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And then I heard: "The ancient and the new
Postulates, that to thee are so conclusive,
Why dost thou take them for the word divine?" And I: "The proof, which shows the truth to me,
Are the works subsequent, whereunto Nature
Ne'er heated iron yet, nor anvil beat." '1' was answered me: "Say, who assureth thee
That those works ever were? the thing itself
We wish to prove, nought else to thee affirms it." "Were the world to Christianity converted,"
I said, "withouten miracles, this one
Is such, the rest arc not its hundredth part; For thou didst enter destitute and fasting
Into the field to plant there the good plant,
Which was a vine and has become a thorn!" This being finished, the high, holy Court
Resounded through the spheres, "One God we praise I"
In melody that there above is chanted. And then that Baron, who from branch to branch, ,„ th'>M,ddl', AgM^^^
Examining, had thus conducted me. tluf we,re. •""l"TMi"giten
to the saints. Thus, Boccao
Till the remotest leaves we were approachmg, cio speaks or Earn* lUtmr
Did recommence once more: "The Grace that lords it
Over thy intellect thy mouth has opened,
Up to this point, as it should opened be, So that I do approve what forth emerged;
But now thou must express what thou believest,
And whence to thy belief it was presented." u O holy father! O thou spirit, who seest
What thou believedst, so that thou o'urcamest,
Towards the sepulchre, more youthful feet," St. John, It. 8-8. at . John
Began I, '< thou dost wish me to declare ^uioh^but at.'££ £
Forthwith the manner of my prompt belief, fiat to enter It.
And likewise thou the cause thereof demandest. And I respond: In one God I believe,
Sole and eterne, who all the heaven doth move,
Himself unmoved, with love and with desire; And of such faith not only have I proofs
Physical and metaphysical, but gives them•
Likewise the truth that from this place rains down Through Moses, through the Prophets and the Psalms,
Through the Evangel, and through you, who wrote
After the fiery Spirit sanctified you; 8t . p'!Ur mnd Ott ^
In Persons three eterne believe I, and these AposUes after Peoteoost.
One essence I believe, so one and trine,
They bear conjunction both with stint and est. With the profound conjunction and divine,
Which now I touch upon, doth stamp my mind
Ofttimes the doctrine evangelical. This the beginning is, this is the spark
Which afterwards dilates to vivid flame,
And, like a star in heaven, is sparkling in me."
Even as a lord, who hears what pleases him,
So, giving me its benediction, singing,
I spoken had, in speaking I so pleased him.
Ir e'er it happen that the Poem Sacred,
To which both heaven and earth have set their hand
O'ercome the cruelty that bars me out
With other voice henceforth, with other fleece
Because into the Faith that maketh known
Thereafterward towards us moved a light
And then, my Lady, full of ecstasy,
Said unto me: "Look, look I behold the Baron
In the same way as, when a dove alights
So I beheld one by the other grand
But when their gratulations were completed,
Smiling thereafterwards, said Beatrice:
Make Hope reverberate in this altitude;
"Lift up thy head, and make thyself assured;
This exhortation from the second fire
"Since, through his grace, our Emperor decrees
Thls " Divlna Commedia.' In which human scieuce or Philosophy is symbolized in Virgil, and divine science- or Theology in Beatrice.
"Ftorfnza la oeWa," Florence the Fair. In one of his CansonI, Dante says, —
"O mountain-eon^ o' mine, tboa
ffoeu thy way; Florence niv town ihou ah»H
perchance behold, Which bars me from itaerf, Devoid or iore end naked o'
This aMnskra to the Church of San Giovanni, " it mio bet San Giovanni," as Dante calls it elsewhere, (Inf. xix. 17,) is a fitting prelude to the Canto in which St. John la to appear. Like the " laugh ing of the gnus" in Cant* xxx. 77, it is a "foreshadowing preface," ombrifero prtfazio, of what follows.
See Canto xxiv. 150.
"So, rivinr me ita benediction,
e'ating, Three umee encircled in.,
when I wae aiient, The apoetonc ligtii."
St. Peter. "That we should be a kind of first-fruits or his creatures." Epistie of St. James, i. 18.
St. James. Pilgrimages are made to his tomb at Comaoatella in Galicia.
The General Epistle of St. James, called the Epistola Canolica, i. 17. •• Bvery good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and comet li down from the Father of lights." Our Basilica: Paradise: the Church Triumphant.
Peter, James, and John, representing the three theological virtues, Faith, Hope, and Charity, and distinguished above the other apostles by clearer manifestations of their Master's favor.
St. James speaks.
The three Apostles, luminous above him, overwhelming him with light.
"I will lift up mine eyel unto the hills, from whence cometh my help." Psalm exxl. 1.
The most august spirits of the Celestial City.
So that, the truth beholding of this court,
Say what it is, and how is flowering with it
Thy mind, and say from whence it came to thee ":
And the Compassionate, who piloted
"No child whatever the Church Militant
Therefore it is conceded him from Egypt
The other points, that not for knowledge' sake
To him I leave; for hard he will not find them,
As a disciple, who obeys his teacher,
"Hope," said I, "is the certain expectation
Prom many stars this light comes unto nte;
Hope they in Ihee, in the high Theody
Thou didst instil me, then, with his instilling
While I was speaking, in the living bosom
Then breathed: "The love wherewith I am intlamed
"Wills that I whisper thee, thou take delight
And I: "The ancient Scriptures and the new
Isaiah saith, that each one garmented
Thy brother, too, far more explicitly,
And as uprises, goes, and enters the dance
So saw I the illuminated splendor
It joined itself there in the song and music:
- This is the one who lay upon the breast
My Lady thus; but therefore none the more
Even as a man who gazes, and endeavors
So I became before that latest fire, •
While it was said, "Why dost thou daze thyself
Earth upon earth my body is, and shall be
With the two garments in the blessed cloister
And at this utterance the flaming circle
As to escape from danger or fatigue
Ah, how much in my mind was I disturbed,
Close at her side and in the Happy World I
St. John, In tho Apocalypw, vil. 9. "A great m . !tituda which uo niuu could
number clothed with
Dances and Mmgs commingled ; the circling choirs, tho celuitial choristers.
St. John the Evangelist.
In winter the constellation Cancer risex at onusct; mid If it had one nsr as bright as thlc, it would turn uight Into day.
Such an vanity, ontrnh tion, or the like.
St. Peter and St. Jam are joined by St. John.
Christ. "Then tuith h» to the disciple, , Behold tli.v mother!' And from that hour that disciple took her unto bin own home." St. John, xix. 27.
"If I will that he tarry till I come, wlmt Li thut to thee."
Till the predeotined number of the elect i8 complete.
The two garments: th* glorified spirit and the gloriOed body.
The two liu'lits: Christ and the Virgin Mary.
Carry back them tiding!.
The Mend trio of St. Peter, St. James, and St. John.
EXTERNAL APPEARANCE OF GLACIERS.
Tncs far we have examined chiefly the internal structure of the glacier; let us look now at its external appearance, and at the variety of curious phenomena connected with the deposit of foreign materials upon its surface, some of which seem quite inexplicable at first sight. Among the most striking of these are the large boulders elevated on columns of ice, standing sometimes ten feet or more above the level of the glacier, and the sand-pyramids, those conical hills of sand which occur not infrequently on all the large Alpine glaciers. One is at first quite at a loss to explain the presence of these pyramids in the midst of a frozen ice-field, and yet it has a very simple cause.
I have spoken of the many little rills arising on the surface of the ice in consequence of its melting. Indeed, the voice of the waters is rarely still on the glacier during the warm season, except at night. On a summer's day, a thousand streams are born before noontide, and die again at sunset; it is no uncommon thing to see a full cascade come rushing out from the lower end of a glacier during the heat of the day, and vanish again at its decline. Suppose one of these rivulets should fall into a deep, circular hole, such as often occur on the glacier, and the nature of which I shall presently explain, and that this cylindrical opening narrows to a mere crack at a greater or less depth within the ice, the water will find its way through the crack and filter down into the deeper mass; but the dust and sand carried along with it will be caught there, and form a deposit at the bottom of the hole. As day after day. throughout the summer, the rivulet is renewed, it carries with it an additional supply of these light materials, until the opening is gradually filled and the sand is brought to a level with the surface of the ice. We have already seen, that, in consequence of evaporation, melting, and other dis
integrating causes, the level of the glacier sinks annually at the rate of from five to ten feet, according to stations. The natural consequence, of course, must be, that the sand is left standing above the surface of the ice, forming a mound which would constantly increase in height in proportion to the sinking of the surrounding ice, had it sufficient solidity to retain its original position. But a heap of sand, if unsupported, must very soon subside and be dispersed; and, indeed, these pyramids, which are often quite lofty, and yet look as if they would crumble at a touch, prove, on nearer examination, to be perfectly solid, and are, in fact, pyramids of ice with a thin sheet of sand spread over them. A word will explain how this transformation is brought about. As soon as the level of the glacier falls below the sand, thus depriving it of support, it sinks down and spreads slightly over the surrounding surface. In this condition it protects the ice immediately beneath it from the action of the sun. In proportion as the glacier wastes, this protected area rises above the general mass and becomes detached from it. The sand, of course, slides down over it, spreading toward its base, so as to cover a wider space below, and an ever-narrowing one above, until it gradually assumes the pyramidal form in which we find it, covered with a thin coating of sand. Every stage of this process may occasionally be seen upon the same glacier, in a number of sand-piles raised to various heights above the surface of the ice, approaching the perfect pyramidal form, or fdling to pieces after standing for a short time erecf.
The phenomenon of the large boulders, supported on tall pillars of ice, is of a similar character. A mass of rock, having fallen on the surface of the glacier, protects the ice immediately beneath it from the action of the sun; and as the level of the glacier sinks all around it, in