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are chosen from the clerical profession, ture and the patient investigation of her and in many cases these reverend gentle- secrets by the learned men of Germany, men know little or nothing of the ques- must be grounded upon this excellent tion.
practice begun in early youth. The deThe advocates of non-sectarian religious pendence upon nature as a source of rest instruction point to Holland, Italy, Eng- and consolation and the development of land, France and America, where no re- innate love for her must be awakened in ligion is taught in the schools, and they childhood to gain hold upon the character, claim that a real gain in religious spirit and in the attainment of this result the is made, while their opponents declare German educator has been most successthat the absence of such instruction pro- ful. It has been observed that no nation motes impiety, unbelief and even atheism. so loves to be out of doors as the German, It is a burning question in Germany, and and it is equally true that in no other few teachers are satisfied with the present country do we find such deep attachment method of teaching religion, though, as to native scenery. The German loves his already remarked, none wish to do away forests as the Swiss his mountains, and with the subject. Most teachers also agree this must be attributed partly, if not enthat sectarianism is carried too far, and tirely to this early insight into nature's not enough time and attention given to mysteries. The German language is exthe value of moral principles. The feel- ceptionally rich in poems descriptive of ing between Catholics and Protestants is natural scenery, and it is said that school also very strong and it is undoubtedly fos- children choose these in preference to all tered by emphasizing these religious dis- others. tinctions.
Another lesson may be learned from the The study of any system of education is wave of nationalism or imperialism which of little value unless it is possible to take has swept over Germany and penetrated it out of its environment and judge of its into every artery of the Empire. School. worth under differing circumstances. church, industries, all feel the influence This should be the object of every Amer- of this awakening of national pride, and ican teacher who comes to Germany to in- there is no more powerful factor in devestigate the imposing structure of their veloping the feeling than the school. The school systems, and it behooves them to subject has been taken up by pedagogues adopt only those features which are de- and made to enter into every possible manded by their own conditions at home. study. Instead of devoting time to the We would all nrobably reject the subject myths of the Greeks and Romans, the of sectarian religious teaching, but the legends and sagas of the early Germans study of the Bible might advantageously are studied and every opportunity taken be taken up as the German teacher pur- to develop pride in the history of the sues it and a real gain made in the spir- fatherland It is related that certain itual as well as intellectual development of teachers, thinking to flatter the Emperor, the child.
made the history of Germany begin with We can also learn much from their ex- the rise of the House of Hohenzollern; cellent method of teaching gymnastics, and this coming to the ears of the Emthough we would at once criticise them peror so angered him that he caused these for not including girls in the class, and luckless pedagogues to be publicly centhe frequent walks and short excursions sured. Local history is now taught first which the teacher makes with his chil- in the primary schools and from this nudren are undoubtedly sources of great ed- cleus the circle is enlarged till it emucative value. In these walks each suh- braces the history of the world. Much ject is illustrated by practical observation, more attention is also now paid to local the fauna, flora, the geological formation customs and traditions. Geography is and the surface of the country are studied also affected by this national cult; the and everything is made entertaining for children study the configuration of the the children. The universal love of na- earth's surface from their own particular
corner of the Empire; the growth and de- foundation in the patient study of local velopment of their province are insistently characteristics, national myths and songs dwelt
every effort made to im- as in Germany. We have not, of course, press upon them the value of growing their background of thrilling myth and their own food products and supporting fascinating legend, but a beginning can be themselves
their own manufacturies. made with what we find and the effort to In short, all means are employed to make learn the history of our own town, county them independent of every foreign power. and state will lead, as it does in Germany, Dates and measurements are also imprint- to an interest in broader things. Our hised upon their memories by comparison tory will be found to be quite as inspiring, with local and well-known facts, and the if not as romantic as that of any other characteristics of each part of the country country, and, short as it is, sufficient maemphasized.
terial lies within the teacher's hand. This tendency, which is very strongly Every system has its faults, but there marked in present educational methods, are few which are as well adapted to the can be traced directly to the policy of the needs of the people and the social fabric Emperor, whose boundless energy is de- of the nation as the primary school system voted to lifting Germany up to a first posi- of Germany; and, if we bear in mind that tion among nations. It is out of place here we are to take only what seems peculiarly to discuss the ethics of the question, only fitted to our own country, we may learn to indicate how markedly it has entered much from examining it. We are now a into the science of pedagogics. The ten- great world power, and our national pride dency is undoubtedly a healthy one, if not and patriotism should be based, not as carried too far, and we may learn much heretofore upon glittering generalities, from observing its development upon the but upon that knowledge which comes characters of the school children.
from the patient and loving study of our Patriotism on general lines is common own resources, our history and our instienough in the United States and love of tutions. country also, but it has no such enduring
Note. It is intended in these columns to give expression to the best thought of the day in pedagogy, and to be practical in the largest sense. These columns will be open to any of our readers who may dissent from the views here expressed, or who may care to contribute out of their experience.-The Editor.
A TEACHER'S EXPERIENCE. The following shows briefly a teacher's thought of that which determines the work in the grades, and its application in history as carried out by a seventh grade.
The main notion of the school is those acts of the child which are due to purposes formed because of his change from selfishness to unselfishness, and from ignorance to intelligence.
He learns to act with wisdom, because he has impulses that lead him out from himself. He has the impulse to be at one
with nature. He has the impulse to be at one with people in what they are working out in the various forms of society, as in the family or government; and in art or architecture, sculpture, painting, music, literature, he has the impulse to express in oral and written langrage and in other concrete forms his thoughts concerning nature and man.
At birth these impulses have the education of heredity. As he passes through the grades they receive the education from the best that the race has developed.
Because of these impulses he studies English officers as they contemplated the the sciences, history in its two aspects as smuggling of the colonists. The pupils shown in the institutions of society and saw that the one act did not immediately in art, and language, and embodies his follow the other; but that time elapsed thoughts in concrete form.
during which the English officers thought When the child reaches the seventh about the smuggling of the colonists and grade it is thought that he has passed how they might overcome it; and finally through the somewhat passive stages decided to have writs of assistance. Then
. where exists in various degrees blind the use of writs of assistance was made obedience to authority. He is now in legal. This last was the outward act on that phase of the self-active stage when the part of the English officers that arose individuality is very strong, and the con- from their contemplating the smuggling science is aroused to a marked degree of the colonists.
. Now, because of his constant growth, he In this way pupils may learn how to studies the discoveries of Columbus, the study a fact in history. They will also exploration of Raleigh in the new world, see that a people's right to become and the establishment of homes and other greater makes it necessary to put aside forms of society in this new country. laws through the people when the laws Finally he lives with the English colonists no longer give them the freedom suited in their conscious resistance to the selfish to their stage of development. But acts of people in a foreign country. greatest of all, each child is learning that
The main thought of history is sup- his deed is his own; that no one by any posed to be man's proposed struggle to restriction whatsoever can in the true go from his real condition which binds sense take from him his changed mind in him, to an ideal condition which gives thinking about the act he has performed him greater freedom. He does this by growing out of his purpose. Such pupils means of the institutions of society. will develop into reliable and
It seems then that a fact in history has two phases—the outward act performed With these thoughts in mind the by the people, and their spiritual condi- teacher worked out a series of assigntion which exhibits itself in this act. The ment, one of which was: latter, that is, the condition of mind, is more important because it is this which
HISTORY, 7A. determines external action.
I. Try to think out againThe pupils in studying a fact in his
1. The disposition and purpose tory were led to look for these three
brought out in the minds of the king and points: The mental condition which is
his party by the smuggling of the colomanifested in an outward act; the out
nists. ward act itself (this alone is usually con
2. The external act resulting from sidered the event), and the condition of
this. mind due to performing the act. While
II. Consider carefullyperforming the act the mind is changing,
1. The way in which the minds of the and after the act is completed, in contem
colonists were affected by the writs of plating it the mind changes. This change
assistance. of mind was inferred by the pupils by
The reason for this. drawing upon their own experiences and
2. The degree of freedom shown by by thinking about the next event of the
this for making their institutions or difsame nature as the one last studied. An illustration of this may show more clearly
ferent forms of society more wise. (Show
with a definite example. Write.) the thought.
Select references if needed. After studying the outward act called the smuggling of the colonists the pupils Below are inserted papers as first writreferred to the act, writs of assistance, in ten by the pupils. There is also given order to see the change of mind of the one by the teacher, prepared that she
might encounter the same difficulties as the pupils in order to help them and to do it more sympathetically.
The institutions were kept from becoming more wise because of the writs of assistance.
For example, a smuggler's house was broken into and searched for smuggled goods.
If any were found he would be put in prison for smuggling.
His family would be left to earn a living as best it could so the children would be kept out of school to work.
When they grew up they would not know anything and so could not set up a substantial government or have an elevating religion. Their society would be undeveloped and less wise because they had not been educated when they were small.
Thus the institutions were not as wise as they might have been if the writs of assistance had not existed.
In the school the children would tend to be excited and they would think more of the smuggled goods and their father's business than of their lessons. This would keep them from being as well educated as if things were calm and peaceful.
If they were excited in their school they would tend to be that way in the church. They would meet at the church to converse about this matter and perhaps the minister would preach to the people about it. This would all tend to make them think more of their business than of the church, which was more spiritual.
The colonists would have a very angry, rebellious feeling in the state because England was very unjust. And they would have the tendency to want to get their freedom. They were not making this institution more wise because they were not calm in their thinking.
As both the poor and the rich were in this state of mind in state they would tend to be more on a level in society and go together to discuss these matters. This institution would become more wise in one way and in another it would become less wise in that they were not calm in their thinking.
The freedom of the colonists was limited still more when the king gave the officer the right to have the "writs of assistance.” So it would be still harder to make their institutions more wise. As in business, if a man was keeping storehouse he would be in constant fear of the officers, even if he did not have smuggled goods, because if they wanted to they went in and went through his goods and sometimes dishonest people would get a writ of assistance and take whatever they wished in the storehouse. This would lead this man to think more of his business than more spiritual things. This case would hold with many other men. Thus they could not have bettered this institution because of the wrong work of the king.
As these men were in this state of mind in business they would not spend much time with their families, and when they were with them they would talk more of business than of spiritual things. This would tend to make the children narrow minded in that they would think more of that than anything else.
The writs of assistance gave the colonists less freedom so that the institutional life could not be made more wise.
For an example: A man in the south had the business of raising cotton and sending it to some other colony or to England. One of the restrictions hindered his business so much that he tried to smuggle goods so that he could go on in his business, but the writs of assistants stopped this, as the officers could find the smuggled goods and would try to stop the smuggling system. The man could not carry on this business any more and so would have to find another business. A great many men would be this same way and the business could not be made more wise as no line could be made very good if they changed from one to another.
The father thought about his business so much that he did not have time to talk with his wife and children on more spir
itual things, so the home life was less English constitution and in the colonial wise.
charters, as well as because of the natural The children had to be taken out of rights of man. If the outward act were school, if the father could not find work continued business would become less and and had to go to work. Thus the school less wise, for man would be a slave. was less wise and it would also be in the The treatment of this man is typical future, as the uneducated children would of that of many if the outward act be not not be good teachers.
suppressed. If uneducated these children would Soon the news spreads throughout not make good citizens, as they would not Massachusetts and into all the colonies. even be good voters. So the government At once the people begin to think defiwould be less wise as so little freedom nitely of their colonial relation with Engwas granted them.
land, what it is, the justice of it, and if The colonists' ideas of the church were unjust, the means for overcoming it. Benarrow and the uneducated children fore acting on any question of state they would not develop broader ones and will consider the point carefully. Hencewould not accept each other's ideas, but forth they will be conscious in all their cling to their own. The minister would acts that their rights as human beings not give the people correct ideas if un- and as Englishmen must be maintained. educated and so the church would not be This influence will tend to lead classes developed into a more wise institution. of society into greater harmony with one
Society would be less wise as it would another because they will talk about what be crude it of uneducated people. Also should be done. Getting acquainted thus the colonists could not mingle with peo- they will become more lenient toward one ple of other nations as they could if com- another. merce was carried on.
It will stimulate the people to think
more broadly on all questions. This will Suppose Mr. A., a man of family in show itself in the questions of church and Boston, is engaged in the mercantile
school. trade. A custom house officer who dis
We have seen an act starting in Mr. likes him says he carries contraband
A.'s family, and the change of mind goods and hides them in his warehouse
which it stimulated we have seen become and in his home, to be sold at the earliest
universal in institutional life. The imopportunity.
mediate tendency is to hinder the wise This officer fills out a writ of assistance
development of the institutions, but the with the name of Mr. A., and with a list
colonists are stimulated to think how they of costly goods known to be justly in his
may overcome this hindrance in their difpossession, then hands it to an unprinci
rerent forms of society. This will lead pled subordinate officer with the order to
to better acts. attend to the matter at once.
(The external acts resulting from this This officer, after securing help, goes we shall study later.) to the home of Mr. A., forces an entrance, seizes the goods he wishes, then goes to In connection with the series of lessons the warehouse of this mcrchant and acts indicated by the above, investigation was in like manner.
made in two other lines: First, the inMr. A. and family think that the pri- fluence of the many little sheltered harvacy of the home, which is the natural bors on the people in their act of smugright of every individual, is outraged. If gling. Second, the nature of their ideals, the outward act were continued the home found out through their architecture would become less wise.
and the literature they produced. He thinks that by the seizing of his By these means it was hoped that each property, which he has a natural right member of the seventh grade was becomto accumulate honorably, no protection ing more unselfish, more intelligent and is given him due to him as shown in the therefore better in purposes and acts.