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penny.

Id.

Johnson.

The rogue and fool by fts is fair and wise,

crease their own revenues by the tolls which And even the best, by fits what they despise. their charters authorised them to levy at these

Pope.

fairs. Hence the multitude of attendants inThe stage how loosely does Astrea tread,

creased, some of whom were actuated by reWho fairly puts all characters to bed! Id.

ligious, and others by commercial views. When It is a church of England man's opinion, that the

a fair was held within the precincts of a cathefreedom of a nation consists in an absolute unlimited

dral or monastery, it was not uncommon to legislative power, wherсin the whole body of the people are fairly represented in an executive duly before he was admitted, that he would neither

oblige every man to take an oath at the gate, limited.

There are other nice, though inferior cases, in lie, nor steal, nor cheat, while he continued at which a man must guard, if he intends to keep fair the fair. The duration of fairs is determined with the world, and turn the

by proclamation, by stat. 2 Ed. III. c. 15; and Collier on Popularity. if a person shall sell any goods after the time of Nature's circle, like a chariot wheel the fair expires, he shall incur a forfeiture of Rolling beneath their elevated aims,

double the value of the goods sold, one-fourth Makes their fair prospect fairer every bour,

to the prosecutor, and the rest to the king. Any Advancing virtue in a line to bliss.

Yoning.

citizen of London may carry his goods to any For as by depredations wasps proclaim

fair or market in England at his pleasure. If The fairest fruit, so these the fairest fame.

any person is entitled to hold a fair or market, Behold, my fair, where'er we rove,

and another is set up within the distance of a What dreary prospects round us rise.

third part of twenty miles, either on the saine Winter's Walk.

day, or a different day, it is a nuisance, and an Not slothful he, though seeming unemployed,

action on the case lies; and also against persons And censured oft as useless. Stillest streams Oft water fairest meadows, and the bird,

disturbing such as are coming to buy or sell in the That fiutters least, is longest on the wing.

fair or market, so that the person holding the Couper.

fair, &c., loses his toll, or receives prejudice So, robed by beauty's queen, with softer charms in the profits arising from it. There is a toll Saturnia wooed the thunderer to her arms;

usually paid in fairs on the sale of things, and O'er her fair limbs a veil of light she spread,

for stallage, piccage, &c.

Fairs abroar ure And bound a starry diadem on her head, Darwin. either free, or charged with toll and impost. The When blest with the smiles of my fair,

privileges of free fairs consist chiefly, first, in I know not how much I adore ;

that all traders, &c., whether natives or foreigners, Those smiles let another but share,

are allowed to enter the kingdom, and are under And I wonder I prized them no more! Byron.

the royal protection, exempt from duties, impoFair, n. s. 2 Fr. foire ; Ital, fiera; Port. sitions, tolis, &c. Secondly, that merchants, in

Fair'ing. I faira ; Span. feria : Teut. fryer; going or returning, cannot be molested or arWelsh ffair ; Swed. fira; either from Lat. firie, rested, or their goods stopped. They are esfeast days, or forum, the market place; Gr. poplov, tablished by letters patent from the prince. merchandise. - Minsheu. A stated market : a

Fairs, particularly free fairs, are of great importmeeting-day, or meeting-place, for buyers and ance in the commerce of Europe, especially in sellers: a fairing is a present brought from, or that of the Mediterranean, and inland parts of given at, a fair.

Germany, &c. With silver, iron, tin and lead, they traded in thy The principal fairs in Europe are-1. Two fairs.

in Frankfort; the first commencing the Sunday Sweetheart, we shall be rich ere we depart,

before Palm Sunday, and the second on the If fairings come thus plentifully in. Shakspeare.

Sunday before the 8th of September. Each lasts Like children that esteem every trifle, and prefer a

three weeks ; the first called the week of accepfairing before their fathers.

Ben Jonson.

tance, the second the week of payment. They His corn, his cattle, were his only care, And his supreme delight a country fair. Dryden.

are famous for the sale of all kinds of commodi. The ancient Nundinæ, or fairs of Rome, were kept of books, no where else to be found, whence the

ties ; but particularly for the immense quantity every ninth day : afterwards the same privileges booksellers throughout all Europe used to furnish were granted to the country markets, which were at

themselves. Before each fair there is a catalogue

Arbuthnot on Coins. of all the books to be sold, printed and dispersed, Now he goes on, and sings of fairs and shows; to call together purchasers; though the learned For still new fairs before his eyes arose :

have long complained of unfair practices herein ; How pedlars stalls with glittering toys are laid, as fictitious titles, names of books purely imagiThe various fairings of the country maid.

nary, &c., besides great blunders in the names of Gay's Pastorals.

the authors, and the titles of the real books. Fairs are generally kept once or twice in the 2. The fairs of Leipsic, which are held thrice year, and in most places on the same day with a-year; one beginning on the 1st of January, the festival of some patron saint to whom the. the second three weeks after Easter; and the church was dedicated. This may in some mea- third after Michaelmas. 3. The four fairs of

serve to show us their origin. When Novi, in the Milanese, commencing on the 2d of bishops and abbots observed that crowds of February, the 2d of Mav, the 1st of August, people assembled to celebrate the festivals of their and 2d of September. Though the commodities patron saints, they applied to the crown for char- bought and sold are very considerable, yet what ters to hold fairs at those times, for the accom- chiefly contributes to render them famous is, the modation of strangers, and with a view to in- vast concourse of the most considerable mer

C2

Ezek.

first under the power of the consuls.

sure

chants and negociants of the neighbouring king- parently endless continuation of convulsive ruin, doms, for transacting affairs and settling accounts. covered by the waters beneath the promontory. 4. The fairs of Riga, two in the year; in MayUpon this region of desolation, on the shore, and September, much frequented by the English, enormous debris, either assuming the character Dutch, and French ships, as also from all parts of rude columnisation, or in a perfectly shapeof the Baltic. The best time for the sale of goods less mass, whose weight is calculated at from 4000 at Riga is during the fairs. Since the building to 5000 tons, are thrown together in all the savage of Petersburg, these fairs have suffered some di- sublimity of which we can conceive the wildest minution. 5. Fair of Archangel, during which scenes in nature capable. all the trade foreigners have with that city is The scene just now described is discovered managed. It holds a month, or six weeks, com- below the feet of the traveller, as he cautiously mencing in the middle of August. The Musco- paces along the brink of the precipice. Thc vite merchants attend here from all parts of that surface upon which he treads, upon examination, vast empire; and the English, Dutch, French, Swe- will be found to consist of a regular pavement, dish, Danish, and other ships in the port of that formed of the extremities of enormous prismatic city, on this occasion, ordinarily amount to 300. masses, composing the precipice, perfectly deBut this is not a free fair as the rest are: The nuded and completely level. These prisms vary duties of exportation and importation are very in form; some are quadrilateral, and appear to strictly paid, and on a high footing. 6. The fair be composed of a congeries of smaller prisms, of St. Germain, near Paris, commencing the 3d aggregated in such a way as to suggest very obof February, and holding till Easter, though it is viously the clustered assemblage of shafts, which only free for the first fifteen days. 7. The fairs occur in the formation of a Gothic column. In of Lyons, which M. de Chesne, in his An- tracing the summit of this bold head, several tiquity of Cities, alleges, from a passage of Stra- natural curiosities are pointed out; the first, to bo, were established by the Romans; though the the west, is a fissure in the face of the precipice, fairs, as they now stand, are of a much later date. called Fhir Leith, or the Gray Man's Path: the There are three in the year, each lasting twenty entrance to the pass, at the top, is extremely days, and free for ever. They begin on Easter narrow; and formerly, a joint of green-stone, Monday, the 26th of July, and the 1st of De- which had fallen across it, formed a sort of nacember. 8. Fair of Guibray, a suburb of Fa- tural gate, through which the bold enquirer delaise, said to have been established by William scended; entering, next, a gradually expanding the Conqueror, who was born at Falaise. It passage, which leads to the chaotic heaps, at the commences on the 16th of August; and holds base of the great colonnade. The natural archififteen days free by charter, and longer by cus- trave has lately fallen down, and quite choked up tom. 9. Fair of Beaucaire, held partly in the the passage. There are one or two similar chasms city of that name, and partly in the open country, along the summit, which have frequently proved under tents, &c. It commences on the 22d of fatal to the cattle left pasturing upon the headJuly, and only holds for three days; yet it is the land. There are several places, along the brink greatest and most celebrated of all the fairs in of the precipice, where the guide directs his fol. that part of Europe, both for the concourse of lowers to lie Aat upon the ground, and cast the strangers from all parts of the world, and for the eye down perpendicularly to the foot of the cotraffic of all kinds of goods : the money returned lumn, a depth of 250 feet; this can be done in in these three days amounting sometimes to many places without the least danger. Some of about 6,000,000 of livres.

the columns are magnetical. Fair Hean, or Benmore, i.e. the Great Head, Near the highest point of Fair Head is an exas it is generally and more properly called, is said, traordinary cave, said to be artificial, and called by Dr. Hamilton, to be the Rhobogdium of Ptole- a Pict's house. Not far hence are two small my. It is not, however, the most northern point of lakes, at an elevation exceeding 400 feet above Ireland, which was what Ptolemy meant to de- the sea, called Lough Caolin and Lough-nasignate by this name. Mr. Wright therefore Cressa; one of these discharges its overflowing considers that geographer to apply this denomi- waters into the sea, through the whyndyke, nation to Malin Head, or Inishowen Head. called Carrick Mawr, or the Great Crag.

This splendid promontory, whose highest point FAIR Isle, or Faro, as Buchanan calls it, a is 535 feet above the ocean's level, is, according small island lying between Orkney and Shetland, to the latter writer, composed of a body of co- thirty miles E.N. E. from the former, and twentylumnar green-stone, of such dimensions, that its four south-west from the latter. It is above three articulations are not at first very obvious; but, miles long, and nearly two broad, very craggy, upon surveying attentively one of the gigantic with three very high promontories (one of them columns, the joints and separatrices are distinctly called Sheep Craig, 480 feet high), which are marked. The whole structure of the promon- visible both from Orkney and Shetland. Butory consists of two parts; the one, at the sea chanan says, it is encompassed with lofty rocks ; side, is an inclined plane, strewn with enormous and is every where inaccessible, unless upon the masses of the same stone, in the wildest and south-east, where, lowering a little, it affords a most terrific chaos; above this rises the mural safe station for small vessels.' There is great precipice of columnar green-stone, 250 feet in plenty of sea and water fowl, and all kinds of height. The scene of ruin at the base of these fish upon the coast. There is a small harbour at Titanian pillars is probably not exceeded in the south end, which is full of rocks, where only Europe. Here the sea heaves in a solemn ma- small boats can lie, and another at the north-east jas.ic swell, and in every retreat discloses the ap- end, larger and safer in summer, so that it serves

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commodiously enough for their fishery. The even seems to give him the preference for harduke of Medina Sidonia, commander of the mony, when he observes that Waller owned himfamous Spanish armada, in 1588, was wrecked self indebted for the harmony of his numbers to on the east coast of this island. The ship broke Fairfax's Godfrey of Boulogne. He died about to pieces, but the duke and 200 men made their 1632, at his house, called Newhall, between Denescape. They lived here so long, that both they ton and Knaresborough. and the inhabitants were almost famished. At

Fairfax, a county of Virginia, on the west length the duke, and the poor remains of his bank of the Potomac, twenty-five miles long and people, were carried over to the main land of eighteen broad. The chief town is Alexandria. Shetland, and thence to Dunkirk, by one Andrew Fairfax, a township of Vermont, in Franklin Humphrey, for which Andrew was rewarded with county, east of Georgia, on the bank of the 3000 merks.

Moille; nine miles from Lake Champlain. FAIRFAX (Sir Thomas), general of the parlia- FAIRFIELD, a populous maritime county of mentary forces in the civil wars, was the eldest Connecticut, forty-six miles long and thirty-five son of Ferdinando lord Fairfax, and born at broad, bordering on the state of New York. It Denton, the family seat, in Yorkshire, in 1611. is divided into thirteen townships. Danbury and He commenced his military career in the army Fairfield are the chief towns. under lord Vere in Holland ; and, when the dif- Fairfield, the capital of the above county, ferences broke out into hostility between the king called Unquowa by the Indians, is seated on the and parliament, took a decided part in the favor Mill-run, a little above its influx into Long of the latter, being, as well as his father, a zealous Island Sound. It was burnt in 1777, by a party presbyterian. He had a principal command in of British and loyalists; by which it incurred a the north, where he and his father were defeated loss of above £40,109. It has been since rebuilt, in several engagements, particularly at Adderton and is now flourishing. It carries on a considerMoor, in June 1643. Sir Thomas was, however, able trade to the West Indies. It is twenty-two more successful in some subsequent actions, and miles south-west by west of New Haven, sixtyhe distinguished himself so greatly, at the battle four north-east of New York, and 161 of Philaof Marston Moor, that, when the army was new delphia. modelled, he was appointed general in the room FAIRFIELD, a county of South Carolina, in of the earl of Essex. In June, 1645, he defeated Camden district, forty miles square; seated bethe king's forces at Naseby, after which he tween the Wateree and Broad River. Winusbomarched to the west, where he obliged a number rough is the capital. of places to submit. Upon the death of his FAIRFORD, a town in Gloucestershire, refather, in 1648, he succeeded to his title, and the markable for its church, which has curious painted same year took Colchester, after a brave resist- glass windows. They are said to have been taken ance by Sir George Lisle and Sir Charles Lucas, in a ship by John Tame, esq., towards the end o. whom his lordship, after the surrender, basely the fifteenth century, who built a church for their caused to be shot. He pretended to be against sake. They are preserved entire, and the figures putting the king to death, but took no steps to are extremely well drawn and colored. They prevent it; and, at the time of the execution, was represent the most remarkable histories in the engaged in prayer with major Harrison. He de- old and New Testament. The painter was Alclined commanding the army against the presby- bert Durer. In the church are also a number of terians, who afterwards appeared in favor of monuments, particularly a curious one to the Charles II., and lived in retirement till measures memory of the founder, who died in the year were adopted for bringing back the king. He 1500 ; with his esligy in white marble. Near it was at the head of the committee appointed by is a handsome free schoo!, endowed for sixty the house of commons to attend king Charles II. boys; besides which this town has many other at the Hague, and, having assisted in his restora- charitable institutions : it has also two neat tion, returned again to his seat in the country; bridges over the river Colne. It is twenty-two where he lived in a private manner till his death, miles E.S. E. of Gloucester, and seventy-nine and which took place in 1671 in the sixtieth year of a half west by north of London. his age. He wrote, says Mr. Walpole, Memori- Fair WEATHER Mount, a mountain on the als of Thomas Lord Fairfax, printed in 1699; north-east coast of North America, about 14,900 and was not only an historian but a poet. In feet above the level of the sea, and about twelve Mr. Thoresby's museum were preserved, in MS., miles north-east of Fair Weather Cape. It is one the following pieces :- The Psalms of David, the of the principal summits of the Cordillera of Canticles, the Song of Moses, and other parts of Norfolk; its base being formed by the summits Scripture, versified; a poem on Solitude; Notes of various surrounding mountains. It is covered of Sermons; and a Treatise on the Shortness of with perpetual snow. Long. 222° 47' E., lat. 58° Life. But the most remarkable of lord Fairfax's 57' N. works, says Walpole, were the verses he wrote on FAIRY, n. s. & adj. 7 Old Fr. faerie, a specthe horse on which Charles II. rode to his coro- FAIRYLIKE.

S tre, fee, a nymph ; Sax. nation. He gave a collection of MSS. to the perhd. “Ab ipa terra, fit et fipa Macedonum Bodleian library.

dialecto; unde ivepou évfepot, et Romanis inFAIRFAX (Edward), natural son of Sir Thomas feri, qui Scoto-Saxonibus dicuntur feries nostraFairfax, was an English poet who lived in the tibusque; vulgo corruptius fairies, kata/Doviot reigns of Elizabeth and James I. He was an daiuovec, sive dii manes.'— Baxter's Glossary. accomplished scholar. Dryden classes him with The French have also an old verb faer, to enSpenser, as a leading writer of the times; and chant. Fairy and fay are indiscriminately used

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Make her thanks bless thee.

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Id.

Some suppose

by our older writers. See Fay. Both, perhaps, the nymphs of the woods, mountains, rivers, came into our language from the French. An and springs; and an ancient scholiast on Theoimaginary being, or spirit, supposed to appear critus says, “The nymphs are demons which apin a diminutive human form, and generally of pear on the mountains in the figure of women. the female sex: as an adjective, fairy means given The Arabs and other orientals have also their by, or belonging to fairies.

ginn and peri, of whom they entertain the like To this great fairy I'll commend thy acis,

notions. Fairies have been likewise described

as of both sexes, and generally as of minute Shukspeare. Antony and Cleopatra. stature, though capable of assuming various Nan Page, my daughter, and my little son, forms and dimensions. The most elegant reAnd three or four more of their growth, we'll dress

presentation of these children of romantic fancy Like urchins, ouphes, and fairies, green and white.

is to be found in the Midsummer Night's Dream Shakspeare.

of Shakspeare. Spenser's Fairy Queen is an Then let them all encircle him about,

epic poem, under the characters of fairies. The And fairy like to pinch the unclean knight :

belief of fairies_subsists in many parts of our And ask him, why, that hour of fairy revel, In their so sacred paths he dares to tread

own country. The 'Swart fairy of the mine,' is In shape prophane. Id. Merry Wives of Windsor. scarcely yet believed to have quitted our subter

raneous works. And, in the Highlands of ScoiThis is the fairy land : oh, spight of spights,

land, new-born children are watched till the We talk with goblins, owls, and elvish sprights.

Shakspeare.

christening is over, lest they should be stolen or Be secret and discrete ; these fairy favours changed by some of these imaginary beings. Are lost when not concealed.

FAIRY CIRCLE, or Ring, a phenomenon Dryden's Spanish Fryar. pretty frequent in the fields, &c. long supposed Such borrowed wealth, like fairy money, though it to be traced by the fairies in their dances. There were gold in the hand from which he received it, will are two kinds of it; one of about seven yards be but leaves and dust when it comes to use. Locke. in diameter, containing a round bare path, a foot

By the idea any one has of fairies, or centaurs, he broad, with green grass in the middle of it. cannot know that things, answering those ideas exist. The other is of a different size, encompassed

with a circumference of grass. Fays, faries, genii, elves, and demons, hear. these circles to be made by ants, which are often

Pope.

found in great numbers in them. Messrs. Jessop What farther clishmaclaver might been said, and Walker, in the Philosophical Transactions, What bloody wars, if sprites had blood to shed,

ascribe them to lightning; which is thought to Nae man can tell; but a' before their sight,

be confirmed by their being most frequently proA fairy train appeared in order bright;

duced after a storm of that kind, as well as by Adown the glittering stream they featly danced; Bright to the moon their various dresses glanced.

the color and brittleness of the grass roots when

first observed. Lightning, like all other fires, While frowning loves the threatening falchion

moves round, and burns more in the extremity wield,

than in the middle; the second circle arises And tittering graces peep behind the shield, from the first, the grass burnt up growing very With jointed mail their fairy limbs o'erwhelm, plentifully afterwards. Mr. Cavallo, however, Or nod with pausing step the plumed helm. in his valuable Treatise on Electricity, does not

think that lightning is concerned in the formaThis hour we part my heart foreboded this : tion of them: “They are not,' says he, always Thus ever fade my fairy dreams of bliss. Byron. of a circular figure ; and, as I am informed,

Fairy. Fairies were most usually imagined they seem to be rather beds of mushrooms than to be women of an order superior to human the effects of lightning.' Other philosophers, nature, yet subject to wants, passions, accidents, who have examined these circles, believe they and even death; sprightly and benevolent while are produced by a kind of fungus breaking and young and handsome; morose, peevish, and pulverising the soil. malignant, if ugly, or in the decline of their Dr. Wollaston has examined this subject with beauty; fond of appearing in white, whence his usual ingenuity. He observed that the fungi they are often called the white ladies. Jervaise or mushrooms, first noticed by Withering, were of Tilleberry, marshal of the kingdom of Arles, found solely at the exterior margin of the dark who lived in the beginning of the thirteenth cen- ring of grasg. The breadth of the ring, in that intury, writes thus concerning them, in a work in- stance, measured from them towards the centre, scribed to the emperor Otho IV. “It has been was about twelve or fourteen inches, while the asserted, by persons of unexceptionable credit, exterior ring, occupied by the mushrooms, was that fairies used to choose themselves gallants only about four or five inches broad. Dr. Wolfrom among men, and rewarded their attachmentlaston conjectured, from the position of the with an affluence of worldly goods ; but if they mushrooms, that the rings were formed after the married, or boasted of a fairy's favors, they as manner described by Dr. Hutton, by a progresseverely smarted for such indiscretion.' Similar sive increase from a centre, and this opinion was tales are still current in Languedoc; where strengthened by finding that a second species of there is not a village without some ancient seat fungus presented a similar arrangement, with reor cavern, which had the honor of being a fairy's spect to the relative position of the ring and residence, or some spring where a fairy used to fungi, the fungi being always upon the external bathe. This idea of fairies has a near affinity margin of a dark ring of grass. I thought it with that of the Greeks and Romans, concerning not improbable,' says he, “that the soil which

Burns.

Darwin.

2

had once contributed to the support of fungi one circums ance that may frequently be obmight be so exhausted of some peculiar pabulum served respecting these circles, which can satisnecessary for their production, as to be rendered factorily be accounted for, according to the incapable of producing a second crop of that preceding hypothesis of the cause of their increase, singular class of vegetables. The second year's and may be considered as a confirmation of its crop would consequently appear in a small ring truth. Whenever two adjacent circles are found surrounding the original centre of vegetation, to interfere, they not only do not cross each other, and, at every succeeding year, the defect of nu- but both circles are invariably obliterated betriment on one side, would necessarily cause the tween the points of contact; at least, in more new roots to extend themselves solely in the than twenty cases, I have seen no one instance opposite direction, and would occasion the circles to the contrary. The exhaustion occasioned by of tungi continually to proceed by annual en- each, obstructs the progress of the other, and both largement from the centre outwards. An appear- are starved. ance of luxuriance of the grass would follow as "I think it also not unworthy of observation, a natural consequence, as the soil of an interior that different species of fungi appear to require circle would always be enriched by the decayed the same nutriment; for in a case of interference, roots of fungi of the preceding year's growth.' between the one circle of puff-balls and another

Dr. Wollaston often observed undecayed of mushrooms, they did not intersect; but I spawn, even below the most luxuriant grass. cannot say positively that I have seen more than

During the growth of the fungi, they se entirely one instance. I once found that a tree had inabsorb all nutriment from the soil beneath, that terrupted the regular progress of a circle; but the herbage is for a while destroyed, and a ring this appeared to be only a temporary impediment, appears, bare of grass, surrounding the dark ring as the extension had proceeded at the usual rate; If a transverse section be made of the soil beneath and, by passing obliquely from each side into the the ring, at this time, the part beneath the fungi soil beyond the tree, had given the ring the form appears paler than the soil on either side of it, of a kidney, so that another year or two would but that which is beneath the interior circle of probably reunite the two extremities into one dark grass, is found, on the contrary, to be con- curve surrounding the tree. Being desirous of siderably darker than the general surrounding ascertaining in what length of time a soil might soil. But, in the course of a few weeks after again recover the power of producing a fresh the fungi have ceased to appear, the soil where crop of fungi, I cut a groove, in one or two inthey stood grows darker, and the grass soon stances, along the diameter of a mushroom ring, Fegelates again with peculiar vigor, so that I and inserted a quantity of spawn taken from its have seen the surface covered with dark grass, circumference, with the hope of seeing it vegetate although the darkened soil has not exceeded half for some distance near the centre; but the expean inch in thickness, while that beneath has con- riment failed altogether, as I shortly after quitted tinued white with spawn, for about two inches my residence in the country.' in depth. The section of the space occupied by Another modern writer, Mr. Wilson, ascribes the white spawn, has in general, nearly the same fairy rings to the action of grubs, concealed unform, and may be compared to that of a wave, der the ring among the roots of the herbage; and proceeding from the centre outwards, as its supposes, that the fungi give a preference to boundary on the inner side ascends obliquely to- these rings, on account of the abundance of dead Waris the surface, wbile its exterior termination vegetable matter to be found in them. is nearly in a vertical position. The extent occu- Fairy OF THE Mine, an imaginary inhabipied by the spawn varies considerably, according tant of mines. The Germans believe in two to the season of the year, being greatest after the species; one fierce and malevolent; the other a fungi have come to perfection, and is reduced to gentle race, appearing like little old men, dressed its smallest dimensions, and may, in some cases, like the miners, and not much above two seet not be discernible before the next year's crop high. These wander about the drifts and chambegins to make its appearance.

bers of the works; seem perpetually employed, For the purpose of observing the progress of yet do nothing; some seem to cut the ore, or various circles, I marked them three or four sling what is cut into vessels, or turn the windyears in succession, by incisions of different forins, lass; but never do any harm to the miners, by which I could distinguish clearly the succes- unless provoked, as Agricola relates in his book sive annual increase, and I found it to vary in De Animantibus Subterraneis. different circles, from eight inches to as much as FAITH, n. s.

Fr. foy, foi ; Span. two feet. The broadest rings that I have seen, Faith'BREACH,

and Port. fe; Ítal. were those of the common mushroom, (ag. cam- Faith'et, adj. fede ; Lat. fides. Mr. pestris); the narrowest are the most frequent, FAITH'FUL

Tooke considers our and are those of the champignon (ag. orcades of FAITH'FULLY, adv. modern word faith, Dr. Withering). The mushroom accordingly

FAITH'FULNESS, n. s. once written faieth, as makes circles of the largest diameter, but those Faith'less, adj. the third person sinof the champignon are most regular. There are, FAITH'LESSNESS, n. s. ) gular of the Saxon however, as many as three other fungi that ex- verb cægan; Parkhurst, and others derive it hibit the same mode of extension, and produce from the Greek malow; and this from the Hebrew the sume effect upon the herbage. These are the ano, to persuade. Belief; credence: belief of ag. terreus, ag. procerus, and the lycoperdon revealed 'truth: and hence the truth believed, bovista, the last of which is far more common tenets held by man; a promise given by man or than the two last-mentioned agarics. There is God: also, confidence, or trust, in a thing or

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