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nothing;

"Thou bast a brain, such as it is indeed!

If remarkable considerations be put into it by others, On what else should thy worm of fancy feed ? they are as some loose pearls, which, for want of Yet in a filbert I have often known

filing upon a string, shake out of our pockets. Maggots survive, when all the kernel's gone.

Bp. Hall. Dorset.

So saying, on he led his radiant files, There is also another kind, called the filbert of Dazzling the moon. Milton's Paradise Lost. Constantinople; the leaves and fruit of which are The' aputhecary train is wholly blind; bigger than either of the former; the best are those of From files a random recipe they take, a thin shell.

Mortimer. And many deaths of one prescription make. FILCH, v.a.). Fr. filouter; Goth. fela,

Dryden. Filch'er, n. s.

All ran down without order or ceremony, 'till we filgia; Swed. filska: probably, drew up in good order, and filed off. Tatler. Filch'ING. Sas Minsheu suggests, from the

Did all the grosser atoms at the call Latin.fallar, fallacis. To steal; thieve; particu

Of chance file off to form the pondrous ball, larly in a secret and paltry manner.

And undetermined into order fall? Blackmore. The champion robbeth by night,

From the day his first bill was filed he began to And prowleth and filcheth by daie.

collect reports. Tusser's Husbandman.

Arbuthnot and Pope's Martin Scriblerius. He shall find his wealth wonderfully enlarged by

Now at the camp arrived, with stern review keeping his cattle in inclosures, where they shall al.

Thro' groves of spears from file to file h

e he darts ways have safe being, that none are continually filched

His sharp experienced eye.

Somervile. and stolen.

Spenser.

Then broader leaves in shadowy files advance, Who steals my purse steals trash : 'tis something. Spread o'er the crystal food their green expanse ;

And, as in air the adherent dew exhales, 'Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands; Court the warm sun, and breathe ethereal gales, But he that filches from me my good name,

Darwin. Robs me of that which not enriches him,

File, n. s. & v. a. ). Sax. feol; Goth. thil; And makes me poor indeed. Shakspeare. Othello. FI'LE-CUTTER, n. s. Swed. fil; Belgic, vyle: He could discern cities like hives of bees, wherein FI'LINGS.

Teut. and Dan. fiel (q.?) every bee did nought else but sting; some like hornets, of the same origin as the preceding word, the resome like filching wasps, others as drones.

gular teeth lying like threads or hairs on the inBurton on Melancholy. strument. A rubbing or cutting instrument to What made the venture to betray,

smooth prominences, sharpen other instruments, And filch the lady's heart away. Hudibras. &c. To file is to apply this instrument: hence Pain would they filch that little food away, to smooth or polish in any way. A file-cutter is While unrestrained those happy gluttons prey. a maker of files: filings, the fragments worn or

Dryden.

cut off by a file. The pismire was formerly a husbandman, that secretly fiched away bis neighbour's goods.

A file for the mattocks and for the coulters.

1 Sam, xiii. 21. L'Estrange. So speeds the wily fox, alarmed by fear,

. They which would file away most from the largeWho lately filched the curkey's callow care. Gay.

ness of that offer, do in more sparing terms acknowYour business is not to steal from them, but to im

ledge little less.

Hooker. prove upon them, and make their sentiments your

His humour is lofty, his discourse peremptory, his own; which is an effect of great judgment; and, though

th tongue filed, and his eye ambitious. Shakspeare. difficult, yet very possible without the scurvy imputa

su The filings of iron infused in vinegar, will, with a tion of filching.

Swift.
Smitti decoction of galls, make good ink, without any cop-

Browne. The tree of knowledge has been plucked--all's perose: known

The smiths and armourers on palfreys ride, And life yields nothing further to recall

Files in their hands and hammers at their side.

Dryden. Worthy of this ambrosial sin, so shown, No doubt in fable, as the unforgiven

Let men be careful how they attempt to cure a ble. Fire which Prometheus filched for us from heaven.

mish by filing or cutting off the head of such an over

1.
growa tooth.
Byron.

Ray.

The rough or coarse-toothed file, if it be large, is FILE, n. s., v.a.&v.n. Fr. file ; Lat. filum (à called a rubber, and is to take off the unevenness of pilus, Gr. Tilos, hair). A thread; a line on your work which the hammer made in the forging : which papers are strung; a muster-roll; line of the bastard -toothed file is to take out of your work the soldiers : to place papers or documents on a file; deep cuts, or file-strokes, the rough file made : the fineto march in file.

toothed file is to take out the cuts or file-strokes, the Our present musters grow upon the file

bastard file made; and the smooth file is to take out To five and twenty thousand men of choice.

those cuts, or file-strokes, that the fine file made,

Moron.
Shakspeare.
Those goodly eyes,

Gad-steel is a tough sort of steel : filecutters use it That o'er the files and musters of the war

to make their chissels, with which they cut their files.

Id. Have gloved like plated Mars, now bend, now turn Upon a taway front.

The chippings and filings of these jewels are of Shakspeare. Antony and Cleopatra. more value than the whole mass of ordinary authors.

Felton on the Classics. All records, wherein there was any memory of the king's attainder, should be cancelied and taken of the FILE v.a. Sax. apylan, to foul ; defile; sully:

Bacon. said to be still in use in this sense in Scotland. But let me resume the file of my narration, which For Banquo's issue have I filed my min:), this object of books, best agreeable to my course of For them the gracious Duncan have I murdered. life, hath a little interrupted. Wotton.

Shakspeart. VOL. IX.

His weeds divinely fashioned,

Fine tools of this description are called floats. All filed and mangled. Chapman's Iliad. When teeth are crossed they are called files; File, in law, is a record of the court; and and when, instead of the notches standing in a the filing of a process of a court makes it a re- right line, a number of single teeth are raised cord of that court. An original writ may be all over the surface, it is called a rasp. Files filed after judgment given in the cause, issued are cut upon the surface with a sharp-edged forth before ; declarations, &c., are to be filed, chisel. In rasps, the tooth is raised with a triand affidavits must be filed, some before they are angular punch. The file is adapted for working read in court, and some immediately after. 'Be- metals, but the rasp is more fitted for wood, fore filing a record removed by certiorari, the bone, and horn. Files are distinguished by justices of B. R. may refuse to receive it, if it being single or double cut. The single cut file appear to be for delay, &c.; and remand it back is simply cut once over, and is employed for for the expedition of justice; but if the certiorari filing brass, and the softer metals. A second be once filed, the proceedings below cannot be course of teeth is cut to form the double cut revived. An indictment, &c., cannot be amended file, crossing the first diagonally. This kind is after it is filed.

best suited to iron and steel. File, in the art of war, is the depth of the The steel employed for files requires to be battalion or squadron. The files of a battalion very hard, and in consequence undergoes a of foot are generally three deep; as are some- longer process in the conversion (see STEEL). times those of a squadron of horse. The files It is said to be doubly converted. The very must be straight and parallel one to another. heavy files, such as smiths' rubbers, are made

A FILE on horseback occupies in the ranks of the inferior marks of blistered steel : the about two feet eight inches; thus three file eight more delicate kind, such as watch-makers' files, feet. A file on foot occupies in the ranks twenty of cast steel. The steel is previously drawn at two inches.

the tilt, into rods of suitable size. The flat and FILES, CLOSE, of infantry, are soldiers standing square files are made wholly with the bammer, in rank, contiguous to one another, upon any and the plain anvil. Two workmen, one called given depth of line or column. The soldiers in the maker and the other striker, are required in the ranks should then touch lightly each other, the forging of heavy files. The anvil is prowithout crowding or pressing.

vided with a groove, for the reception of bosses Files, Open, are soldiers standing in rank or dies, which are used for the purpose of at given distances without touching each other. forging the half-round and three-angled files.

FILES, INDIAN, a line of men advancing or re- The half-round boss contains a hollow which is treating from either of the flanks, from the centre, the segment of a sphere, less than half a circle. or from any proportion of a line in succession to That used for the triangular files has a hollow one another.

consisting of two sides, terminating in an angle FILE-LEADER is the soldier placed in the front at the bottom. In forging the half-round file, of any file, or the man who is to cover all the steel is drawn out, as if intended. to make those that stand directly in the rear of him, a flat file. It is then laid in the die, and hamand by whom they are to be guided in all their mered, till the under side becomes round. The movements. File-leaders must be particularly steel for the triangular file is tilted into square careful to preserve their proper distances rods. The part to form the file is first drawn from which ever hand they are to dress to, and out with the hammer, as if intended to form a the followers of each file must only be attentive square file. It is then placed in the die with to cover, and be regulated by their proper file- one of the angles downwards, and by striking leaders.

upon the opposite angle, two sides of the square FILES, CLOSE, in cavalry, are at the distance are formed into one, and consequently a threewhen each man's boot-top touches, but does not sided figure produced. By successively prepress, that of his neighbour.

senting the different sides to the action of the Files, Loose, in cavalry movements, are six hammer, the figure is rendered still more cominches distant from boot-top to boot-top, being plete. In forming the tangs of most files, it is calculated for the gallop as well as the walk of a necessary to make the shoulders perfectly square squadron.

and sharp. This is performed by cutting into FILES, OPEN, in cavalry, are the full breadth the file a little on each side with a sharp instruof a horse from boot-top to boot-top. They ment, and afterwards drawing out the part so contain the distance which is left, when from marked off, to form the tang. close files, the left files rein back to dismount. After forging, and previously to their being

File Making. Many useful tools have been ground and cut, the files require to be annealed. invented for performing mechanical operations, This process is generally performed by piling up which consist of a number of wedges or teeth, a great quantity together in a furnace for the which may be conceived to stand upon, or rise purpose, and heating them red hot; suffering out of a flat or curved metallic surface. When them afterwards to cool slowly; on the whole these teeth are formed on the edge of a plate, a very objectionable method, since the surface the instrument is called a saw (see Saw); but of steel, when heated red hot in the open air, when they are formed ipon a broad surface, it is so liable to oxidation. A superior method constitutes what is denominated a file. The of annealing is practised by some file-makers, comb-makers use a tool of this description, and, since hardness in a file is so essential a procalled a quonet, having coarse single teeth, to perty, it ought to be generally adopted. This the number of about seven or eight to an inch. method consists in placing the files in an oven

or trough, having a close cover, and filling up strap, which goes over each end of the file and he interstices with sand. The fire is made to passes round his feet, which are introduced into play on every side of the vessel, as gradually the strap on each side in the same manner as ind uniformly as possible, till the whole mass stirrups are used. The file-cutter, therefore, becomes red hot. The fire is then discontinued, sits as if he were on horseback, holding his and the whole suffered to cool before the cover chisel with one hand, his hammer in the other, is removed from the trough. Another evil may at the same time he secures the file in its place however arise from keeping steel red hot, even by the pressure of his feet in the stirrups. in a close vessel, for too great a length a time. Great pains ought to be taken in preparing It assumes a kind of crystallisation, under the edge of the chisel. It is, in the first place, which its tenacity is much impaired. Steel hardened and tempered by heating it gradually annealed in this way, is perfectly free from that till it appears of a yellowish brown. It is next scaly surface acquired in the open air; and if ground very true to form the edge, which is each corticle be perfectly surrounded with the afterwards finished upon a Turkey stone with sand, and the cover not removed before the steel oil. It is not required to be very sharp, the is cold, the surface will appear of a silvery bottom of the tooth requiring to be rather open, white color. If the steel be suspected to be to prevent the file from clogging with the subtoo kind, from containing too little carbon, pow- stance to be filed. The edge is also required to dered charcoal may be employed instead of be very smooth, in order that it may slip easily sand, or sand mixed with charcoal. In this upon the surface of the files : this is also facicase the files should be stratified alternately litated by slightly greasing the surface. From with the charcoal, in order that the extra-con- this advantage the worker, after making one version may be uniform.

tooth, is enabled by feeling only, to form at its The next thing is to prepare the files for proper distance the succeeding tooth, by sliding cutting, by making the surface to 'contain the the chisel close up against the back of the preteeth as level as possible. This was formerly ceding one. effected by means of files, and the process is In the double-cut files, the first set of teeth, called striping. The same is still practised by which the workmen call up-cutting, are, prethe Lancashire file-makers, and by others not vious to cutting the second course, filed slightly having convenience for grinding. The greatest upon the face, in order to allow the chisel tr quantities of files, however, are ground to slide freely. The single-cut file is more durable prepare them for cutting. The stones employed than the double-cut, and ought to be preferred for the purpose are of the sand-stone kind, the for all purposes excepting for iron and steel. texture of which is compact and sharp, but The same method is employed in cutting the rather rough. They are of as great diameter rasp. The workman is, however, guided comas can be used with convenience; and about pletely by his eye in regulating the distance of eight inches broad over the face. When used, the teeth from each other. The rasp ought to the surface is kept immersed in water. The be cut in such a manner that no one of the teeth grinder sits in such a position as to lean over may stand opposite to another; this not only the stone, while its motion is directly from him. allows the rasp to cut faster, but makes the Its surface moves at about the same speed with surface either of wood or other substance much those used in grinding cutlery. Since the object smoother. in grinding files is to make the surface as even The operation of simple file-cutting seems to and flat as possible, and as this cannot be done be of such easy performance that it has for so completely upon a small stone, the stones of the almost two centuries been a sort of desideratum file-grinder are laid aside when they are reduced to construct a machine to perform that, which to a certain size, and are employed for grinding is not only done with great facility by the hand, other articles. Though grinding is by far the but with wonderful expedition. We are told most expeditious method, it does not give that that a lad not very much experienced in the truth to the surface which can be effected by business will produce, with his hammer and filing. If the price of the articles would admit, chisel, nearly 300 teeth in a minute. With however, it would be well to render the surface respect to machinery, it is said, that a Frenchmore even by the file after grinding. If the man named Mathurin Jousse, in a work surface be not fat, it is obvious, that when the entitled La fidelle Ouverture de l'Art de Serfile is used for filing a large surface, those teeth rurier, published at La Fleche, in Anjou, so in the hollow parts of the file will not be brought long ago as the year 1627, gives a drawing and into action. It is from attention to this circum- description of one, in which the file is drawn stance, and to the care in annealing and harden- along by shafts by means of wheel-work, and ing, that the Lancashire file-makers have gene- the blow is given by a hammer. There are rally excelled. They are, however, confined several machines of this kind, or at least to chiefly to the small articles, since the larger files effect the same purpose, in the Machines would not pay for the process of striping. The Approuvées par l'Academie Royale de Paris : tools of the file-cutter consist of an anvil placed there is also one published in the second volume upon a block of such a height that the man sits of the Transactions of the American Philoto his work. He has also a piece of lead al- sophical Society, of which we shall give some loyed with tin, on which he lays the files when account, as we shall of another for which Mr. one side is cut. The chisel and hammer are William Nicholson obtained a patent in the year of such size as the size and cut of the file re- 1802 ; premising that the principal requisites, quire. He is also provided with a leathern in a machine for file-cutting, are that the metal from which it is manufactured should be stea- such a length that the excavation here described dily supported, and the chisel adapted to the face shall be considerably longer than the longest without any unequal bearing.

[graphic]

files intended to be cut; and it is supported upo The American machine consists of a bench of straight bearers from the platform, upon wa well seasoned oak, and the face of it planed by projecting pieces, or slides, or wheels, ce very smooth ; and a carriage on which the files friction-rollers, it can be moved endwise in a are laid, which moves along the face of the bench straight-lined direction, without shake or devisparallel to its sides, and carries the files gradually tion. At one end of the said excavation is fixel under the edge of the cutter or chisel while the a clip, resembling a hand-vice, for holding the teeth are cut. The carriage is made to move by file by its tail or tang; and in the opposite end a contrivance somewhat similar to that which of the said excavation there is a sliding blocker carries the log against the saw of a saw-mill. piece, which being brought up to the other end The lever or arm, which carries the cutter, works of the file does, by means of a notch or other on the centres of two screws which are fixed obvious contrivance, prevent it from being moved into two pillars in a direction right across the sideways. The said clip is so fixed at its head bench. By tightening or loosening these screws, or shank, by means of an horizontal axis on the arm which carries the chisel may be made gudgeons and sockets, that the file is at liberty to work more or less steadily. There is likewise to move up and down, but not sideways or a regulating-screw, by means of which the files a-twist. In this manner it is that the file being may be made coarser or finer: also a bed of fixed in the carriage is pressed down upon the lead, which is let into a cavity formed in the anvil by a lever and weight proceeding from the body of the carriage, somewhat broader and platform, and bearing upon the face of the file longer than the largest-sized files : the upper by a small roller of wood, ivory, bone, or sof face of this bed of lead is formed variously, so metal. The anvil is solidly fixed on the platas to fit the different kinds of files which may be form, and may be of any suitable figure which required.

shall be susficiently massy to receive and resis When the file or files are laid in their place, the blow; but its upper part must be so c00the machine must be regulated by the screw to tracted as to stand up in the excavation of the cut them of a due degree of fineness. This carriage and support the file ; and the upper machine is described as being so simple, that part of all must be constructed in such a manwhen properly adjusted a blind person may cut ner that it shall fairly apply itself to the under a file with more exactness than can be done in surface of the file, and support it without leavini the usual method with the keenest sight; for by any hollow space, notwithstanding any castal striking with a hammer on the head of the cut- irregularities of the said surface. I produce ter or chisel all the movements are set at work; this effect by making a cavity in the ancil of the and by repeating the stroke with the hammer, the figure of a portion of a sphere, not much less files on one side will at length he cut; then they than a hemisphere, and in this cavity I place must be turned, and the operation repeated for (with grease between) a piece of iron or steel cutting the other side. This machine may be made exactly to fit, but of which the lower surmade to work by water as readily as by hand, face is a greater portion of the sphere, and the to cut coarse or fine, large or small files, or any upper surface flat and plain. The file rests upon number at a time: but it may be more particu- this last flat or plain surface, which is either larly useful for cutting the very fine small files faced with lead, or (in preference) a slip of lead for watchmakers.

is put under the file and turned round the tang We shall now give an account of the machine thereof, so as to move along with it. It is eve for which Mr. Nicholson obtained his majesty's dent that the upper or moveable piece of the letters patent. “My machinery,' says the pa- said anvil will, by sliding in its socket, actentee, . consists in four essential parts, suitably commodate and apply itself constantly to the constructed and combined together; namely; surface of the file, which is pressed and struck First, a carriage or apparatus, in or by which against it. Or, otherwise, I make the conthe file is fixed or held and moved along, for the cavity in the upper moveable piece, and make purpose of receiving the successive strokes of a the fixed part convex: or, otherwise, I support cutter or chisel. Secondly, the anvil, by which the upper part, or in some cases the whole of the file is supported beneath the part which re- my anvil upon opposite gudgeons, in the manner ceives the stroke. Thirdly, the regulating gear, of the gimbals of sea compasses : or, otherwise, by which the distance between stroke and stroke I form the upper part of my anvil cylindrical, is determined and governed. And, fourthly, the of a large diameter, supported on thick gudgeons apparatus for giving the stroke or cut. The four the axis of the said cylinder being short, and at several parts are supported by, or attached to a right angles to the motion of the carriage : 05, frame or platform of solid and secure workman- otherwise, I form only a small portion, namely, ship, either of wood or metal, or both, according the upper extremity of my anvil, of a cylindrical to the nature of the work intended to be per- form as aforesaid, and cause the same to continue formed, and the judgment and choice of the motionless by fashioning the same out of the engineer. The carriage is a long block of wood, same mass as the rest of the anvil, or fixing the or metal, of the figure of a parallelipidon, or same thereto. And in both the last-mentioned nearly so, having a portion cut out between its cases of the cylindrical structure I fix the head upper and lower surfaces to admit the anvil to or shank of the clip (by which the tang is held, stand therein, without coming into contact with not by a single axis or pair of gudgeons, but by the carriage itself. The said carriage is made of an universal joint or ball and socket, so that the file becomes at liberty to adapt itself not only by the stroke : or, otherwise, the said chisel may upwards and downwards, but also in the way of have a notch, or a hole, instead of a protubera rotation or a-twist, and supplies the want of ance, to meet a correspondent part in the mouthmotion in the anvil by the facility with which piece or claws; but I prefer the first-mentioned itself can be moved in the last-mentioned man, construction. By the construction of the chisel, ner.

as here mentioned and fixed, the edge of the said The regulating-gear is that part of the instrument is at liberty to apply itself fairly from machinery by which the carriage, and conse- side to side of the file notwithstanding any windquently the file, is drawn along. It consists of a ing or irregularity, whatever may be the fineness screw revolving between centres fixed to the of the cut upon a broad surface. The mouthplatform, and acting upon a nut attached to the piece, with its chisel, is firmly fixed in another carriage with usual and well known precautions piece, which by its motion gives the stroke. for working of measuring screws; and the nut This last-mentioned piece may either be a lever, being made to open by a joint when the carriage or a moveable carriage between upright sliders; is required to be disengaged and slided back. but I greatly prefer the lever. The chisel must And the said screw is moved either constantly be so fixed that the moving piece shall carry it by a slow motion from the first mover, or (which fairly edge onwards to the file without scraping is better) by interrupted equal motions, so as to or slapping in the least; and the obliquity of draw the carriage during the interval between the stroke may be adjusted by fixing the centres stroke and stroke. And the quantities of those of the level either higher or lower at pleasure, respective equal motions may be produced and or by inclining the last-mentioned sliders. The governed at pleasure by wheel-work applied to lever may be raised and let fall (or the other the head of the screw, or by the well known ap- chisel apparatus moved) by a tripping-piece or paratus used in the mathematical dividing engine snail-work, or other usual connexion with the for circles; or by other contrivances well known first mover; and its power of stroke may be to workmen of competent sķill, and therefore increased by the addition of a weight, or by the unnecessary to be described at large: or, other action of a spring; which last method is of exwise, the motion of the carriage may be pro- cellent use, and may, (if required from the varyduced by a toothed rack from the carriage drawn ing breadth of the file) be made to increase or by a pinion; and this pinion moved by a ratchet- diminish its power during the run by several wheel on the same arbor moved by a click-lever, easy and commonly used methods or contriwhich shall gather up and drive a greater or less vances for pressing more or less against the number of teeth, according to the coarseness or spring. Or, otherwise, the lever, or holdingfineness of the file; and the click-lever itself piece, may be kept immediately above the file may be moved by a tripping piece from the first by the re-action of a slight spring, or weight, mover, or by various other evident means of and be struck by a hammer moved and acted connexion : or, otherwise, the said carriage may upon by the first mover, as aforesaid : and to be moved by a small cylinder, and rope or chain this method I give the preference, because the constantly acting : or, otherwise, the said motion lever will then have less strain upon its pivots; may be effected by a train of two or more wheels, or the said lever may even be supported by suffered to move by any of the escapements spring-joints without any pivots or centres at used in time-pieces, and the fineness of stroke all. Or, instead of a hammer, the blow may be may be regulated either by changing the wheels given by a ram, or a fly and screw, but I give as in the common fuzee engine, or by the greater the preference to the hammer. The lever may or less frequency of escape during each turn of move in a vertical circle immediately over the the first mover. And in every case I prefer a file, or in an oblique circle at right angles to it, counter-weight to the carriage, acting either con- or at any intermediate angle consistent with the stantly against, or constantly in the direction of foregoing instructions: and the chisel may be its motion; though this is not absolutely neces- set with its edge at any angle whatever, with the sary when the work is well executed. I may line of the length of the lever; but, in general, also observe, that it is possible to construct my I have set the lever in the first-mentioned posisajd machinery by fixing and rendering motion- tion, and have varied the angle between the less that part which I have called the carriage, chisel-edge and the lever, according to the inprovided the other three principal parts be made tended slope of the cut upon the face of the to move instead of the carriage itself; but I con- file. The edge of the chisel must be sharpened sider this disposition as less eligible than that to such an angle as the intended cut and strength which requires the carriage to be moved. The of burr may require. Lastly, I describe the apparatus for giving the stroke or cut, consists of general action of the said machinery as follows: a chisel, which is held between the jaws of a i. The file being prepared as usual for cutting, mouth-piece or claws resembling a strong hand- must be fixed in the clip of the carriage, and vice without teeth. One of the jaws is made the sliding-block brought up and fixed, to steady Very stout, and the chisel is formed narrow from its other extremity. 2. The nut of the screw edge to back, and wide from side to side, and being then opened (or the other regulating gear has a semi-circular protuberance on its back, disengaged) the carriage is slided to its place, which rests in a circular notch in the strong jaw so that the chisel may be situated over that part aforesaid ; and there are two or three bended of the file which is to receive the first stroke. flat rings or washers of iron or metal under the 3. The put is then closed (or the other reguthumb-screw of the said mouth-piece or claws, lating gear connected) and the small roller of which prevent the chisel from becoming loose the pressing lever is made to bear upon the face

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