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of the file. 4. The first mover being then put attached to the file, that the greatest part of i: into action, raises and lets fall the apparatus for was rubbed off into the fire, and was sublimed giving the stroke by which the file receives a cut. up the chimney, without producing any effect. And, 5, immediately afterwards, or during the Some file-makers are in the habit of using the same action, as the case may be (according to coal of buint leather, which doubtless produces the construction as before described), the regu- some effect; but the carbon is generally so illating gear moves the carriage, and consequently prepared for the purpose, and the time of its the file, through a determinate space. 6. The operation so short, as to render the effect very cut is then again given; and in this manner little. Animal carbon, when properly prepared (the strength of cut being duly proportioned to and mixed with the above hardening composition, the space between cut and cut) the file becomes is capable of giving hardness to the surface even cut throughout. 7. The file is then taken out of an iron file. The carbonaceous matter may and cut on the other side. 8. The burr is then be readily obtained from any of the soft parts of taken off, or not, as the artist may think best; animals, or from blood. For this purpose, howand the cross-strokes are given over the surfaces ever, the refuse of shoe-makers and curriers is as before. And the said machinery, by certain the most convenient. After the volatile parts slight, necessary, and obvious changes in the have been distilled over, from an iron still, a structure and disposition of the chisels, and bright shining coal is left behind, which, when some other of the parts thereof, is adapted to reduced to powder, is fit to mix with the salt. manufacture all other forms and descriptions of Let about equal parts, by bulk, of this powder, files, whether floats, rasps, half-round, three- and muriate of soda, be mixed together, and square, or any other figure or denomination. brought to the consistence of cream, by the addi

Three things are strictly to be observed in tion of water. Or mix the powdered carbon with hardening files; first, to prepare the file on the a saturated solution of the salt, till it becomes of surface, so as to prevent it froin being oxydated the above consistence. Files which are intended by the atmosphere, when the file is red hot, to be very hard, should be covered with this which effect would not only take off the sharp- composition, previously to hardening. By this ness of the tooth, but render the whole surface method, files made of iron, wbich in itself is inso rough, that the file would, in a little time, susceptible of hardening, acquire a superficial become clogged with the substance it had to hardness sufficient to answer the purposes of any work. Secondly, the heat ought to be very uni- file whatever Files of this kind may be bent formly red throughout, and the water in which it into any form, and in consequence are rendered is quenched fresh and cold, for the purpose of useful for sculptors and die-sinkers. giving it the proper degree of hardness. Lastly, The mode of heating the file for hardening, is the manner of immersion is of great importance, by means of a fire similar to that employed by to prevent the files from warping, which in long common smiths. The file is to be held in a pair thin files is very difficult. The first object is ac- of tongs by the tang, or tail, and introduced complished by laying a substance upon the sur- into the fire, consisting of very small cokes, pushface, which, when it fuses, forms as it were a ing it more or less into the fire, for the sake of varnish upon it, defending the metal from the heating it regularly. When it is uniformly heated action of the oxygen of the air. Formerly the of a cherry color, it is fit to quench in the water. process consisted in first coating the surface of An oven is commonly used for the larger kind the file with ale-grounds, and then covering it of files, into which the blast of the bellows is diover with pulverised common salt. After this rected, being open at one end for the purpose of coating becomes dry the files are heated red-hot, introducing the files and the fuel. After the file and hardened; then the surface is lightly brushed is properly heated, for the purpose of hardening, over with the dust of cokes; when it appears it should be cooled as quickly as possible; this is white and metallic, as if it had not been heated. usually done by quenching it in the coldest This process has lately been improved, at least water. Clear spring water, free from animal so far as relates to the economy of the salt, and vegetable matter, is best calculated for the which, from the quantity used, and the increase hardening of files. of duty, had become a serious object. Those When files are properly hardened, they are who use the improved method do not consume brushed over with water and powdered coke, above one-fourth the quantity of salt used in the when the surface becomes clean and metallic. old way. The process consists in dissolving the They may likewise be dipped into lime-water, salt in water to saturation, which is about three and dried before the fire as rapidly as possible, pounds to the gallon, and stiffening it with ale- after which they should be rubbed over with grounds, or with the cheapest kind of flour, olive oil, in which is mixed a little oil of turpensuch as that of beans, to about the consistence tine, while warm, and then they are finished. of thick cream. The files only require to be In the operations of filing, the coarser cut dipped into this substance, and immediately files are always to be succeeded by the finer; heated and hardened. The grounds or the and the general rule is, to lean heavily on the file fiour are of no other use than to give the mass in thrusting it forward, because the teeth of the consistence, and by that means, allowing a file are made to cut forwards. But in drawing larger quantity of salt to be laid upon the surface. the file back again, for a second stroke, it is to be In this method, the salt forms immediately a lifted just above the work, to prevent its cutting firm coating. As soon as the water is evaporated, as it comes back. The rough, or coarse-toothed the whole of it becomes fused upon the file. In file, called a rubber, serves to take off the uneventhe old method, the dry salt was so loosely ness of the work, left by the hammer in forging. The bastard-toothed file, as it is technically together under the title of Poesie Fosiano di called, is to take out too deep cuts and file-strokes Vincenzo da Filicacia, in 1707, 4to. made by the rough file. The fine-toothed files FILICES, from filum, a thread, quasi filatim take out the cuts or file-strokes which the bas- incisa, ferns; one of the seven tribes or families tard file made, and the smooth file those left by of the vegetable kingdom. See BOTANY. They the fine file,

constitute the first order in the class cryptogamia, FI'LEMOT, 7. s., corrupted from Fr. feueille and consist of eighteen genera, which are divided morte, a dead leaf A brown or yellow-brown into fructificationes spicatæ, frondose, et radicolor.

cales. Lee however says they admit of no cerThe colours you ought to wish for are blue or file- tain distinction from their fructification. This mut, turned up with red.

Swift. order comprehends the entire twenty-sixth class FIL’IAL, adj. Fr. filial, filiale ; Lat.

of Tournefort, in whose system the filices make FILIA'TION, n. s. filius, or filia (à Greek

only a single genus, in the first section of this

class. Oda, love). Pertaining to a son or daughter;

Filices also constitute a class or order of befitting a child. Filiation is the relation of a child to its parents; a legal order of filiation is

plants in the natural method. See BOTANY.

pro a declaration of the justices that a particular FIL'IGRANE, no. s. 7 Lat. filum, a thread, party therein named is the father of a child. FIL'IGREE.

Sand granum, grain. Why Dr. Johnson should have restricted the ap- A kind of wire work generally in gold and silver, plication of filial to' pertaining to a son,' we wrought in the manner of threads or grains. cannot understand : filiation he himself defines Several filigrane curiosities.

Tatler. as correlative to paternity,' generally, while his FILIGRANE FL

FILIGRANE, FILIGREE, or FILLAGREE own extract from Prior proves that it may also Work, from Lat. filum, a thread, and granum, be the correlative of maternity,

a grain, a kind of enrichment on gold or silver, • Where the old myrtle her good influence sheds. wrought delicately, in manner of small threads

In the modern legal use of filiation also we or grains, or both intermixed. It was formerly believe but too many instances occur of its appli- much more employed than at present, in the cation to both sons and daughters.

manufacture of small articles, which served more And thus the filial godhead answering spoke. for show than for use; such as vases, needle

Milton. cases, caskets to hold jewels, small boxes, parFrom imposition of strict laws, to free

ticularly shrines, decorations for the images of Acceptance of large grace ; from servile fear

saints, and other churcb furniture. This art, To filial ; works of law, to works of faith. Id.

however, is of great antiquity, and seems to have The relation of paternity and filiation, between the

been brought into Europe from the East. Among first and second person, and the relation between the sacred persons of the Trinity, and the denomination church furniture we meet with filigree work of thereof, must needs be eternal, because the terms of the middle ages. The Turks, Armenians, and relation between whom that relation ariseth were Indians make at present some master-pieces of eternal.

Hale's Origin of Mankind. this sort, and with tools that are exceedingly My mischievous proceeding may be the glory of his coarse and imperfect. There is no manufacture filial piety, the only reward now left for so great a in any part of the world that has been more merit.

Sidney. admired and celebrated, than the fine gold and He grieved, he wept, the sight an image brought silver filigree of Sumatra. The surprising delicacy Of his own filial love, a sadly pleasing thought.

of this work is the more extraordinary as the

Dryden. Where the old myrtle her good inflaence sheds,

tools are rudely and inartificially formed by the Sprigs of like leaf erect their filial beads;

pandi, or goldsmith, from any old iron he can And when the parent rose decays and dies,

pick up. When you engage one of them to With a resembling face the daughter buds arise.

execute a piece of work, his first request is usu

Prior. ally for a piece of iron hoop, to make his wireSo when Arabia's Bird, by age oppressed, drawing instrument; an old hammer-head, stuck Consumes delighted on his spicy nest;

in a block, serves for an anvil, and a pair of A filial Phanix from his ashes springs,'

compasses is often composed of two old nails Crowned with a star on renovated wings.

tied together at one end. The gold is melted in Darwin.

a piece of preeoo, or earthen rice pot, or someBy stat. 49 George III. c. 68. the reputed father times in s

times in a crucible of their own make, of ordi

u of a bastard is chargeable with the expenses incident

nary clay. In general they use no bellows, but to the birth, and of his own apprehension, and of the order of filiation.


blow the fire with their mouths, through a joint -even while I kiss

of bamboo; and, if the quantity of metal to be Thy garment's hem with transport, can it be

melted is considerable, three or four persons sit That doubt shall mingle with my filial joy?

round their furnace, which is an old broken Deal with me as thou wilt, but spare this boy. quallee or iron pot, and blow together. At

Byron. Padang alone, where the manufacture is more FILICACIA (Vincent), a celebrated Italian considerable, they have adopted the Chinese poet, born at Florence, 1642. He was a member bellows. Their method of drawing the wire of the academies Della Crusca and Arcadi, and differs little from that used by Europeans. When secretary to the duke of Tuscany. He died in drawn to a sufficient fineness, they flatten it by 1707. His poems are much esteemed for the beating it on their anvil; and, when flattened, delicacy and nobleness of their sentiments. Sci- they give it a twist like that in the whalebone pio de Filicacia, his son, had them all printed handle of a punch-ladle, by rubbing it on a block of wood with a flat stick. After twisting its sister labial 2. To store to the utmost ; they again beat it on the anvil, and, by these satisfy; glut; surfeit: applied both to time and means, it becomes flat wire with indented edges. space, as well as metaphorically to the mind, afWith a pair of nippers they fold down the end fections, &c. To fill out, is to extend or rather of the wire, and thus form a leaf, or element of stretch out to the utmost, by filling; and the a flower in their work, which is cut off. The preposition up, to fill up,' occasionally adds end is again folded and cut off, till they have intensity to this verb. As a neuter verb, to fill got a sufficient number of leaves, which are laid is to satiate; glut; give to drink ; 'to fill up;' on singly. Patterns of the flowers or foliage, in to grow full. As a substantive, a fill is a satiswhich there is not very much variety, are pre- fying quantity. A filter is any thing that occupared on paper, of the size of the gold plate on pies room; any thing useless for any other purwhich the filigree is to be laid. According to pose; or one whose employment is to fill. this, they begin to dispose on the plate the larger

Fill the waterpots with water; and they filled them compartments of the foliage, for which they use

up to the brim.

John ii. 7. plain flat wire of a larger size, and fill them up

In the cup which she hath filled, fill to her double. with the leaves before mentioned. To fix the

Rev. xviii. work, they employ a glutinous substance, made Her neck and breasts were ever open bare, of the red hot berry, called boca sago, ground to That aye thereof her babes may suck their fill. a pulp on a rough stone. This pulp they place

Faerie Queens. on a young cocoa nut about the size of a walnut, Thou art going to lord Timon's feast, the top and bottom being cut off. After the -Ay, lo see meat fill knaves, and wine heat fools. leaves have been all placed in order, and stuck

Shakspeure. on bit by bit, a solder is prepared of gold filings

We fill to the general joy of the whole table, and borax moistened with water, which they

And to our dear friend Banquo, whom we miss.

Id. Macbeth. strew over the plate; and then, putting it in the fire for a short time, the whole becomes united.

Things that are sweet and fat are more filling, and This kind of work on gold plate they call carrang

do swim and hang more about the mouth of the papan : when the work is open they call it car

stomach, and go not down so speedily. Bacon. rang trouse. In executing the latter the foliage

But thus inflamed bespoke the captain, is laid out on a card, or soft kind of wood, and

Wbo scorneth peace shall have his fill of war. stuck on, as before described, with the sago berry;


. Which made me gently first remove your fears, and the work, when finished, being strewed over th with their solder, is put into the fire, when, the

That so you might have room to entertain

Your fill of joy.

Denham's Sophy. card or soft wood burning away, the gold remains

I am who fill connected. If the piece be large, they solder it Infinitude, nor vacuous space.

Milton. at several times. In the manufacture of badjoo Amid the tree now got, where plenty hung buttons, they first make the lower part flat, and Tempting so nigh, to pluck and eat my fill, having a mould formed of a piece of buffalo's I spared not.

Id. Paradise Lost. born indented to several sizes, each like one

He with his consorted Eve half of a bullet mould, they lay their work over The story heard attentive, and was filled one of these holes, and, with a horn punch, they

With admiration and deep muse to hear. Millon, press it into the form of a button. After this

I only speak of him

Whom pomp and greatness sits so loose about, they complete the upper part. When the filigree

That he wants majesty to fill them out. Dryden. is finished, they cleanse it by boiling it in com

"Tis a mere filler, to stop a vacancy in the hexamon salt and alum, or sometimes lime juice; and,

meter, and connect the preface to the work of Virgil. in order to give it that fine purple color which

Dryden's Eneid. Dedication. they call sapo, they boil it in water with brim. This mule being put in the All of a cart, ran away stone. The manner of making the little balls, with the cart and timber. Mortimer's Husbandry. with which their works are sometimes orna. They have six diggers to four fillers, so as to keep mented, is as follows :-They take a piece of

the fillers always at work.

Id. charcoal, and having cut it flat and smooth, they There would not be altogether so much water remake in it a small hole, which they fill with gold quired for the land as for the sea, to raise them to dust, and this melted in the fire becomes a little

equal height; because mountains and hills would fill ball. They are very inexpert at finishing and up part of that space upon the land, and so make less polishing the plain parts, hinges, screws, and the water requisite.

Burner. like, being in this as much excelled by the Euro When the several trades and professions are suppean artists, as these fall short of them in the plied, you will find most of those that are proper for fineness and minuteness of the foliage.

war absolutely necessary for filling up the laborious FILIPPO D'ARGIRONE, a town in the Val di part of life, and carrying on the underwork of the naDemone, Sicily, situated on a high hill on the tion.

Addison on the War. Jaretta. It contains about 6000 inhabitants, and Neither the Palus Meotis, nor the Euxine, nor any is a place of great antiquity, having given birth other seas, fill up, or by degrees grow shallower.

Woodward. to Diodorus Siculus. It is defended by a castle.

The first stage of healing, or the discharge of matNine miles south of Nicosia.

ter, is by surgeons called digestion; the second, or the FILL, v. a., v. n. & n. s. 1 Saxon, fyllan;

filling up with flesh, incarnation; and the last, or FIL'LER, n. s.,

Teutonic, feellen;
skinning over, cicatrization.

Sharp. Belg. vullen ; Goth. and Swed. filla. Minsheu Nothing but the supreme and absolute Infinite can pices these to Gr. aov, many; which Parkhurst adequately fill and superabundantly satisfy the infi. derives from Heb. 850, being substituted for site desires of intelligent beings.


Your barbarsty may have its fill of destruction. In the islands the plaid is rarely worn. The fillo

Pope. beg, a lower garment, is still very common.
Hope leads from goal to goal,

Johnson's Journey to the Hebrides.
And opens still, and opens on his soul;
Till lengthened on to faith, and unconfined,

FIL’LIP, v. a. & n. s. Belg. flip, a flap; Teut. It pours the bliss that fills up all the mind. Id.

and Swed. fil. A word conjectured by Skinner

an A mixture of tender gentle thoughts and suitable and Minsheu to be formed from the sound': Dr. expressions, of forced and inextricable conceits, and Johnson thinks from fill up, by some combinaof needless fillers up to the rest.

Id. tion of ideas which cannot be recovered: Mr. And after we have seen the light of the gospel Todd suggests the Lat. alapa, a blow, or stroke, penetrate into so many dark places of the earth, why as the origin; but the northern languages evishould it seem a thing incredible, that its splendor dently supplied us with it; and FLABBY, FLAP, should, at last, fill the world, and scatter the remain- FLIPPANCY, are of the same family. See those der of darkness which covereth the nations.

words. To strike with the finger nail by catch

Robertson. Sermon. ing it against the thumb: a fiīlip is a jerk, or FILLET, n. s. & v.a. Fr. filet ; Lat. filum, stroke, of this kind. a thread. See FILE. A bandage : hence applied

Man's life is a glass, and a fillip may crack it. to the part of veal formerly bandaged, now

Old Play (1599). skewered, and any meat thus rolled up; an orna

Then let the pebbles on the hungry beach ment in architecture. To fillet is to bind, or Fillip the stars; then let the mutinous winds adorn, with a bandage.

Strike the proud cedars 'gainst the fiery sun.
Pillars and their fillets of silver,

Shakspeare. He made hooks for the pillars, and overlaid their

If I do, fillip me with a three-man beetle. Id. chapiters, and filleted them. Id, xxxviii. 28. We see, that if you fillip a lutestring, it sheweth Fillet of a fenny snake,

double or treble.

Bacon's Natural History. In the cauldron boil and bake. Shakspeare.

The cards obedient to his words, His baleful breath inspiring as he glides,

Are by a fillip turned to birds. Gay. Now like a chain around her neck he rides ; Now like a fillet to her head repairs,

FIL'LY, n. s. Swed. fola ; Welsh ffilog ; Icel, And with his circling volumes folds her bairs. filia, of Lat. filia, as it were the daughter of

Dryden's Æneid. the mare.'-Minsheu. A young female horse ; The youth approached the fire, and as it burned, and, metaphorically, a light or wanton woman. On five sharp broachers ranked, the roast they Geld fillies, but tits, yet a nine days of age, turned ;

They die else of gelding, and gelders do rage :
These morsels stayed their stomachs ; then the rest Young fillies so likely of bulk and of bone,
They cut in legs and fillets for the feast. Dryden.

Keep such to be breeders, let gelding alone.
She scorned the praise of beauty, and the care ;
A belt her waist, a fillet binds her hair.


I jest to Oberon, and make him smile. The mixture thus, by chymick art

When I a fat and bean-fed horse beguile, United close in every part,

Neighing in likeness of a filly foal. Shakspeare. In fillets rolled, or cut in pieces,

A well-wayed horse will convey thee to thy jour. Appeared like one continued species. Swift. ney's end, when an unbacked filly may give thee a Above twelve hundred of these fillets have been fall.

Suckling. counted by which this animal fixes itself; and when I am joined in wedlock, for my sins, to one of afloat, it contracts these fillets between the bases of its those fillies who are described in the old poet. points, the number of which often amounts to two

Addison's Spectator. thousand.

Darwin. FILM, n. s. & v. a. 1 Sax. film; Belg. vilm. Her tresses, when no fillets bind,

Film'y, adj.

A thin skin or pellicle; Wanton luxurious in the wind :

to cover with a thin skin. Like Dian's auburn locks they shoneBut Venus wreathed them like her own.

It will but skin and film the ulcerous place, Sheridan.

Whilst rank corruption, mining all within, And still they seem resentfully to feel

Infects unseen.

Shakspeare. Hamlet. The silken fillets curb, and sought to shun

While the silver needle did work upon the sight of Their bonds, whene'er some Zephyr, caught, began his eye, to remove the film of the cataract, he never To offer her young pinion as her fan. Byron. saw any thing more clear or perfect than that white FILLET, in heraldry, a kind of orle or bordure, needle.

Bacon. containing only a third or fourth part of the Michael from Adam's eyes the film removed, breadth of the common bordure. It is supposed Which that false fruit that promised clearer sight

Milton's Paradise Lost. to be withdrawn inwards, and is of a different Had bred. color from the field. It runs quite round, near

A stone is held up by the films of the bladder, and the edge, as a lace over a cloak. Fillet is also

Ro kept from grating or offending it. Graunt. used for an ordinary drawn like the bar from the

So the false spider, when her nets are spread, sinister point of the chief across the shield, in

Deep ambushed in her silent den does lie ;

And feels, far cff, the trembling of her thread, manner of a scarf; though it is sometimes likç

Whose filmy cord should bind the struggling iy.

w wise seen in the situation of a bend, fesse, cross,

Dryden. &c. According to Guilliin, the fillet is a fourth

The wasps with fruitless toil part of the chief, and is placed in the chief Flap filmy pinions oft, to extricate point of the escutcheon.

Their feet in liquid shackles bound, 'till death FIL'LIBEG. Gael. filleadh-beg, i. e. little. Bereave them of their worthless souls ; such doom plaid. The lower part of the Highland dress, Waits luxury, and lawless love of gain. Philips. reaching to the knees.

There is not one infidel so ridiculous as to pretend


to solve the phænomena of sight, fancy, or cogitation, Auids; and for this purpose, filters of various by those Aceting superficial films of bodies.

kinds and various substances have been em

Bentley's Sermons. ployed. That which is twisted up like a skain He from thick films shall purge the visual ray,

or wick, acts like a siphon, while it draws off And on the sightless eyeballs pour the day. Pope.

only the purest part of the liquor. Others are Loose to the winds their airy garments Aew,

of paper, flannel, fine linen, sand, pounded glass, Thin glittering textures of the filmy dew; Dipt in the richest tincture of the skies,

or porous stones. When paper is used, it is When light disports in ever-mingling dyes. Id.

shaped into the form of a cone, and placed in a Nor less amused have I quiescent watched

funnel, to support it with the liquid, otherwise it The sooty films, that play upon the bars Pendulous, and foreboding in the view

in the form of a bag or otherwise. Filtering Of superstition, prophesying still,

stones, basins, &c., are either natural or artificial, Though still deceived, some stranger's near approach. for the purpose of purifying water. Natural

Cowper. filters are found in rocks, mountains, beds of Emerged from ocean springs the vapourous air, sand, &c. Artificial filtering basins are made Baches her light limbs, uncarls her amber hair,

of pipe-clay and coarse sand. In 1790 a feIncrusts her beamy form with films saline,

male potter obtained a patent for discovering a And beauty blazes through the crystal shrine.


composition to make filtering basins, as a suc

cedaneum for that porous stone which in many FILMER (Sir Robert), son of Sir Edward places is not to be found. A patent was also Filmer, of East Sutton, Kent, was born towards obtained by Mr. Peacock, in 1791, for a new the close of the sixteenth century, and educated kind of filtration, by means of gravel of differat Trinity College, Cambridge. His works are,- ent sizes, suitable to the several strata. The The Anarchy of limited and mixed Monarchy, various sizes of the particles of gravel, as placed 1646 ; Patriarcha, in which he endeavours to in layers, should be nearly in the quadruple prove that all governments were originally ratio of their surfaces; that is, upon the first monarchical, and that all legal titles are derived layer a second is to be placed, the diameters of from the heads of families. This work was com- whose particles are not to be less than one-half pletely answered by Locke in his two Treatises of the first, and so on in this proportion. This on Government. Filmer died in 1647.

arrangement of filtering particles will gradually FILMER (Edward), son of Sir Robert, who fine the water by the grosser particles being took his degree of LL. D. at Oxford, and was quite intercepted' in their ascending with the author of a tragedy called the Unnatural Brother. water. These filters may be readily cleansed by He defended the stage against Jeremy Collier. withdrawing the body of the fluid, when that

FILOTI, a town of European Turkey, in the which covered the strata will descend, and carry pachalic of Joannina, and the chief place of a away all the foul and ex

na the chief place or a away all the foul and extraneous substances. small independent tribe of that name, consisting A patent was also granted to Mr. Collier, of of 6000 or 8000 men. It is eight miles west of Southwark, for a most ingenious method of filJoannina.

tering water, oil, and other liquids. FILTER, v. a. & n. s.) Fr. filtre ; It, feltro; The principle of the improved filtering maFIL’TERING-STONE, (Lat. filtro (per filum chines consists in combining hydrostatic pressure Fil'TRATE, v. a. (trahere). To draw off with the mode of filtering per ascensum, which

FILTRA'TION, n. s. by threads; hence to procures the peculiar advantage of causing the purify by drawing off, in any way: the substan- Auid and its sediment to take opposite directions tive was once applied to the twist of thread de- The filtering surface remains the same, while pending from a vessel by which liquors were the dimensions of the chamber in which the secleansed; it is now used for any strainer or diment is received may be varied. cleansing vessel : hence the modern filtering Professor Parrot jun. of Paris also invented a stone. See below.

very ingenious and portable filtering machine, Having, for trial sake, filtered it through cap-paper, represented in the diagram annexed :there remained in the filtre a powder. Boyle.

We took then common nitre, and having, by the usual way of solution, filtration, and coagulation, reduced it into crystals, we put four ounces of this purified nitre into a strong new crucible.

Id. That the water passing through the veins of the earth, should be rendered fresh and potable, which it cannot be by any percolations we can make, bat the saline particles will pass through a tenfold filter.

Ray on the Creation. Dilute this liquor with fair water, filtre it through a paper, and so evaporate it. Grew's Mus.

The extract obtained by the former operation, burnt to ashes, and those ashes boiled in water and filtrated, yield a fiery salt. Arbuthnot on Aliments.

Filter, or Filtre, in chemistry, &c., is used only for separating fluids from solids, or particles that may happen to be suspended in them, and not chemically combined with the

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