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teacher. There can be no greater mis- set at dead work, which when done leads take if successful teaching is the end in to nothing. Observation merely for the view. In no part of educational work sake of observation is cruel when the is flexibility in presentation and in ma- world is full of important things to be terial so necessary, as at its very begin- observed. But how can a teacher select ning. Truth is many-sided, and it is al- the important things and discard the ways a question as to which side shall be trifling things without some fundamental presented. The teacher who only knows knowledge of the subject? The whole one side is hopelessly lost, and hence be- race of man is peculiarly open to humcomes dogmatic and useless. For in
bugging in the guise of science, and this stance, I know of no science teaching that will be intensified if school children are demands a broader grasp of the subject- to be humbugged by their teachers. I matter, and a more facile adaptation of have used as an illustration a subject material to purpose, than "nature study" with which I happen to be familiar, but in the lower grades. So long as it is com- fancy that it is but an illustration of mitted to teachers with no scientific all the rest. Not to prolong the discustraining, I predict that it will be a fail- sion of this particular problem, it is my ure. It is in danger of becoming worse desire to impress the fact that the act of than a failure, for to atone for lack of teaching demands a knowledge of subscientific knowledge, teachers are apt to jects as well as of methods, that there have recourse to popular books upon may be the greatest amount of flexibility science, full of sensational and claptrap in presentation; it demands simple lanstatements, and actually mislead those
guage and a very direct style; entire supwhom they are guiding. To escape from pression of the philosophy of a subject the bondage of the book, to see with our until there are facts enough upon which own eyes, to handle with our own hands, to found a little simple philosophy; comto judge for ourselves, can not be brought plete abolition of all pedagogical cant; about by the retailing of romances. Even and a reverence for truth that will not if the teacher has enough of the scientific
permit it to be trifled with in order to spirit, to say nothing of sufficient knowl
arouse a factitious interest. edge, to discard the romances, the over
(To be continued.) whelming danger is that the pupil will be
THE FIGHTING TÉMÉRAIRE_TURNER.
John L. LOWES.
The real thing in the picture—the very heart of it is the setting sun. The ghostly path across the water leads to it; the promontory to the right points like a finger to it; the sweeping lines that strike across the stormy sky converge on it; as if by stepping stones, the eye is led by shadowy sail and distant tug from the slow passing of the majestic battleship on to the quiet sinking of “the old, feeble, and day-wearied sun. Only a poet—and a very great poet-could have made us see those two things, not as two things, but as one thing—the dying of the daylight in the west, and the stately
vessel “moving ghostlike to its doom.” For after all it is a great Recessional that Turner has painted here—a greater, one is tempted to believe, than Kipling's, by so much as it touches deeper chords of human sympathy. There is an old, old association in the poets, that goes back to a lovely little fragment of Sappho, of evening with the time when all that day has scattered, turns again home—when "The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea, The plowman homeward plods his weary way;" when “The team is loosened from the wain, The boat is drawn upon the shore;" when work is ended, and the past is past. I do not know how he has "Now hath my life across a stormy sea, done it-I should lose the magic of it if
Like a frail bark, reached that wide port
where all I did—but somehow in this picture Are bidden." Turner has given that side of the fall
There is Goethe's “Ueber allen Gipfeln of evening, that poignantly human side
ist Ruh," there are the lofty closing harof it, as nothing else of which I know has
monies of the Ninth Symphony—there done. The stormy day has been; its scattered clouds still linger in the sky to tes
is all you know, and feel, and are, that
weathers storm, and fights the fight, and tify to what has past; but at its close
wins the quiet and the calm. It is a tran“The broad sun
sient fact, through which a poet's eye has Is sinking down in its tranquillity,
seen an everlasting meaning; a fact-no The gentleness of heaven broods o'er Sea.” parable, no thin-veiled allegory, no ser
mon unawares. For the true poets are And the "Fighting Téméraire,” too, its the men who are to us interpreters of the storms and battles all behind it now, is endless meaning of the things that are, coming for the last time into port; its day "the things we have passed”—for to that is done.
phrase of Browning's I must come back, But as you look-and that's the poet in though I have already used it once before the man somehow it isn't just the _"the things we have passed Perhaps a "Fighting Téméraire” that you see at all. hundred times nor cared to see.” And It fades, and there is Michelangelo- so the parting war-ship and the sinking stormy, impetuous, tempest-battered sun become a part of us, a new possession, Michelangelo-writing when all his a most real enrichment of our deepest Titan-figures lie behind him:
But the picture has its fine dramatic heart in ribs of steel. Once more, it was touch, as well. It is the passing of an a poet who saw that, and seeing, did not era,-of that glorious day that dawned shrink from painting it. For one man for England when Drake and Frobisher at least there was, who before McAnand Hawkins, with the “Victory," the drews' Hymn was ever sung, had dared “Dreadnought," the "Revenge," swept the Armada from the Channel; the day of Things as They Are.”
"Draw the Thing as he saw It, for the God that culminated under Nelson at Trafal
And behind it all-behind the transigar, and lends the battle-songs of England their splendid imagery_those songs
toriness, the old order changing, giving that stir one's heart as with a trumpet,
place to new—the background of the
everlasting sea. And that is England's “As they sweep through the deep,
background, above all—England's, herself While the stormy winds do blow."
"bound in by the tempestuous sea.” Its And all the old associations-hearts of stinging spray and brooding mists are in oak, the meteor flag of England, the wet Beowulf: its sea-change, and sea-sorrow, sheet and the flowing sea--all the pomp and sea-music in the Tempest; its whelmand all the pageantry of that heroic age ing tides in Lycidas. The Ancient Maricrowd round the shadowy figure of the ner, Endymion, Childe Harold, the Proold ship-of-the-line that fought beside metheus Unbound, the Idylls of the King the “Victory” at Trafalgar. And to-mor- —that is but a tithe of the great canvases row it is to be broken up.
that Turner's fellow-lovers of the sea And yet,
have given the setting of its ever-shifting “Though her parting dim the day,
moods. But Turner, never poet more Stealing grace from all alive;
than here, has keyed his harmony to the Heartily know
rarest-felt and deepest of them all—its When half-gods go,
mighty tenderness. And with that inThe gods arrive."
finite tenderness of the sea it is that sinkAnd there in front, disguised as ever ing sun and passing ship are touched and . Jupiter himself was wont to visit man, and steeped, as "that which drew from the gods are come. For pulsing through out the boundless deep, Turns again the ugly little tug that draws the stately home.” battle-ship, is—steam! And the poetry Hanover, Indiana.* of oaken bulwarks and of snowy canvas
* ERRATA: In the March number, p. 365, col. 1, line must give place, not to the prose, but to 18 from the top, for "Corot's work read “Troyon's
work'; and in lines 10-11, for "their pictures" read the mightier rhythms of the throbbing
John M. Bloss.
What is she:
ness man stop within her borders—a state Geographically --- a great plain — very with one exception with the least waste slightly tipped so that her storm-waters lands of any state in the union—with a flow out at the southwest corner, washing soil whose fertility is not surpassed and the shores and bathing the bottom lands with mineral resources more valuable to of our historic, as well as our romantic a great and virtuous people than the and unique county of Posey.
mines of Golconda. We have no snow-capped peaks nor Commercially, Indiana is the gateway arid wastes to entice the “globe trotter” connecting the great east with the still to pause on his way; but we have that greater west-and she divides her smiles which is far more important and that equally between them. which makes the earnest, thoughful busi- But, after all, it is not position. nor
fertility of soil, nor climate, nor natural We have reason to be proud of our resources which makes a great state- early history. Of the patriotism of her these are only instruments which a great people, no man has ever doubted. Three people may lay hold upon. It is a great wars have attested the heroic conduct of people who make a great state-men with her troops. greatness of soul-men whose egotism The vital question as to whether this has been tempered with the highest no- should be a free or a slave state was settions of altruism-men who cultivate not tled almost unanimously in favor of freesimply the physical man, but who love dom. Such was the character of the peothe waters of the Pierian fountain and ple who constituted young Indiana. who drink, because they love-men who In the presence of the great discovnot only desire for themselves intellec- eries in geology, we forget that the father tual and moral culture, but who with of American geology, William Maclure, whole-heartedness make the opportuni- of New Harmony, Posey county, led all ties for such culture free to all-men pa- men of his day-that he prepared a geotriotic, because they love the noble and logical map of the United States six years the true—men who love right for the before one had been thought of for sake of right and dare do it-men who mother England. We forget that he was give willing obedience to tne law from the early teacher in the field whose inprinciple-who cherish the weak and un- spiration gave to us David Dale Owen, fortunate—who provide for the widow who stood alone and at the head of his and orphan-men who love their fellow profession at his death in 1860. We forman; and if because of all these things get that through these men of science they have established and continue to Indiana had all her early state geologists. maintain great institutions to carry these We forget that between 1820 and 1835 notions into effect, then they constitute a New Harmony was the place, and the great state. Such a state, I believe, is only place in the great West where works Indiana.
of science, history and general literature In years, Indiana is young, but meas- were printed. We forget that it was in ured by what has been accomplished she this printing office that printing was first is older than fabled Greece or Rome. done from the continuous roll—the be
The wilderness of 90 years ago has ginning of the Hoe printing press. We given place to homes of thrift and indus- forget that it was here that Audubon had try--villages and cities are everywhere. his picture painted for his yet unrivaled Railroads have entered 89 of the 92 work on ornithology. We forget that counties—the telegraph and telephone here the Pestilozzian system of educating have connected every
hamlet. These' now so popular, was introduced into Innever go where they are not wanted, and diana in 1825 by Joseph Neef, then the never remain where they are not needed. first and the only teacher of the method The few thousand inhabitants of 1816 in America. We forget William Maclure, have increased to two and one-half mil- the geologist, the educator and philanlions. Our factories to-day produce a thropist who gave to every county then greater output than all America 80 years organized a “Workingman's Library” of ago. But while by common consent we five hundred volumes of the best works are now, at least, fully abreast with the then known on science and literature. progress of our sister commonwealths, let We forget that it was Robert Dale Owen, no one fear to investigate the early years congressman from the First District, that of her development. The Hoosier School- the Smithson bequest was made available, master, written by an author now re- and that he laid the foundation of the nowned, is looked upon as an authentic Smithsonian Institute at Washington. history by some people outside of the We forget that this same Robert Dale state. It was never intended as history. Owen was the pioneer in helping to reNo book has done the state greater harm move the political shackles from women, among the innocent ignorant.
and that, in this respect, the New Constitution of Indiana took a step in ad- noble patriot, the war governor of Indivance of her sister states. We forget ana, Governor Morton. We are proud of that that grand man and educator, John our patriot statesman, ex-President HarI. Morrisson, worked out the Indiana rison, recognized by men everywhere as School System and practically placed it a man of culture and highest Christian in the New Constitution of Indiana. We virtues. We are proud of Ben Hur and forget that the thought of institutes for prouder still of the author, General Lew the blind and the deaf and dumb were Wallace. We are proud of the man who new thoughts in the world when they had the genius to write “The Frost Upon were introduced in Indiana.
the Pumpkin and the Fodder in the our Rodman, under whom our artillery Shock," our Whitcomb Riley. We are during the evil war was born. It was proud that the state gave birth to the the Rodman guns of great force and poet, historian and statesman, John Hay. range that made our improvised navy in We are proud of all our poets, our scien1862-65 the pride of America.
tists, our historian, and our writers of But I can not extend these names of fiction—too numerous to mention-and men of the past who have made Indiana all deserve honorable mention. We are noted and given impetus to the world's proud of our diplomats-men of more progress.
than national reputation-General John The Hoosier has reason to be proud of W. Foster and General Lew Wallace. the state that gave early training to the No! no man need ever be ashamed that grandest man "who has come to us in the he is a Hoosier, and Hoosier born. tide of time," Abraham Lincoln.
Anthony, Ind. equally proud of the life and acts of that
WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM THE GERMAN PRIMARY SCHOOL SYSTEM.
CARINA CAMPBELL EAGLESFIELD.
(Continued from March.) The wonderful influence which the vil- follow, and in some states is obligatory. lage teacher frequently exerts is no doubt On boundary lands two languages have to due to the fact that he is as permanent an be taught, and in the seaports, as Hamelement in the lives of the children as the burg and Bremen, English is required parents themselves, and there is no ques
also. The introduction of gardening and tion of leaving school or getting away bench work for the boys has also been very from his power. In unusual cases hè, successful, and is rapidly gaining ground. as well as the parents, may fail to reach Religion is taught in every school in and control a child, and in this extrem- Germany, and when the population is ity the reform school is the only alter- mixed, special arrangements have to be native. It is said to be extremely rare made. There is a strong tendency in some for a village teacher to have to send a boy parts to have religion taught on general away, and the relation between teacher principles, so that Catholics and Protestand pupil is in the main a wholesome and ants may attend the same school, but it pleasant one.
has not met with general favor and only The branches taught in the primary prevails when one sect is in large majority. schools are religion, mother tongue (in- Yet the feeling that the primary school cluding writing, reading and grammar), should be independent of church control arithmetic, geometry, geography, history, is nearly universal, and in several Gersinging, drawing, gymnastics for the boys man states has been effected through legisand sewing for the girls. Upon comple- lation. When the school is not independtion of the course, a two years course may ent of the church, the school inspectors