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in an environment of vice, disease and ab- And so with the rest of them, not forsinthe. But he may leave his race all the getting the Queen and the King. And cleaner for his degenerating.

the blood of France has been poorer, her I take a concrete illustration, the de- men less manly, and her women less fair, generation of France—the falling off in since the day of her great slaughter, whatstature and fertility of the French people one may think of the political during the present century. An official changes it brought about. commission has lately investigated it, Primogeniture: The basis of English reaching scanty results. Perhaps we may polity has been and is inequality before help them.

the law. Men have tried to take a cerI wish you to assume that Millet's "Man tain few, to feed these on "royal jelly," as with the Hoe” is in a large degree typical the young queen bee is fed, to take them of the French peasantry. Dull, lack-lus- out of the struggle and competition of life, tre-eyed, with low forehead, and brutal and to make them by such means harmonjaw, he is not the product of oppression. ious and perfect men and women. Thus, His like has always lived in France. His in England, the oldest son is chosen for qualities are ancient, aboriginal. He ex- this purpose—a good thing, says Samuel ists to-day, and has increased for a cen- Johnson, “because it insures only one fool tury because better men have been de- in the family.” In making perfect men stroyed. And this is the primal cause of it has certainly failed, for men are made the fall of France, of the decline of any by effort and resistance. But it has forced nation whatever the destruction of the

constantly the younger sons' and daughbest, the survival of the unfittest, a re- ters' sons back again into the mass of the versal of nature's method of race purifica- people. The English people of to-day are tion and of race advance.

the sons of the old nobility, and their In French history how has this hap- development has crowded out the sons of pened? Let us look at a few instances the swineherd and the slave. The evil among many.

of primogeniture has been its own antiThe French Revolution. In this out- dote. It has begotten democracy. The break of the oppressed “the best that the younger sons, with Richard Rumbold. nation could bring" was destroyed.

"never could believe that Providence has The nobility of any nation, and more sent into the world a few men already of aristocracy, was composed in the first booted and spurred, with countless milplace of its best blood. The failure phys- lions already saddled ard bridled, with ically comes from bad training, luxury, these few to ride.” And so these younger vice and irresponsible power. These ef- sons became the Roundhead, the Puritan, fects are individual only, and do not pass the Pilgrim, those who in all the ages have over into heredity. The strongest, wisest, fought for liberty in England and in the fairest, were the noblemen when races United States. Genealogical studies were young. And these fell in the Reign clearly show that all of the old families of of Terror.

New England and Virginia have noble The old drummer, Pierre, in Thack- and royal blood in their veins. The Maseray's "Chronicles of the Drum," tells us sachusetts farmer whose ancestors came that:

from Plymouth in Devon has more of the “Those glorious days of September

blood of William and Alfred than the Saw many aristocrats fall.

Queen of England has, for she is mostly 'Twas thus that our pikes drank the blood

German. And it is well for England that In the beautiful breast of Lamballe. her gentle blood runs in the veins of all

her citizens. "Pardi! 'twas a beautiful lady!

On the Continent it was not so. In I seldom have looked on her like,

France, all of noble lineage were noble. And I drummed for a gallant procession Thus the blood of nobility and the blood That marched with her head on a pike.'

of the clown were kept separate, and the clown increased with the failure of his and slaves, those whom imperial Greece betters.

could not use in her wars of conquest. Other influences destroying the best In his noble history of the Downfall of were social repression, religious intoler- the Ancient World, Professor Seeck, of ance, the centralization of activities in Greifswald, finds but one real cause of Paris, the effects of alcohol. The celibacy the fall of Rome. This he calls the "exof the religious lowered the degree of re- termination of the best" ("Ausrottung ligious feeling, while indiscriminate char- der Besten"). He shows how Marius and ity vastly multiplied the brood of paupers. Cinna slew the aristocrat, while Sulla

But all these and other influences, murdered the common man. With the delarge and small, count for little beside the mands of the imperial domain in every digreat destroyer, war-war for glory, war rection, the Roman disappeared. “Whofor gain.

ever was bold enough to rise politically Not long ago I visited Novara, in Italy, was thrown to the ground.” and there, in a wheat field, the farmers Only cowards remained, and from their have plowed up skulls of men till a pyra- blood arose the new generation. mid of fifteen feet high has been reared, Cowardice showed itself in lack of origover which some one has placed a canopy

inality and slavish following of masters to keep off the rain. These were skulls of and tradition. Had the Romans been young men of Sardinia and Austria, from alive, the Romans of the old Republic, eighteen to thirty-five years of age, with- there would have been no fall of Rome. out physical blemish, so far as may be, The Roman Empire, says Seely, “fampeasants from the farms and workmen ished for want of men.” Even Caesar from the shops, who met at Novara to de- notes the impending doom, the “dire cide whether the Prince of Savoy should scarcity of men.” But there is abundant sit on his throne or yield it to some other. testimony that men were plenty, slaves It matters not the decision; history re- and camp followers. It was the men of cords it, probably. Here they died. Far- strength and character, “the small farmther on, Frenchmen, Austrians and Ital- er” and the hardy dwellers on the flanks ians met and died at Magenta. You know of the Apennines, who were gone. what color that is, the hue of the blood As to Spain, we never fought her. that flowed out under the olive trees. Go Spain died years ago. La Puente, an over Italy as you will, there is hardly a Augustinian friar, who wrote in 1630 on town that has not had its gardens crim- the Philippine question, then a burning soned with French blood, that has not one with Spain, has these words : somewhere its pile of skulls. You can "Against the credit for redeemed souls I trace them across to Egypt, across to Ger- se, the cost of armadas and the sacrifice many, to Moscow, across Belgium, to Wa- of soldiers and friars sent to the Philipterloo. “A boy will stop a bullet as well pines. And this I count the chief loss, as a man,” said Napoleon, and with the for mines give silver, and forests give timrest are the skulls of boys. Read the ber, but only Spain gives Spaniards, and dreary story of Waterloo, the wretched she may give so many that she may be tale of Moscow, the miserable deeds of left desolate and constrained to bring up Sedan, the waste of Algiers, and you can strangers' children instead of her own. see why the countrymen of France are “This is Castile," said a Spanish knight; not like the embattled farmers of Lexing- "she makes men and wastes them." "This ton, who set their stern faces against the sublime and terrible phrase," says Lieumurderers of the common man, and fired tenant Calkins, from whom I take the the shot that was heard around the world. quotation, "sums up Spanish history.”

The same fate has followed each war Thus it has always been in history. for empire. “ 'Tis Greece, but living The warlike nation of to-day is the decaGreece no more,” for the Greek of to-day dent nation of to-morrow. It has ever is not the son of Leonidas and Miltiades. been so, and in the nature of things must He is the son of the stableboys, scullions

ever be.

As to England, illustration of the same is the reverse of this: “Never to bully a kind can be had in abundance in the verse big boy, or turn one's back on a little of Kipling, the poet of so much that is one.” Civil war under proper limitations good, vigorous and stirring, as well as of could remedy this. A time limit could nearly all that is degrading in English life be adopted, as in football, and every deand history:

vice chosen to get the good of war and to “We have fed our sea for a thousand years,

escape its evils.

For example, of all our States, New And she calls us, still unfed;

York and Illinois have suffered most from Tbough there's never a wave of all her waves

the evils of peace. They could be pitted But sweeps o'er our English dead.”

against each other, while the other States "If blood be the price of admiralty,

looked on. The "dark and bloody ground" Lord God, we have paid it in full.”

of Kentucky could be made an arena.

This would not interfere with trade in It suggests the inevitable end of all em

Chicago, nor muss up the streets of Balpire, of all dominion of man over man by timore. The armies could be filled up the force of arms. More than all who fall

from the tramps and hoodlums, while the in battle or are wasted in the camps, the pasteboard heroes of Delmonico's and the nation misses those brave men and fair Chicago clubs could act as officers. All women who should have been their de- could be done in decency and order, with scendants, those who might have been and no recriminations and no oppression of who never were.

an alien foe, and we would have all that is A late writer-Hardwick-one of many good in war, its pomp and circumstance, who are prone “to think with their fists, the "grim resolution of the London clubs" declares that “war is essential to the life without war's long train of murderous of a nation; war sirengthens a nation, evils. Who could deny this? And yet morally, mentally and physically.” Such who could defend it? Who can speak of a statement is the result of sheer igno- the healthfulness of war, for war's sake, rance. One can not at once respect the and yet condemn ccck-fighting, bull-fighthonesty and the intelligence of the man ing, or murder? who makes it.

If war is good, we should have it, reWar may seem to make men strong gardless of its cost, regardless of its horwhen the hot passions are on, but hot pas- rors, its sorrows, its anguish, havoc and sion is not inherited, least of all when the waste. warrior is slain and leaves no inheritance. But it is bad, only to be justified as the War can only waste and corrupt. Its ori- last resort of "mangled, murdered libgin is in the evil passions of men," and erty;" a terrible agency, to be evoked only even when most necessary it is most de- when all other arts of self-defense shall plorable.

fail. The remedy for most ills of men is If any war is good, civil war must be

not to be sought in “whirlwinds of rebelbest. The virtues of victory and the les- lion that shake the world," but in peace sons of defeat would be kept within the and justice, equulity among men, and the nation. It would protect the nation from cultivation of those virtues we call Christhe temptation to fight for gold or trade. tian, because they have been virtues erer Once Thomas Hughes gave this model of since man and society began, and will be an English boy: "One who never bullied virtues still when the era of strife is past, a little boy or turned his back on a big and the “redcoat bully in his boots” no one.” The motto of modern imperialism longer "hides the march of man from us."



Our educational problems are compara- ginning in a study of the relations of the tively new ones. Hitherto we have used school to the state. the principles and methods of the Old Sociology, it is true, is vigorously workWorld. Its greatest problem is the edu- ing its way toward a science. Its conneccation of willing and obedient subjects, tion, however, with elementary education which is necessarily a truncated educa- is exceedingly faint. “We recognize the tion. The subject must not look beyond fact that the child of to-day is the citizen the necessities of fixed forms of govern- or to-morrow;" that “the school is society ment, and therefore the principles and shaping itself.” Still the learned sociolomethods of such education all tend toward gists of the universities, busy in the disthat one ideal. The paramount duty of cussion of the present state of society, America is to educate its children into have not reached the central problemthe highest types of citizenship. Our des- the education of the child into the citizen. tination is either self-government or an- The bonds, the terrible bonds of tradition, archy. We must choose between them. are hard to break. Tradition makes us The great task of the schools is to decide blind to the real situation. We do not whether the realization of self-govern- yet clearly see that the guide of all educament is possible. "Put into the schools tion is the present state of society and its that which you would have the state,” is needs. We must put into the school that an old and sound maxim. It has been which we would have in society, and a rigidly followed with comparative success wrong interpretation of this maxim brings by rulers who wish to maintain a fixed disaster. For instance, elementary trainform of government. I say comparative ing for a trade or vocation means human success because education into final beliefs predestination, which is the crippling has sidetracks toward freedom. Our and deforming of the individual. SelfAmerican educational ideal must be an choice is the essential of liberty. Only everlasting evolution into a higher life, that to which the whole being eagerly and into a vigorously growing state of society, cordially and permanently responds into the elimination of the wrong and the should be chosen as the ideal in education. institution of righteousness. In place of Character read in terms of true citizenthe training of subjects, as is the case in ship includes and comprehends every the Old World, we have the problem of quality and qualification of true manhood. the education of citizen sovereignty. The Education into citizenship demands selfweakness of strength of central govern- choice all along the line, demands initiament is found in police or armies. In tion, creation, imagination, and reason. America it is found in individual charac- It determines the subjects of thought. It ter. We had no other way at first than to also determines the skill in expression *ake the means and methods of aristoc- which the individual must acquire. In racies to educate a democracy. When we fact, education into citizenship is the one began there were no fundamental princi- guide in making courses of study and in ples and worked-out methods for the edu- the adaptation of subjects of study to the cation of a free people. We took by ne- individual. Vocation is the fundamental cessity that which medieval times offered means of putting personality into life. us. The conflict between the antipodal The community value of a vocation is that ideas is now on. We have been accustomed which it gives to society for its good and to call the common schools “the bulwark growth. The personal value of a vocation of liberty," "the foundation of a free gov- is found in the best one can do for all. The ernment." These high-sounding phrases quality of needed work done is the best have been to us little more than glittering for both society and the individual. Dogeneralities. We have made a slight be- ing the best demands the highest motive.


We will all grant that one of the funda- terrible evils of shiftlessness, carelessness, mental weaknesses under which society incomplete work. “The home has much suffers is careless, shiftless and indifferent to answer for,” you say. Yes—and where work, work that falls short of its inten- the home-keepers trained? “The tions. A valid arraignment may be made church does not do its whole duty in callin a few words. It is difficult to state the ing attention to the divine words, 'He worst or comprehend the boundaries of that doeth righteousness is righteous, shiftlessness. Bad cooking, stomach de- you say. Yes—but where are most of the stroying, liver hardening comestibles Sunday school children educated? Inefhead the list. More human beings are ficient work is immoral; its main stimulus killed or doomed to lives of hopeless mis- is money, reward or fame - generally ery through bad cooking than by whisky. money. Genuine work must have a high, To be sure, indigestible food does its work noble incentive--an incentive that means more quietly than alcohol, but its very putting something really good into human quietness seens to be its greatest fault. life. Work for a low motive is always There is no good reason why the fatal drudgery. The best work, however difiieffects of a greasy doughnut should not be cult, carries with it enthusiasm, exhilarashown in pictured text-books by the side tion, strong interest. It is a truism that of the evil effects of intoxication.

an ideal determines everything that goes The category of bad work is a long one. into its realization. Most of the children Build a house, employ an architect, make in the schools work or drudge for the lowa contract, employ a superintendent to est motives—per cents., rewards, promowatch the contractor, watch everything tions, degrees. They are thus systematyourself, and then thank God if the first ically trained into selfishness. Working heavy rain doesn't penetrate the roof. Put for per cents. and degrees means generally the health of your family into the hands short-cuts to the goal — a goal that is of a plumber and have him defy all the worthless in itself. Millions of children laws of hygiene and sanitation--pipes on

struggling for paltry rewards and millions the cold side of the house, traps that leak, of men shortening the line between themfilling the house with deadly sewer gas- selves and the money they work for! Is these are the common experiences, com- one the cause and the other the effect? mon not only to the trades but to the pro- If not, what relation do they bear to each fessions. One per cent. of the lawyers do other? the main business of the law. The ig- The needs of the school are the needs norance of the average physician is appall- of society; the needs of the school are the ing. We search the world for ministers needs of the individual. The human body to establish genuine life-saving stations. is the product of countless generations of And as for competent teachers - it be- evolution. Heredity is ancestral environhooves me to say little. If you need a ment begetting ancestral activities. The first-class teacher, try to find one! Am I agents of expression and the physical wrong in declaring that the world is filled agents of perception have been evolved with incompetents, with persons who have by expression and perception. Shall this never learned to do real, genuine, honest evolution of countless generations conwork? And is not immorality at the bot- tinue moving upward to higher planes, or tom of it all? You may, of course, point shall nerves and muscles become weakto the many exceptions — so can I; but ened by disuse? Shall the arm, for inthey only prove the rule.

stance, with all its possibilities of developWho is responsible? What is responsi- ment, remain unused in expression while ble? Not the schools alone. Such an in- the brain is stuffed with useless words? dictment would be terrible, if true; but it The physical agents--nay, the whole body is not entirely true. There are other -demands expression of all kinds, and causes. But this is true: The common that continually. Its inner growth and deschool is the one place where the whole velopment depend upon all-sided thought people can engage in a remedying of the manifestations. Every nerve center, gang

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