaunde you not big, some little, and of these some have peculiar

Fortune to trust, and eke full well ye wot, names; as, 1. Single hooks. 2. Double hooks, I haue of her no brydle in my fist, which have two bendings, one contrary to the She renneth loose, and turneth where she lyst, other. 3. Snappers, or gorgers, which are the

Sir T. More.

28.

And being down, the villain sore did beat tapering to the tail, which is forked, and from And bruise with clownish fiets his manly face. which issues a slender taper whip, four inches

Faerie Queene. long, of the consistence of whalebone; the We have been down together in my sleep,

mouth narrow, and the whole fish of a brown Unbuckling helms, fisting each other's throat,

color. They are sometimes taken on the coasts And waked half dead with nothing.

of Jamaica. They feed on sea-insects, &c., Shakspeare. Coriolanus. Anger causeth paleness in some; in others trem

which they drag easily from rocks on account of bling, swelling, and bending the fist. Bacon.

the peculiar formation of the snout. And the same hand into a fist may close,

FIT, n. s. Sax. fæt, fæc; Swed. fet; Which instantly a palm expanded shows.

FITFUL, adj. ) Belg. vat , Ital. fiata ; as Skin

Denham. ner conjectures from fight; "any fit of a disease She quick and proud, and who did Pas despise, being a struggle of nature:' Junius derives it Up with her fist, and took him on the face ;

more probably from the Flem. viit, frequent; Another time, quoth she, become more wise ; and Gr. Oetta, haste. The paroxysm or crisis of Thus Pas did kiss her hand with little grace.

an intermittent disorder; any short return of an Sidney.

intermitting complaint: hence, disorder; disI saw him spurning and fisting her most unmerci

temperature, generally; any recommencement fully.

Dryden. Tyrrheus, the foster-father of the beast,

of an action after intermission; an interval : Then clenched a hatchet in his horny fist. Id.

fitful is varied by paroxysms; changeful. She would seize upon John's commons; for which the life did fit away out of her nest, they were sure to go to fisticuffs

And all his senses were with deadly fit opprest. . Arbuthnot John Bull.

Faerie Queene. My invention and judgment are perpetually at fis

For your husband, ticuffi, 'till they have quite disabled each other. He's noble, wise, judicious, and best knows

Swift. The fits of the season. Shakspeare. Macbeth. Naked men belabouring one another with snagged The sting of a wasp, a fit of the stone, the biting sticks, or dully falling together by the ears at fisti- of a mad dog, destroy for the time; the two first, cuffs.

More. happiness, and the other wisdom itself. FIST'ULA, n. s. ) Fr. fistule ; Lat. fistula.

Sör W. Temple. Fist'ulous, adj. J A sinuous ulcer. See below. Sometimes 'tis grateful to the rich to try That fistula which is recent is the easiest of cure :

A short vicissitude, and fit of poverty. Dryden.

Men that are habitually wicked may now and then, those of a long continuance are accompanied with ul. cerations of the glaud and caries in the bone.

by fits and starts, feel certain motions of repentance. Wiseman's Surgery

L'Estrange. How these sinuous ulcers become fistulow, I bave

An ambitious man puts it in the power of every shewn you.

malicious tongue to throw him into a fit of melanId. choly.

Addison. FISTULA, in the ancient music, an instrument Thus o'er the dying lamp the unsteady flame of the wind kind, resembling our flute or flage- Hangs quivering on a point, leaps off by fits, olet. The principal wind instruments of the And falls again as loth to quit its hold. Id. ancients were the tibia and the fistula. Some Religion is not the business of some fits only and had holes, some none; some again were single intervals of our life, to be taken up at certain days pipes; others a combination of several; witness and hours, but a system of precepts to be regarded in the syringa of Pan.

all our conduct.

Rogers. FISTULA, in the veterinary art. See VETERI- Mrs. Bull was so much enraged, that she fell down. NARY ART.

right into a fit.

Arbuthnot's John Bull. Fistula, in surgery, a deep narrow ulcer, Small stones and gravel collect and become very generally arising from abscesses. It differs large in the kidneys, in which case a fit of the stone from a sinus, in being callous, the latter not. in that part is the cure.

Sharp's Surgery. See SURGERY.

All fits of pleasure we balance by an equal degree FISTULA LACHRYMALIS. A disorder at the of pain or languor : 'tis like spending this year, part canal leading from the eye to the nose, which of the next year's revenue.

Swift. obstructs the natural progress of the tears, and As his years increased, his fits of giddiness and makes them trickle down the cheek; but this is doafness grew more frequent, and his deafness made only the first and mildest stage of the disease :

conversation difficult. Johnson's Life of Swift. in the next there is matter discharged with the

Fit. See PAROXYSM. tears from the puncta lachrymalia, and some

Fit, adj. v. a. & v. n.) Sax. fegt; Is fit; times from an orifice broke through the skin

n Fit'ly, adv.

Kem, vitten; Belgic, between the nose and the angle of the eye. The

FIT'MENT, n. s. voegt; Teut. fuight; last and worst degree of it is, when the matter

T(Sax. fegan, means to of one eye, by its long continuance, has not

FITTER,

adapt. - Thomson) only corroded the neighbouring soft parts, but

Fir'TINGLY, adv. J Proper; meet; adaptalso affected the subjacent bone.

ed: right; convenient: as an active verb, to FISTULARIA, 'or Tobacco-pipe fish, a make so; to accommodate or adapt one thing to genus of fishes belonging to the order of abdo- another ; taking out and up to give intensity to minales. Of this genus Linnæus reckons two the meaning : as a neuter verb, to be proper or species. Three are now discovered. The F. becoming. Fitment is an obsolete word for tabacaria is generally about a foot in length; something adapted to a particular purpose. the fore part from the nose to half way the body Men of valour, fit to go out for war and battle of nearly equal bigness; from whence it grows

1 Chron.

FIT'NESS,

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The carpenter marketh it out with a line: he fitteth If our forefathers thought fit to be grave and serious, with planes.

Isa. xliv. 13. I hope their posterity may laugh without offence. In things the fitness whereof is not of itself appa

Addison. nt, nor easy to be made sufficiently manifest unto The English fleet could not be paid and manded, 1, yet the judgment of antiquity, concurring with and fitted out, unless we encouraged trade and navi. at which is received, may induce them to think it gation.

Addison's Freeholder. it unfit.

Hooker. An animal, in order to be moveable must be flexiShe shall be our messenger to this paultry knight. ble ; and therefore is filly made of separate and small Trust me, I thought on her; she'll fit it.

solid parts, replete with proper fui is. Arbuthnot. Shakspeare.

A trussmaker fitted the child with a pair of boddice. Even so most fitly

stiffened on the lame side.

Id. Coriolamus. As you malign our senators.

Wiseman's Surgery.

Nor fits it to prolong the feast,
Duncan is in his grave;

Timeless, indecent, but retire to rest.
After life's fitful fever be sleeps well. Id. Macbeth.

Pope's Odyssey. Nor time nor place id then cohere, and yet you would make both:

Which abstract terms very fittingly agree with the hey've made themselves, and that their fitness gow notion.

More. oes unmake you.

Id. A man cannot be said to know himself, till he is

A man cannot b Poor beseeming : 'twas a fitment for

well acquainted with his proper talents and capacities; The purpose I then followed. Id. Cymbeline knows for what ends he received them; and how Since we have said it were good not to use men of they may be most fitly applied and improved for those mbitious natures, except it be upon necessity, it is ends.

Mason. t we speak in what cases they are so. Bacon.

And thus I, Where a man cannot fitly play his own part, if he

Still on thy shores, fair Teman! may find room ave not a friend, he may quit the stage. Id.

And food for meditation, nor pass by A close behaviour is the fittest to receive virtue for

Much that may give us pause, if pondered fittingly.

Byron. s constant guest, because there, and there only, it an be secure.

Saville. FITCH, n. s. A corruption of vetch, says To take a latitude,

Dr. Johnson. A small kind of wild pea. Sun or stars are fitliest viewed

When he hath made plain the face thereof, doth he At their brightest; but to conclude

not cast abroad the fitches ?

Isaiah. Of longitudes, what other way have we

Now is the season But to mark when and where the dark eclipses be!

Donne.

For sowing of fitches, of beans, and of peason. He lends him vain Goliah's sacred sword,

Tusser. The fittest help just fortune could afford. Cowley. Fisch, in husbandry, is more generally known Would fate permit

by the name of chick-pea. See CICER. Fitches To my desires I might my fortune fit; are cultivated either for feeding cattle, or imTroy I would raise.

Denham. proving the land. They make a wholesome and See how thou could'st judge of fit and meet. nourishing food, whether given in the straw, or

Milton. threshed out. When sown only to improve the We were purposely designed, and fitly framed, to soil they are plough

amed: to soil, they are ploughed in just as they begin to anderstand and contemplate, to affect and delight in, i

blossom, by which means a tough stiff clay soil o undertake and pursue most noble and worthy:

y

Barrow. hings.

is much enriched. How evil fits it me to have such a son; and how

There are two words in the Hebrew Old Tesmuch doth thy kindness upbraid my wickedness.

tament, which our translators have rendered by

Sidney. fitches, nxp and npda. The first occurs but It is fit for a man to know his own abilities and once, and that in Isa, xxviii. 25. 27, where weaknesses, and not think himself obliged to imitate the connexion proves it to be some kind of seed, all that he thinks fit to praise.

Boyle. but what kind is a subject of dispute. Jerom, I cannot fitlier compare marriage than to a lottery; Maimonides, R. David, Kimchi, and the rabbin for, in both, he that ventures may succeed, and may understand it to be the gith, called by the Greeks miss; and if he draw a prize, he hath a rich return of his venture : but in both lotteries there lie pretty

pelav lov, and by the Latins nigella. It is thus

described by Ballester: It is a plant commonly store of blanks for every prize.

Id.

met with in gardens, with leaves like those of As much of the stone as was contiguous to the

fennel; the flower blue, which disappearing, the marcasite, fitted the marcasite so close as if it had been formerly liquid.

ovary shows itself at the top like that of the The whole of our duty may be expressed most fitly poppy, and containing in its membranous cells by departing from evil.

Tillotson.

seeds of a very black color, not unlike those of This fury fit for her intent she chose,

the leek, but of a very fragrant smell.' The One who delights in wars and human woes. Dryden. Jewish rabbin mention the seeds as mixed with

A play, which if you dare but twice fit out, bread. The other word rendered fitches, is You'll all be slandered and be thought devout. Id. neos, which the greatest number of commenta

T'is the great business of life to fit ourselves for tors render spelt; but Dr. Geddes, R. David our end, and no man can live well that hath not Kimchi, as well as our English translators, condeath in his eye.

L'Estrange.

sider it to be rye, which is supported by the

sidor it to be rue which is It is a wrong use of my understanding to make it

Arabic translations. Dr. Shaw thinks it may be the rule and measure of another man's; a use which

e rice. Sowing the sandy gravelly land in Devonshire and

FITCHAT, n. s. 2 Fr. fissau ; Dutch, fisse. Cornwall with French furze seed, they reckon a great Fi'tchew. SA stinking little animal, improver of their land, and a fitter of it for corn that robs the hen-roost and warren. Skinner

Mortimer's Husbandry. calls him the stinking ferret; but he is much

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larger, at least as some provinces distinguish and entered early into the French service. When them, in which the polecat is termed a fitchat, only fifteen years of age, he was wounded at the and the stinking ferret a stoat. See MUSTELA. siege of Buda. He was sent to Ireland in 1688,

'I'is such another fitchew! marry, a perfumed one; and distinguished himself at the siege of LonWhat do you mean by this haunting of me?

donderry, and at the battle of the Boyne. His

Shakspeare. superior merit recommended him to the French The fitchat, the sulimart, and the like creatures, court, and he was created marshal of France, live upon the face and within the bowels of the earth. knight of the Holy Ghost, duke and peer of

Walton's Angler. France, grandee of Spain, and commander-inFITCHBURGH, a post-town of Massachu- chief of the French armies; in all which stations setts, in Worcester county, containing 1151 citi- his behaviour was such, that few equalled, perzens in 1795; forty-two miles north-west of haps none surpassed him. He was killed by Boston, and 393 from Philadelphia.

a cannon-ball at the siege of Philipsburgh in FITCHE’E, in heraldry, from

1738. old Fr. âshe, i.e. fixed; a term

FITZSTEPHEN (William), a learned monk applied to a cross when the lower

of Canterbury, of Norman extraction, born of rebranch ends in a sharp point.

spectable parents in London, in the twelfth cenThe reason of it Mackenzie sup

tury. Being attached to archbishop Becket, he poses to be, that the Christians

was present at the time of his murder. And in were wont to carry crosses with

1174 he wrote in Latin, The Life of St. Thomas, them wherever they went; and, when they archbishop and martyr; in which, as Becket stopped on their journey at any place, they was a native of the metropolis, he introduces i fixed these portable crosses in the ground for description of London, with a detail of the mandevotion's sake.

ners and usages of the citizens, which is deserFITISH, or Fetish, is the appellation given vedly considered as a great curiosity, being the by the natives of Middle Africa to their idols, or earliest professed account of London extant. He charms, which are of almost endless variety in died in 1191. form and composition. The most common are FITZWILLIAM, a township of New Hampmilk, eggs, and birds; and the partridge is held shire in Cheshire county; sixteen miles cast so sacred, that if the foot of a dead one is of the Connecticut. known to have touched a dish of meat, no one FIVE, adj. Saxon, Fif; Goth. finif ; will taste of it, although ready to die of hunger, FIVE-BAR, Belg. fief ; Teut. funf, seemn They do not, however, regard milk or eggs with Five-BARRED, Singly corrupted, says Minequal veneration, for they may be sometimes seen FIVE-FOLD, sheu, from the Lat. quinque. devouring each other's fitishes with the greatest Five'LEAVED. A number; four and one; harmony. Their portable fitishes consist of five-bar and five-barred are, having five bars, rude imitations of the human form, or of ani- usually applied to gates. Five-leaved is an epithet mals, with a piece of looking-glass fixed in the of cinquefoil. Drayton calls it · five-leaf.' breast; the tusks of the young elephant, filled And aftir these dayes Elizabeth his wif conseyvede with a black paste, into which shells are stuck; and hidde hir fuve monethis and seyde. Wiclif. tigers' claws and teeth; the minute horns of the And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. chevrotten and other animals; sea-shells full of

Malthew. black paste, or even small parcels of party

No person, no incident, but must be of use to carry colored rags, and diminutive Alasks, containing

live tasks, containing on the main design : all things else are like six fingers consecrated gunpowder. No man takes a drink, to the hand, whep nature, wnich is superfluous in without making an oblation to the master fitish, nothing, can do her work with fire. Dryden, which is frequently an elephant's tooth. He

Five herds, five bleating flocks, his pastures filled. holds it in the left hand, and, after licking its pasted head, squirts a mouthful of liquid over it

Our British youth lose their figure by that time in a shower; then muttering a few words, he they are five and twenty.

Addison. drinks the remainder himself.

The flood, flame, swine, the lion, and the snake, FITZHERBERT (Sir Anthony), a learn

Those fove-fold monsters modern authors make. ed lawyer in the reign of king Henry VIII.,

Young. descended of an ancient family, and born at Norbury in Derbyshire. He was made a judge

FIVES, n. s. Teut. feifel; Fr. avives. A of the court of common pleas in 1523; and dis

disease of horses. tinguished himself by many valuable works. His horse sped with spavins, rayed with the yelHis principal writings are. T'he Grand Abridg- lows, past eure of the fives, and stark spoiled with

Shakspeare. ment; The Office and Authority of Justices of the staggers. Peace; The Office of Sheriffs, Bailiffs of Liber- FIUME, a sea-port of Austria on the Adriatic, ties, Escheators, Constables, Coroners, &c.; Of at the extremity of the gulf of Juarnero. It conthe Diversity of Courts; Of the Surveying of sists of the inner and outer town, the latter of Lands; and the Book of Husbandry, He died which is new and well built. The harbour, in 1538.

though difficult of entrance, is commodious; and FITZJAMES (James, duke of Berwick), was large vessels may ride at distance safely at anchor, the natural son of James II., by Mrs. Arabella The exports are corn, tobacco, and wood; the Churchill, sister to the celebrated duke of Marl- imports rye, sugar, spices, salt, &c. Fiume was borough. He was born at Moulins in 1671, in 1813 re-captured from the French, who seized

Id.

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