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any of its laws and regulations there would be worry and confusion and resistance.

1674. Governor Stephens died an old man and rich, leaving a widow, Madam Frances, who must have been a good deal younger than he, for after his death she married old Governor Berkeley of Virginia, and when

Berkeley died she married Philip Ludwell, who 1677.

was governor of Albemarle in 1689 and of all Carolina in 1693. Governor Berkeley loved her very much. When he died in England he made his will and left her all his estate, and said if it had pleased God to give him more he would gladly have given it to his dearlybeloved wife. Even after she became Mrs. Ludwell she always kept the name of “ Lady Frances Berkeley.” She no doubt liked the title. When Ludwell became governor of all Carolina they went to live at Charleston,

One or two little things about this governor's lady are not pleasant to consider. After Governor Berkeley ordered Ex-governor Drummond to be hung, he seized and confiscated all his property, turning his wife and children out of doors. Mrs. Sarah Drummond was a woman of a great deal of spirit, and after Berkeley's death she took Lady Frances into the courts and made her give up the Drummond property, which she was then enjoying.

As this is not to be a large book, we cannot tell about every man who was, or who tried to be, the governor of Carolina in those times. Most of those who were sent over by the “Lords"

They came like birds of prey, to make what they could out of Carolina without the least regard to the wants of the people. They had neither good character nor ability to govern well.

inferior men.

were

The histories of all the English states in America show that there was a great deal of contention going on between the people and their rulers. They gave each other very bad language and many hard names. In North Carolina particularly the people were very restive, and quick to resent anything like injustice or oppression.

Some of the governors were men belonging to the colony, presidents of the council or the assembly, who had lived here long enough to understand the country and feel some attachment to it and to their fellow-citizens. When that was the case matters went more smoothly. Strangers can seldom govern a people well, even if well disposed.

There were two “rebellions” against the governmentone called “Culpepper's Rebellion,” in 1677; the other, called “ Carey's Rebellion,” in 1708. Neither of them amounted to much, except that they gave trouble and kept people irritated and excited, and hindered the general welfare.

RECITATION.

HO! FOR CAROLINA!

LET no heart in sorrow weep for other days;
Let no idle dreamer tell in melting lays
Of the merry meetings in the rosy bowers;
For there is no land on earth like this fair land of ours.

Ho! for Carolina! that's the land for me;
In her happy borders roam the brave and free;
And her bright-eyed daughters, none can fairer be:
Oh, it is the land of love and sweet liberty.

Down in Carolina grows the lofty pine,
And her groves and forests bear the scented vine;
Here are peaceful homes, too, nestling 'mid the flowers :
Oh, there is no land on earth like this fair land of ours.

Come to Carolina in the summer-time,
When the luscious fruits are hanging in their prime,
And the maidens singing in their leafy bowers :
Oh, there is no land on earth like this fair land of ours.

And her sons, so true in warp and woof and grain, First to shed their blood on Freedom's battle-plain, And the first to hail, from sea to mountain-bowers, Strangers from all other lands to this fair land of ours.

Then for Carolina, brave and free and strong,
Sound the meed of praises in story and in song,
From her fertile vales and lofty granite towers :
Oh, there is no land on earth like this fair land of ours.

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CHAPTER VIII.

TROUBLES WITH VIRGINIA. RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS.

BESIDES the misfortune to North Carolina of having an unsuitable government and unfit governors forced upon her, she was also unfortunate in having no seaport where large ships could enter and bring and carry trade. Small coasting-vessels could enter the inlets and sail along the shore inside the sandbars, but the products that were to cross the ocean (such as tobacco) had to go through Virginia first.

The great open Chesapeake Bay, where all the ships in the world could ride safely, was a great advantage to Virginia, and Albemarle was obliged to send her tobacco there to ship it. In 1679, Virginia passed a law forbidding Carolina tobacco to be brought there at all. This law was in force for many years.

1679. This was unkind and unneighborly enough, but besides this, a year or two after, the governor of Virginia laid claim to the Albemarle country as belonging to Virginia, and tried to levy taxes there. The boundary-line had not then been fixed very clearly, and was not until forty years thereafter. Of course Carolina was not going to give up what was then the best part of her territory, and this was a source of ill-will between the States and of much vexation to the people, who were kept unsettled, not knowing to which State they really belonged or how the dispute would end.

In all the tumults and uprisings that took place the Quakers, or Friends, were almost always very conspicuous. They had soon become numerous in Albemarle, having come to avoid the harsh laws made against them in Virginia. They had been treated there with great severity, and so also, a little later, were the Baptists. The Virginians were nearly all Church-of-England people, and could not bear to have any other denomination come among them.

So the Quakers came here. Their doctrines were full of peace and love, but they were always very ready to resist a government they did not like and to stir up trouble; and there was no love at all between them and the English Church.

There were also some Presbyterians and some Lutherans, and, after a while, some Baptists. Besides these there were a good many who had lived so long without any religion whatever that they did not care for it, and they would have been glad to live without law too.

Among such people, many of them rough and ignorant, all of them free and independent and fully resolved to stay so, the Church of England sent its ministers to teach and preach and endeavor to get that Church established here.

The leading families, the best educated and most refined and wealthy, were usually Episcopalians. But they had been so long without regular preaching that they had become very careless and indifferent.

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