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gan, Colonel, and Stephen Trigg, Lieutenant Colonel, of Lincoln; John Todd, Colonel, and Daniel Boone, Lieutenant Colonel, of Fayette county. These regiments were formed into a brigade, which was placed under the command of General George Rogers Clark. A commission of "Brigadier General of the forces to be embodied on an expedition westward of the Ohio," is preserved among his papers. It is dated January 22d, 1781, and signed by Thomas Jefferson.

Each county had likewise a court of qualified civil and criminal jurisdiction; yet there was no court competent to try capital cases, nearer than Richmond, the seat of government for Virginia. The county courts, however, held quarterly sessions, at which they could try and punish misdemeanors, by fine and imprisonment; adjudicate matters at common law and chancery, of a civil nature over four dollars and one-sixth; or twentyfive shillings. The rest of the judicial business was transacted at the monthly sessions, or by the magistrates individually; these were conservators of the peace and superintended the local concerns of each county. Fortunately, owing to the simplicity of manners, and the equal and rude state of property, there were few temptations to violence, requiring the interposition of criminal law. The first surveyors in the new counties, were George May, in Jefferson, Colonel Thomas Marshall, in Fayette, and James Thompson, in Lincoln county. The services of the two latter were loudly, and for some time vainly called for.

The new system of defending the country by General Clark, may deserve a few words. Spies and scouting parties were scattered over the frontier, who reported to the General, posted at Fort Nelson, in Louisville; to these was added a row galley, constructed for plying up and down the river.* This was built at Louisville, the wreck of which is said to have produced the formation of the point of Beargrass creek, above the present city. This served as a floating fortification; but was confined in its scouting expeditions between the mouth of Beargrass and Licking river. Limited as this sphere of duty was, it is said

* Marshall, 1, 119.

to have had a good effect in preventing Indian expeditions across its line of operations; and to have once stopped a formidable invasion near its upper station. The aversion, however, of the militia to acting on this element, and the reduction of the regular force, compelled the General to lay aside the galley before the end of the year. The plan itself so novel on the western waters, however, shews the military readiness of its author, who was never at a loss for expedients suited to his situation.

In September, 1781, a station settled by 'Squire Boone, (a brother of the great hunter, and unequalled woodsman,) near where Shelbyville is now built, became alarmed at the appearance of Indians in its neighborhood; and determined to remove to the stronger settlements on Beargrass. While effecting this purpose, the party encumbered with women, children, and household goods, was attacked by a large body of the enemy near Long Run, defeated and dispersed with considerable loss. Col. John Floyd learning this disaster, repaired with honorable promptitude, with twenty-five men, to relieve the white party, and chastise the Indians. He advanced with commendable caution, dividing his men into two parties; and yet, in spite of his prudence, he fell into an ambuscade of two hundred Indians. He was defeated with the loss of half of his men, and nine or ten of the Indians were killed. While Colonel Floyd was retreating on foot, nearly exhausted and closely pursued by the Indians, Captain Samuel Wells, who retained his horse, dismounted and gave it to Floyd, and ran by his side to support him. The magnanimity of the action is enhanced by the previous hostility between these officers, which was, however cancelled forever*— "they lived and died friends.”

After this officer had effected the establishment of fort Jefferson, on the Mississippi, to be noticed hereafter, he proceeded with two men, Josiah Harland, and Harmar Conolly, on foot, to Harrodsburg. The perils of such a march, can scarcely be appreciated at this day. They had painted themselves like Indians, and had advanced without interruption, as far as the Tennessee river. This they found foaming with high water, * Colonel Floyd's letters.

and Indians were hunting on both sides of the river. Our chief and his companions, quickly fastened a raft together, with grape vines, to support their rifles and clothes, and dashed into the river, in its state of flood. They had got some distance, before they were perceived by the Indians, owing to the high banks; when the enemy discovered them, they quickly exchanged whoops of intelligence. But our party availing themselves of a deep creek, which put in on the opposite side of the river, placed it between them and their pursuers, by landing below its mouth, while the Indians had to ascend the stream for a passage; the former having landed, dashed on their destination. By this manœuvre, they escaped. Yet to their own countrymen their disguise was so complete, that in approaching a fort on Red river, they were mistaken for Indians; and it was only the name of Clark loudly hallooed out, and the knowledge of his exploits, that removed the impression.

On this route, our party met with a large body of emigrants, forty in number, actually starving from inexperience of the hunters among them, in killing buffalo. The high hump of this animal on its shoulder, requires an allowance by a practiced eye, to hit the heart; this source of error was unknown to the new comers, and all their balls missed killing their objects. Clark and his companions soon set them right with the first herd of buffalo they met, after their rencounter, by killing fourteen head before they stopped. It seems, that skillful hunters can arrange themselves so as to run parallel with a herd of buffalo, killing and loading as far as they can run. This conduct of our hunters struck the group of strangers with such astonishment, when they contrasted the success of the three new hunters, with the failure of their own men, themselves expert woodsmen, with all other game; that they were ready to look upon Clark and his two coadjutors, as something more than mortals in disguise. A party thus strangely rescued from starvation, in the midst of wild game, might well be disordered in their judgments at first.

On arriving at Harrodsburg, Clark found a concourse of people from every direction, waiting to enter lands in the sur

veyor's office. This was the engrossing subject of all men's thoughts; as eagerly and with as much avidity, amidst these hostile forests, as in any stock market of a commercial city. To propose a military expedition, demanded by the interests of the country, to men under such keen and potent excitement, would have been worse than useless. Should the more generous and gallant engage in it, they would leave the selfish and the grasping speculator behind, to despoil them of the richest fruits of the country, which they were defending. In this predicament, Clark proposed to Mr. G. May, the surveyor of Kentucky county, to shut up his office, and then all would turn their attention to the defence of the country. This Mr. May declared he had no authority to do; but if General Clark would issue such an order, he would be the first man to obey it. The General accordingly caused a written order to be placed on the door of the surveyor's office, notifying all persons, that the office was shut by an order from Brigadier General Clark, until after *an expedition could be carried on against the enemy. This measure, and the high military popularity possessed by General Clark, commanded any number of volunteers, in addition to his own State regiment, which was garrisoning Fort Nelson at the Falls of Ohio. The expedition commanded by Clark, consisted of two regiments, one under command of Colonel B. Logan, and the other under that of Colonel William Linn. The point of rendezvous for both, was the mouth of Licking river, where they assembled with artillery conveyed up the river from the Falls. The force when all assembled, amounted to nearly a thousand men.†

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The secrecy and dispatch, which had ever attended the movements of this efficient commander, continued to mark his progress on this occasion; the Indian town was approached without any discovery, and as soon assailed, when a sharp conflict ensued, in which seventeen of the enemy were slain, -with an equal loss upon our part. The rest fled, the town was

* When Colonel Clark arrived at the Falls, he received a letter from Governor Jefferson, advieing such an expedition, written 19th of April, but not received till 11th of July, following.

† Captain Patton says nine hundred and ninety-eight.

then reduced to ashes, the gardens and fields laid waste; such are the melancholy means of carrying on war with barbarian tribes, who without the intervention of a large civil body of society, not partakers in the war, can only be made to feel its horrors, by bringing home to themselves the dreadful sufferings which they inflict.

From Pickaway, Colonel Benjamin Logan was detached against another Indian town, about twenty miles distant. This was, however, found deserted, and it was destroyed by our troops, as well as a store (British, it is presumed,) from which the Indians had been supplied with arms and ammunition. This latter object, indeed, formed the principal aim of the party. Owing to these offensive measures, Kentucky enjoyed some breathing time, while the Indians were engaged in rebuilding their habitations, and obtaining provisions by hunting, to supply the loss of their crops.

CHAPTER VIII.

Kentucky county divided into Lincoln, Fayette and Jefferson-Erection of Fort Jeffer son on the Mississippi-Spanish and French intrigues at Paris against the western boundary of the United States-McKee and Girty-Attack on Bryant's Station-Battle of the Blue Licks-Expedition of General Clark to the Chilicothes in 1782-Early manners and state of the arts in Kentucky.

By the first of November of this year, the population of the State had advanced with such rapid strides, that the legislature of Virginia sub-divided the county of Kentucky into three parts; assigning different names to each. They were called Jefferson, Fayette, and Lincoln. The former embraced that part of the old county, which lay south of the river Kentucky, north of Green river, and west of Big Benson and Hammond's creek; the second beginning at the mouth of the Kentucky river, extended up its middle fork to the head, and embraced the northern and eastern portion of the present State on that side of the Kentucky; the residue of the primitive county was called Lincoln.

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