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every gentleman of respectability ought to have the arm, the wrist in supination raised about three so striking a mark of distinction.

inches above the crown of the head during the But fencing is not the exercise of a few movement of the right foot. The instructions days, or even months; the practice of two or for performing this thrust, as given in Rolando's three years is requisite to enable a person to modern art of fencing, are the following:-Carry become a skilful fencer. In France, where the the right foot forward to its greatest point of best fencers in Europe are found, a very indif- extension, which is generally about four iimes its ferent opinion is entertained of any one if he length; and in the very time of this action, when cannot boast of at least four years regular prac- you ought to direct your point, adjust your thrust tice in the fencing schools.

without vacillation towards your adversary's This art is, however, too much dependent on right breast; but, as soon as the point of your personal instruction and practice to demand any sword reaches within three or four inches of his lengthened treatise in a work like the present. body, form the opposition of your wrist, the We shall, therefore, only attempt to give a suc- nails uppermost, your chest a little inclined forcinct account of the first lessons, the thrusts, ward, the head turned a little outside, the left parades, &c., following Monsieur Danet's well- haunch steadied, the shoulders well turned out, known arrangement.

the right knee outwards, and bent perpendicuIt will be necessary, first, to observe that the larly with the instep; the left heel on the same sword is divided into two parts: the strong part, line with the right heel, the leg well bent, and or fort, as it is usually termed, reaching from the foot firm upon the ground. The right hand, the hilt to the middle of the blade, and the weak in directing the thrust, must always set out first, part, or foible from the middle to the point. and the other parts of the body should follow

Thrusts are made either inside, or outside, over, rapidly. The thrust being made, get up quick or under the arm, and ought to be parried with on guard, joining your adversaries blade without the fort of the blade. Supposing the sword held forcing, and holding your point still opposite to flat before you, the inside is that edge which is his breast. In every thrust all these evolutions nearest the left side, the outside that nearest the are to be executed with the same precision. right; a thrust put above the sword is over the This thrust is parried either by high carte, prime arm, one put in beneath it under the arm. seconde, or octave. See plate I. FENCING, fig. 1.

The GUARD.-The only regular guard in fen- 2. Ancient prime.-- This was the first thrust of cing, is assumed after the following manner. Hold the ancient school, and was so named as being the sword with the thumb flat upon the handle, at the natural attempt made by any one, who had about the distance of an inch from the guard, never learned to fence, to thrust with a sword. pressing the hilt principally with the little and it is executed by raising the wrist in pronation ring fingers; incline the edge of the blade a about three inches above the crown of the head ; little inwards, the hilt being at the height of the and, in plunging the point at the adversary, the right breast, and the point a little higher. The body is inclined somewhat more forward than in body is to be turned, so as to present the profile high carte: the remainder is executed in the same of it, the heel of the right foot in a line with manner as described in the account of that thrust. the ancle of the left, at the distance of at least In order to obtain an opening for this thrust, twice the length of the foot, and at right angles which is generally put in after the prime parade, with each other. The right arm must be a little it is sometimes necessary to step out of the line, bent, the elbow inclining inwards; the left arm to the right, as you make your thrust. This is raised to the height of the head, and forming an parried by prime, half circle, and octave. easy semi-circle, the fingers a little bent, and the 3. High tierce, or the seconde of the moderns.-In index just touching the thumb.

making the thrust of high tierce the wrist should The TARUSTS.-In fencing there are nine dif- be in pronation at about the height of the crown ferent positions of the arm and wrist in thrusting, of the head; the sight may be directed under which are thus distinguished. 1. Prime of the the arm, the body should be a little more inmodern nomenclature, commonly called high clined forward than in high carte, and the thrust carte, inside the arm; 2. Ancient prime; 3. High should be given between the arm-pit and the tierce or modern seconde; 4. Old seconde, a mere right breast : the rest as in high carte. This low tierce; 5. Low carte of the moderns, the thrust is parried by tierce, carte over arm, and common carte of the ancient school; 6. Quinte, pointe volante. Although this thrust is given in the same in both modern and ancient style; the same situation as the old prime, it differs 7. Carte, over arm; 8. Carte, cut outside; and from it not only in the height of the wrist, but 9. Flanconnade.

in the more marked opposition of the fort of the It is necessary to observe that all thrusts and blade. See plate I. fig. 2. parades are included in but three positions of 4. Seconde of the ancients, or low tierce of the the wrist, viz. supination, the palm of the hand moderns, is thus performed : lower the point of being turned upwards; pronation when reversed your sword under your adversary's guard, and or turned downwards; and the mean position the thrust under his arm; the wrist in pronation medium between these two, the thumb being raised as high as the eyes, directing the point above the fingers as they are bent.

under his arm-pit, and inclining the body and 1. Prime or high carte, inside the arm.—This head farther forward than in the preceding; thrust is the prime of the moderns, not only be- covering, particularly the head, as much with the cause it is the highest elevation of the wrist, but wrist as by the fort of the blade. This thrust is because it is also the easiest, most used, and parried by the half-circle, prime, seconde, octave, most simple thrust in fencing. It is given inside and quinte.

5. Low carte, of the modern system, or com- the inside fort of your blade against bis foible, mon carte inside the arm, of the ancients, is thus lowering yours about six inches inside the arm, executed. Being on guard, in carte, direct the the wrist in the mean position at the breast point of your sword along, and underneath your height, and return high carte. opponent's wrist; and, when about four inches 2. Ancient prime parade.--If when on guard from his body, raise your wrist in supination as your opponent thrusts ancient prime, parry with high as the mouth, and throw the point into the the fort outside of your sword, the wrist in propit of his stomach without extending your body nation being as high as the forehead and opso much as in the preceding thrust. This thrust posed inside the arm; then extend your arm, and is parried by low carte, the octave, half-circle, throwing your point below his stomach return prime, and seconde. Rolando's Modern Art of ancient prime. Fencing, p. 28.

3. High tierce, or modern seconde, parade. If 6. Quinte, both ancient and modern, was the when on guard your opponent thrusts high tierce, fifth thrust, whence it derives its name. It is parry with a dry beat, fort against foible, outward thus given: the wrist, being in the mean position, from within; wrist nearly in pronation at the should be held as high as the chin, the fort of height of the flank, the arm extended in order your blade opposed to the foible of your adver- better to be able to return with high tierce. sary's, and supporting thus your opposition pass4. Ancient seconde parade.If when on guard as it were by stealth your point under his wrist, your opponent thrusts ancient seconde, parry and thrust at his abdomen, still in the attitude of with the inner fort of the blade turned out; the carte with the flat of the blade uppermost. This wrist in pronation breast high, the arm extended torust is parried by quinte, seconde, octave, and to return ancient seconde. the half circle.

5. Low carte parade.--If from the guard your 7. Carte over arm, or modern prime over arm, opponent thrust low carte, parry with a dry beat is a carte thrust, passed over the arm along your from the fort inside of your blade; the wrist in opponent's blade, with the wrist in supination the mean position at the height of the abdomen, three inches above the head; the right arm should the point a little more elevated, and return loro he entirely extended, and the other parts of the carte. body placed as directed in high carte. This 6. Quinte parade. When from his guard your thrust is best parried by pointe volante ; it may opponent makes the thrust of quinte, parry also be parried by tierce, and the cart cover arm with the fort edge of your blade against his foiparade.

ble; lowering your wrist to the mean position, 8. Carte cut outside the arm, is thus executed: perpendicular with your knee, and the edge of when on guard in tierce over your opponent's your sword to the height of the thigh, somewhat arm, lower by stealth your point by means of a inclined inwards, return low carte. half circle outside the arm; adjust your point 7. Carte over arm parade. Upon your oppounder his arm-pit, the flat of the blade upper- nent's thrusting from his guard carte over arm, most, supporting the sword precisely under his parry with your arm bent, with the fort outside elbow; the wrist will then be in the mean po- of your blade against his foible, the wrist being sition with the same position as in low carte. in the mean position at the height of the chest, This thrust is to be parried by the half circle, in the same situation as in carte outside the arm, seconde, quinte, or octave. See FENCING, plate and return with carte over arm. II. fig. 1.

. 8. Low tierce parade is adapted in the same 9. Flanconnailc, so called, because mostly manner either to ą, tierce or carte over arm touching only the tiank, is thus performed; being thrust, and is thus executed :-Upon your antaengaged in carte, lower the point below your op- gonist attempting either of these, parry with the ponent's wrist, take the foible of his blade with- inner fort edge upon his foible by a dry beat, out quitting it, and plunge your point into his lowering and bending your elbow a little; the flank under his elbow outside the arm; the wrist wrist in pronation at the height of the haunch, raised and supported in the mean position as the point elevated, and return seconde. high as the mouth; oppose suddenly the left 9. The octave parade, so called as having been wrist close to the elbow, the hand open, and formerly the eighth and last of the parades, is stoop at the same time to avoid being touched by thus performed :Upon your antagonist's thrustseconde. This is parried by seconde and low carte. ing carte cut outside the arm, parry with the fort See plate II. fig. 2.

outside edge of your blade against his foible, the We shall now endeavour to give a short des- wrist in the mean position at the height of the cription of the different simple parades. A pa- breast; the arm bent outwards, the point low; Tade, or parry, is formed by giving a dry beat on and then return carte over arm. your opponent's sword, to avoid being touched by 10. Half circle parade upon low carte.- When his point. A dry parade, is the action of striking from his guard your opponent thrusts low carte, his blade with a firm vivid motion, so as to turn parry with a dry beat from the inner fort edge of it aside without following it. There were for- your blade against the foible of his, forming a merly only six parades taught; there are now half circle outside the arm ; stretch out your arm, fifteen in use.

the wrist in supination the height of your mouth, The first is that of high carte, or modern prime, and return carte. which is thus executed: supposing you are on 11. Flanconnade parade.-If from the carte guard, and your opponent thrusts bigh carte, then engagement your opponent thrust the flanconnade, turn your right side so as to oppose as narrow a turn your wrist suddenly in pronation at the front as possible, and parry with a dry beat from height of the baunch, forming an angle from it at bim.

to the point of the sword, the arm bent at the deavour to throw your adversary off his guard by same time that he endeavours to assure himself inducing him to make some thrust for which beof your blade, from the foible to the fort, and re- ing prepared you may return to advantage. This turn seconde

artifice consists in a lively close stroke from the When this parry is used in the attack it is in fort to the foible of his blade to throw it aside, the following manner :--If your opponent from and by giving a stamp with the right foot induce the guard in carte thrust flanconnade, parry him to parry at a thrust you never intended to carte; without quitting his blade, lower your give, or to thrust you at a time when you expect point a little, and pass it immediately under his and are prepared for it. The greatest attention wrist; thus binding his blade, and returning his should however be paid, lest your adversary, answord to nearly the position in which it before ticipating your intention, throw in his thrust at was. This is however a dangerous parade to the very time you are executing your appeal, and use in an attack, as a quick fencer would often, thus seizing the time touch you before you are by disengaging carte over arm with the strong prepared. part of his sword against the foible of yours, Beating.–To beat the foil is to strike the foiihrust you at the same time you were thrusting ble of your adversary's blade with the fort edge

of yours, as often with a view to turn his point 12. Pointe volante parade is the twelfth and aside as to open his guard so as to be enabled to last of the simple parades, and is so named from touch him. See Beat, in fencing, in the body of the swiftness with which the point of the sword the work. is thrown over the shoulder When your anta- Binding.–To bind and cross an adversary's gonist thrusts carte over arm, parry rapidly by sword is to join it by sliding and forcing strongly bending your elbow, and throwing the point of upon it with your edge from the fort to the foible your sword over your shoulder without displacing under his wrist, to drive it away, as it were, so your wrist from the situation in which it was in that you may be sure to touch if not disarm him. the guard in carte; the outside edge of your For this reason it is a method of disarming the sword thus gliding from one end to the other of most advantageous, as, if well executed, it beyour antagonist's will throw it sufficiently aside comes, if not absolutely certain, yet very useful, to enable you to return to your guard.

as being attended with no comparative danger. We have now enumerated the twelve simple Coup de fouet, or lashing, is the act of giving parades commonly in use : there are now three a firm dry beat or jerk upon your opponent's others, of the circular kind, remaining to be no- blade, when he holds it fat and stiftly before ticed, the first of which is,

him, in order to cause him to let it fall. The counter carte parade, the chief of the cir- To disengage is to carry or pass the point of cular parades, as it envelopes almost every your sword from one side to the other over your thrust in fencing, either inside, outside, over or antagonist's, by joining it without forcing. under the arm. It is in fact describing a small Glizade is the act of sliding your blade upon circle round your adversary's blade to throw it the foible of his : the body inust be well effaced aside when you join it.

and firm upon the left haunch; the sword diThe counter of tierce is neither so easy nor so rectly before you; and when you close slide certain a parade as the last, and ought only to be upon your adversary's blade by the fort of your used when out of measure.

own. The circle parade is performed by wheeling Volting.–To volte is to turn your back almost your sword closely and rapidly round from right entirely upon your adversary, by a half wheel to to left so as to throw off your adversary's point the left to about the distance of the guard, from the centre of attack. This is the most diffi- throwing back your point at the same time to his cult to perform of all the parades now in use, body. The volte is only useful when you are and is eminently useful as it embraces all the engaged with one, who, without any knowledge thrusts that can be aimed at you in retreating of fencing, rushes upon you with a curved arm, Indeed, if it could be continued as long as it not suspecting the danger; or who, being acmight be necessary to join an adversary's blade, quainted with the danger, cautiously uses this who possesses both vivacity and address, it method of fighting, with the view either of surwould be general against every attempt; but, as prising or disconcerting you. the arm and wrist after the fourth or fifth round • It is not a little surprising,' says Mr. Forsyth become considerably deranged, a quick fencer, in the treatise we have already quoted, that in order to follow you, will describe a smaller such dangerous maneuvres have been invented circle and easily come within its central point. and adopted, so diametrically opposed to the To effect this parade with certainty, extend your true principles of fencing, which only require arrn, the wrist in supination being as high as firmness of the body and legs, a requisite that the mouth, the point of the foil very low, and can never be supplied in the action of volting, by the motion of the wrist alone describe from which too evidently and too frequently exposes right to left, in an oblique manner, the figure of us to be bit, before we can completely coma code in as small a compass as possible. See mand this hazardous and uncertain evolution, plate II, fig. 3.

and which, should we faï, in our design, leaves Having now enumerated the principal thrusts us without a resource with a stroug quick fencer, and parades, we shall give some account of the who will seldom fail to take advantage of the common artifices in fencing, and a definition of disorder into which these dangerous experiments some of the common terms.

are sure to involve us.' For SPADROON EXERThe appeal.-Marking an appeal is an ea- CISE, and Sword EXERCISE, see those articles.

Locke.

FEND, v. a. & v. n. ) Latin fendo. See a natural and Aowing elocution, and the power Fend'er, n. s. Fence. To keep off; of making himself understood upon all subjects.

FEND'ER-BOLT. shut out; to dispute; No man inspired stronger attachments; and such shift off (a charge): the sea phrase is exempli- was the respect borne to his character, that the fied by Dr. Rees: the household fender is a well duke of Marlborough, and the other generals of known protection of the floor from coals falling the allies, expressly excepted the archiepiscopal out of the fire, says Dr. Johnson: we should lands of Cambray from pillage when in possesadd from the scene around us, and of children sion of that part of Flanders. His principal from falling into it.

works not already mentioned, are-Dialogues of Spread with straw the bedding of thy fold,

the Dead, 2 vols. 12mo.; Dialogues on EloWith fern beneath to fend the bitter cold.

quence, 12mo.; Philosophical Letters, a Demon

Dryden. stration of the Existence of a God, 12mo.; LetThe dexterous management of terms, and being ters on different Religious and Metaphysical able to fend and prove with them, passes for a great Subjects, 12mo.; Spiritual Works, 4 vols. 12mo.; part of learning : but it is learning distinct from Sermons, and controversial pieces. Fenelon died knowledge.

from a fall received in the overturning of his Fend, in the sea lang uage, imports the same as de carriage in 1715; a collection of all his religious fend. Hence the phrase fending the boat, &c.; that works was afterwards printed at Rotterdam, is, saving it from being dashed against the rocks, under the care of the marquis Fenelon his grandshore, or ship's side. Hence also fenders, any pieces of old cable-ropes, or billets of wood, &c., hung over

nephew, when ambassador to the states general. the ship's side, lo fend or keep other ships from rub

FENERATION, n. s. Lat. fæneratio. Usury; bing against her; or to prevent her from striking or the gain of interest; the practice of increasing rubbing against a wharf or quay. Dr. A. Rees. money by lending.

Fend, or fender-bolts, made with long and thick The hare figured not only pusillanimity and timi. heads, struck into the outermost bends or wales of a dity from its temper, but feneration and usury frorn ship, to save her sides from bruises and hurts. Id. its fecundity and superfetation.

Browne. FENELON (Francis de Salignac de la Motte), FENESTRA, in anatomy, a name given to two was of an ancient and illustrious family, and born small holes in the cavity of the tympanum, which at the castle of Fenelon in Perigord, in 1651. In are distinguished from each other by the epithets 1689 he was appointed tutor to the dukes of rotunda and ovalis. Burgundy and Anjou ; and in 1695 was conse- FENESTRELLE, a fortress of France, in crated archbishop of Cambray. But a publica- Piedmont, on the Clusone, near the borders of tion of his, entitled An Explication of the Max. Dauphiny, consisting of three distinct erections, ims of the Saints concerning the Interior Life, built on eminences, and communicating with each in which he seemed to favor the extravagant other by covered ways cut in the rock. In the notions of Madam Guyon, and the principles of valley below lies the village of Fenestrelles, with Quietism, compelled him to quit the court ; to 860 inhabitants. Seven miles S.S. E. of Susa, which he never returned. A controversy was for and twenty N. N. W. of Pignerol. some time carried on between him and M. Bos- FEʻNNEL, n. s. Lat. faniculum. A plant of suet, bishop of Meaux; which terminated in an strong scent. appeal to the pope, who condemned the arch- Å sav'ry odour blown. more pleased my sense bishop's book, March 12th, 1699, and our prelate Than smell of sweetest fennel, or the teats had what was wittily called the coquetry of hu Of ewe, or goat, dropping with milk at even. mility to read his own condemnation from his own

Milton. pulpit. Some allege that there was more of FENNEL, in botany. See ANETHUY. court policy than religious zeal in this affair; be FENNEL FLOWER. See NIGELLA. this as it may, the archbishop submitted pa FENNEL Flower or Crete. See Garitiently, and, retiring to his diocese, performed the DELLA. duties of his station, and led a most exem Fennel, Giant. See Ferula. plary life. The work that gained him the greatest FENNEL, Hog's. See PEUCEDANUM. reputation, and which will render his memory FENNEL, SCORCHING. See THAPSIA. immortal, is his Telemachus; the style of FENTON (Elijah), descended from an ancient which is natural, the fictions well contrived, the family, was born at Shelton near Newcastle. He moral sublime, and the political maximy ex- was the youngest of twelve children, and was incellent. Louis XIV. is said never to have ap- tended for the ministry; but embracing political proved of the appointment of Fenelon to the principles contrary to the measures of governpreceptorship of the princes, and to have re- ment, while at Cambridge, he declined entering garieid Telemachus as a satire upon his own into holy orders. He was secretary to the earl

overnment. He stopped therefore the printing of Orrery; but seems to have spent most of his of the work, and the archbishop could never re- time among his friends and relations. His cover his favor, notwithstanding his writings elder brother had an estate of £1000 a year. a ainst the Jesuits, and munificent distribution When his engagement with lord Orrery ceased, of corn in a season of scarcity to the army. Fe- he obtained, through the recommendation of nelon is also said to have given unpardonable Pope, a situation with Mr. secretary Craggs, who, offence by his honest advice to Louis not to aware of the deficiences of his own education, marry madame Maintenon. In person, manners, wished to have a man of taste and learning for a and general character Fenelon is universally companion. !le next undertook, for Pope, the represented as having been one of the most en translation of the first, fourth, nineteenth, and gaging of men ; uniting, with a noble politeness, twentieth books of the Odyssey, for which he re

ceived the sum of £300. His tragedy of Mari- FE'OFF, v.a.& n. s. Old Fr. feoffee ; Low amne rendered him more known; it was per- FEOFFEE', n. s. (Lat. feoffare. To put formed in 1723, with very great applause, and Feoff'er,

in feodal possession; a produced him £1000. An instructive compa- Feoff'MENT.

fief: a feoffee, is one rison,' says Dr. Johnson, between the patronage put in possession : feoffer, one who gives posof the public, and that of a king or minister.' session: and feoffment, the act or form of He died in 1730 of indulgence and want of ex- giving it. ercise. His pupil, lord Orrery, says of him, The late earl of Desmond, before his breaking Poor Fenton died of a great chair and two forth into rebellion, conveyed secretly all his lands bottles of port a day. He adds, he was one of the to feoffees in trust, in hope to have cut off her maworthiest and modestest men that ever belonged jesty from the escheat of his lands. Spenser, to the court of Apollo. Pope wrote upon him

Any gift or grant of any honours, castles, lands, or the following beautiful but not very veracious

other immoveable things, to another in fee simple, epitaph:

that is, to him and his heirs for ever, by the delivery . This modest stone, which few vain marbles can, of seisin of the thing given : when it is in writing, May truly say, here lies an honest man;

it is called a deed of feoffment; and in every feoffA poet blessed beyond the poet's fate,

ment the giver is called the feoffer, feoffator, and he Whom heaven kept sacred from the proud and great;

that receiveth by virtue thereof the feoffee, feoffatus. Foe to loud praise, and friend to learned ease, The proper difference between a feoffer and a donor Content with science in the vale of peace.

is, that the feoffer gives in fee-simple, the donor in Calmly he looked on either life, and here

fee-tail.

Cowell. Saw nothing to regret, or there to fear;

FEOFFMENT, in law, from feoffare, to give one From nature's temperate feast rose satisfied,

a feud, is still directed and governed by the Thanked heaven that he had lived, and that he died.' feodal rules: insomuch that the principal rule

FENTON (Sir Geoffry), privy counsellor and relating to the extent and the effect of the feodal secretary in Ireland, during the reigns of queen grant, tenor est qui legem dat feudo, is the maxim Elizabeth and king James I., is well known for

. is well known for of the law with relation to feoffments, modus his translation of Guicciardin's History of the legem dat donationi. And therefore, as in pure Wars of Italy, dedicated to queen Elizabeth in

feodal donations, the lord, from whom the feud 1579. He died at Dublin in 1608, after having

moved, must expressly limit and declare the married his daughter to Mr. Boyle, afterward eari continuance or quantity of estate which he meant of Cork.

to confer, ne quis plus donasse præsumatur, FENUGREEK. n. s. Lat. fænum Græcum. quam in donatione expresserit: so, if one grants A plant.

by feoffment lands or tenements to another, and FEOD, n. s.

Fr. fief, of Old Latin limits or expresses no estate, the grantee (due FEODAL, adj. feodum. Fee; tenure; pos

ceremonies of law being performed) hath barely FEODAL'ITY, n. s. session held under a su

an estate for life. For, as the personal abilities FEODARY. (perior: the adjective feo of the feoffee were originally presumed to be the

FEODA'TORY, adi. ) dal is strictly Gothic, immediate or principal inducements to the signifying possessed by fee: a feodary, is one

feoffment, the feoffee's estate ought to be confined who holds under a feudal lord or superior: feo- to his person and subsist only for his life; unless dality, the possession of divers feoffs.'--Cot- the feoffer, by express provision in the creation grave.

and constitution of the estate, has given it a Any beneficiary or feulatory king. Bacon.

longer continuance. These express provisions The feodal discipline extended itself every where are indeed generally made; for this was for ages

Burke. the only conveyance whereby an estate was The leaders teach the people to respect all feoda- created in fee simple, by giving the land to the

Id. feoffee, to hold to him and his heirs for ever; Frod, or FEUD, is defined to be a right which though it serves equally well to convey any other a vassal hath in lands or some immoveable thing estate of freehold. But by the mere words of of his lord's, to use the same, and take the pro- the deed the feoffment is by no means perfits thereof, hereditarily, rendering unto the lord fected: a very material ceremony remains to be such feodal duties and services as belong to performed, called livery of seizing; without wbich military tenure, &c., and the property of the soil the feoffee has but a mere estate at will. See always remaining to the lord. Pontoppiddan Sersin. says, that odh in the northern languages is the FER DE FOURCHETTE, in heraldry, a cross same with proprietas, and all with totum in the having at each end a forked iron, like that Latin. Hence, odhall signifies right: and hence formerly used by soldiers to rest their muskets we may conjecture, that the udal right in Finland on. It differs from the cross fourche, the ends is derived. By transposing these two syllables, of which turned forked: whereas this has that we formn the word allodh; whence we have the sort of fork fixed upon the square end. See etymology of the allodium or absolute property HERALDRY. claimed by the holders of fiefs or feuds; and by FER DE MOULIN, MILRIND, or INKE DE Moucombining odh, signifying property, with the Lin, in heraldry, is a bearing supposed to repreword fee, signifying a conditional stipend or re- sent the iron-ink, or ink of a mill, which sustains ward, we have the word feodh, signifying a pro- the moving wheel. perty given by way of stipend or reward upon a FERABAD, or Ferabat, a town of Persia, certain condition. See FEUDAL SYSTEM. in the province of Mezanderan, twelve miles

FEODAL SYSTEM. See FEUDAL SYSTEM. from the Caspian Sea, seated among the moun

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