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a war with the king of England in which they were beaten. Cross Creek on the Cape Fear, now called Fayetteville, was settled by these people in 1762. There are not many families in that part of the State now which are not of Scotch descent.

Salisbury in Rowan county was laid off in 1753; Charlotte in Mecklenburg was named in 1763 for Queen Charlotte, wife of King George III. Hillsboro in Orange county was laid off in 1789.

These were very small and insignificant places for a long time. They would have a courthouse, an office for the land surveyor and the lawyer, a store, and a few houses scattered here and there. Our towns grew very slowly, for we had no large seaport to bring trade and encourage commerce and enterprise. Our settlers lived on their farms, and were satisfied to produce their own food and clothing and flourish undisturbed and unambitious.

Now that Governor Johnston was comfortably settled, we may suppose that public affairs were moving along smoothly and happily. It certainly was a great change for the better to have a really respectable man at the head. He married Miss Penelope Eden, daughter of Governor Eden, and settled in Chowan county, though we hear of him often

in New Bern and Wilmington. He had much to do 1750.

with removing the settlement at Brunswick to a healthier location, and gave Newtown the name of Wilmington. Some of his relations had accompanied him to North Carolina, and were settled near him, and their descendants are among our best citizens to this day.

He met the Assembly regularly at New Bern, which, being halfway between the towns of Wilmington and Edenton, seemed most convenient to the greatest number. He was an active, prudent man of business, and his rule was beneficial on the whole. He made it, however, his chief duty to care more for the interests and the increase of the revenue and power of his master King George than to study the wants and wishes of the people he governed.

They were very well satisfied with Governor Johnston till they found out this about him. Then they showed the same old spirit that had worried previous governors. The Assembly would not yield to him and pass laws which he wanted, but which they knew would bear heavily on the people whose representatives they were. Then he would dismiss or "prorogue" them for a time, and then call them together again and again, with the same result. They could be neither frightened nor flattered, and stood firm whenever the governor was arbitrary or unjust.

He was not pleased with this spirit of resistance and independence. He wrote back to England abusing the country and the people who inhabited it as “wild and barbarous."

From 1705 to 1749 the man who was most active in promoting the real prosperity and liberty of North Carolina was Edward Moseley of Albemarle, who was our first chief-justice, and was in public life more than forty years. He was the faithful guardian of our best interests and real dignity. We owe him a great deal to this day. It was his judgment, skill, and firmness that secured North

Carolina her proper share of territory when the dividingline was run between us and Virginia. If we had had a commissioner as faithful and as accomplished on our southern border, the line there would have been run straight and fairly too.

Edward Moseley married a daughter of Major Lillington, and removed to the Cape Fear in 1731, and his wife's nephew, young John Alexander Lillington, went with him, and became afterward distinguished in our history.

1750. In Governor Johnston's day many long-needed improvements took place for the benefit of the public. Roads were laid out, bridges were built, sawmills were put up. Cotton began to be cultivated, but only for home use, to be mixed with wool or flax. No machine was yet invented for separating the seed, and it had to be picked out by hand. This was very slow work. Children and old folks would sit round the fire at night and pick out the seed, and no doubt thought it a good evening's work when they had cleaned one pound.

The chief productions of the country were tar, pitch, and turpentine; lumber of all kinds; skins, furs; indigo, rice, Indian corn, hemp, flax, tobacco, pork, and beef. Fifty thousand fat hogs were driven over into Virginia every year to be converted into bacon, and ten thousand beef cattle.

In exchange for our products we took all kinds of manufactures-hardware, nails, cloth, tin and pewter ware, fine clothes, wines, liquors, sugar, molasses, etc. etc. These things came from the West Indies chiefly or from England. The cultivation of indigo and rice was abandoned after a while, because they could not be raised with profit. Flax and hemp were used till cotton took their place. What were called the “quit-rents” due to the king for their land were paid by the people largely in these products, for there was very little money in the back settlements of the province.

RECITATION.

CAROLINA.

HOME of the beautiful and brave!

Land of the mountain-torrent born!
Land of the broad and sounding wave,

Of pine and cedar! Hail the morn
Which saw thy glorious banner fling

Its gorgeous folds from hill to flood—
Which heard thy glens and valleys ring

With Freedom's triumphs! Hallowed blood
In thy great cause hath freely gushed
From patriot hearts; and we have blushed,
And crimsoned deep with burning shame

To think that glittering lyres are strung
To hymn the base and mean to fame,
While thy great deeds and glorious name
Go down to dust unsung.

J. B. SHEPARD.

CHAPTER XIII.

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.

1752. The first printing-press in North Carolina was set up in New Bern by James Davis in the year 1749. New Bern by this time was the most important town, being the regular place of meeting for the Assembly and the various courts.

The first book printed in our State was printed at New Bern in 1752, and was a copy of the State laws. The first newspaper was issued there. The first incorporated school was established there in 1766, and James Davis the printer was the first regular mail-carrier appointed by the legislature.

A distinct character was given to that section by the French and Swiss settlers. They were social, thrifty, and enterprising, and in a generation or two from this time New Bern people were noted for intelligence and refinement, and New Bern trade for successful enterprise.

The few schools that had been started in various places had not flourished. The ministers of the Church of England had endeavored to keep up some parish schools, and the government often attempted to levy taxes for the support of both ministers and schools. This was always re

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