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Famous Geometrical Theorems and Problems.--This is No. 1 of Heath's Mathematical Monographs. It is a pamphlet of 28 pages, by Supt. W. W. Rupert, of Pottstown, Pa. A number of well-known theorems are treated historically. In many cases a number of different proofs are given with the history of each. Five proofs that the sum of the angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles are given. Fourteen proofs of the Pythagorean proposition are given, with more promised in monograph No. 2. The monograph will certainly be of great value to every teacher of geometry and as well to all who are interested in this subject. Published by D. C. Heath & Co., Chicago, 10 cents.
books I to IV combined. The order of Euclid is followed, but there is the addition of many excellent exercises (riders). The summary of the results and the analysis of the methods of proof at the close of each book is a unique and valuable feature of the book. Geometry of the Similar Figures and the Plane.—This is by C. W. C. Barlow and G. H. Bryan. It gives a complete course in plane and solid geometry. It contains books V, VI and XII. The notes and exercises are good. The arrangement is such that it will surely prove interesting to the student. Intermediate Algebra.--The authors, William Briggs and G. H. Bryan, have based the work upon the algebra of the Indian mathematician, Radhakrishnan. It begins with the theory of indices and runs through the general range of algebraical subjects, closing with the binomial theorem. The definitions are clear and the demonstrations rigid. It contains a very large number of problems. Co-ordinate Geometry, by Briggs and Bryan, Part I treating the right line and circle. The book is written primarily for the priFate student, and the work is well done. Its clearness, wise arrangement and the large number of exercises make it a commendable book for class use. Co-ordinate Geometry, by Grace and Rosenberg, Part II, treating of the conic.—This is a splendid work. It follows the general plan of Salmon's classic work. The book contains many exercises. Many notes and suggestions on the problems are inserted.
NOTES. The mental arithmetic, noted in July number, should be Royer's, irstead of Rogers. It is published by Royer & Sons, Columbus, Ohio.
Hal L. Hall is the new principal of the Peru high school. He will also have charge of the mathematics.
Albert M. Wilson will teach mathematics in the Fairmount high school this year.
W. P. Morgan, who graduated at Indiana University in June, will again be in charge of the mathematics in the Terre Haute high school.
Miss Daisy Sutton will teach mathematics in the Linton high school this year.
TOWNSHIP INSTITUTE, I.
TALKS ON LIFE'S IDEALS. In the chapter on the Gospel of Relaxation, James brings out as a first and fundamental point that we do not so much act according as we feel, as we feel according as we act. The prime requisite, therefore, he thinks is to act under all conditions as though we were all right, and the result will be that we will be all right. Going along with this is the thought of a physical basis
for healthy action and for vigorous mental health. The time has not yet come when we are to develop into spirits only, and other things being equal, one's effectiveness in the spiritual life is in direct proportion to his effectiveness in the physical life. This means, of course, that one's physical life should not be too rapidly consumed, too freely drawn upon, but should be wisely conserved. There is such a thing as shortening the road, cutting across, doubling up and
saving time; but in the long run it is the most extravagant waste of time. Often the roses are developed in the cheeks of the young when that vitality should be conserved for higher functions, and so are an indication of weakness rather than strength. Nothing is more dissipating and dangerous than the habit of carrying out all our work with a whoop and hurrah. This method, this attitude, and not the work one does, is what kills. Young people of ambition and energy often go straight to their graves with clinched fists and set teeth. Nothing is so exhausting as this constant tension. The habits are so ground down into us that, to use the words of the Duke of Wellington, they have become ten times nature. James thinks the chief remedy is to be found in imitation. Teachers and others to whom the young are entrusted must set the pace. They must cultivate low voices, quiet movements and deliberation, and the young will take it up by imitation. Also one must not think too much and feel too keenly about himself and his work. The tendency becomes morbid and leads to inhibition of effective work. The thing one needs to do is to go to work honestly and faithfully at a reasonable gait and the answer will be gotten without loss of life.
It must not be forgotten that James's sug. gestion in regard to daily preparation of lessons carries with it the necessity of good training and broad, permanent preparation; but even this does not warrant one in coming before his class without having thought through the work with care.
The scholar can do this in a very few minutes, whereas the person who has to work out his lessons daily from the "stump up," so to speak, has no business in the school
E. B. BRYAN.
The effort in this chapter to define literature rests back upon the doctrine so often heard in our institutes that the human race from infancy in every stage and phase of activity is trying consciously or unconsciously to realize itself or externalize itself by putting into some form of expression its fundamental ideas.
Every tool, implement or article of furniture is but the externalization of some notion in the mind of man and expresses his best answer to some want or desire of his nature. Every production, whether a battleax of stone, a garden hoe, a Gattling gun, a cathedral or a great poem, is at once both an expression of his desire and his best attempt to satisfy that want. The degree to which his ability approaches perfection in thus realizing himself we characterize as his stage of civilization. From the first rude battle-ax to the battleship Oregon is a long road, as is also the distance from the first rude chant of the savage over his victory to Paradise Lost, or The Ring and the Book.
When man attempts to answer his purely physical desires he produces simply the useful, not the beautiful: we have the artisan, the mere mechanic, not the artist. When he endeavors to respond to his spiritual de. sires he produces that which is essentially beautiful however rude the particular piece of work may be, and man becomes the artist, not the artisan, not the mechanic merely. These exist in all degrees from the crudest mechanic to the most perfect artist, from the man with the hoe to the Transfiguration—both always tending upward, the artisan tending toward the art
COLLATERAL READING IN CONNECTION WITH THE STUDY
OF TALKS ON THE STUDY OF LITERATURE.
The Interpretation of Literature-Crawshaw.
Essays in Literary Interpretation-Mabie.
Shakespeare as a Dramatic Artist, Introduction-Moulton.
ist, for the man who at first is mere mechanic is not long content to produce that which is simply useful. We see him early uniting the artist to the artisan and making those articles which are essentially useful also to a degree, and to an ever increasing degree, beautiful. No home of civilized man contains a chair or table that is merely useful. Each has upon it some element of decoration, some aspiration toward the infinite and useless. The plain club of the lowest savage becomes the beautifully enameled and inlaid sword of the modern soldier.
The chair may be so over decorated that it loses its essential character and becomes useless and fails to be purely beautiful, for that was not the end of its creation. The sword may be so over weighted with the ornamental that it ceases to be useful. The cathedral may be so aerial that it can not support its own structure, or fail otherwise to serve the end of its creation. A poem or a novel bas its use though its essential character must be emotional, but when its emotion is out of all proportion to its truth it becomes sentimentality instead of señtiment, and fails of its end. The literature which produces tears without adequate experience for tears is sentimental (“Adequate expression of genuine typical emotion") literature.
Sincerity of purpose will manifest itself in consistency of production, whether it be a character in fiction, a poem, a loaf of bread or a political party platform. Over decoration is always an evidence of cheapness and insincerity. Sentimentality exists in literature, because it exists in life and is a deformity and a blight everywhere.
Thought and emotion are not art, neither is language, however skillfully handled. The person who feels deeply or thinks wisely but has not adequate language is in no sense an artist. The mere word handler, however skillful, is no artist if he lacks the message. The finest message the world ever heard, inadequately expressed, dies without entering the domain of art. Yet, however, there are varying degrees of value in art, as elsewhere. A mediocre message elegantly expressed may be preserved, or an uplifting message only fairly well expressed may endure.
Pope was a fine word handler, but his message has in no way seriously influenced the world; but Tennyson is the equal at least of Pope in the former and infinitely his superior in the latter, therefore the greater artist.
There is a fitness in style as measured by the message to be delivered. What is good style in one place may fall far short in another. Some men never look well in a dress suit; some never look well in any other. What was good style for Macaulay's Essays would have been entirely inadequate for Carlyle's Sartor Resartus. Rugged thought and emotion can not be well dressed in a smooth, flowing style. Literature can not be separated into “two sides."
Good style and well dressed are relative terms.
W. E. HENRY.
Some years ago much was said, in the discussions on literature, of the "form side" and the “thought side" of literary selections. Such a separation may have been helpful to some, but it seems doubtful wisdom even if possible, and the truth of such a separation is questionable. Thought and emotion as the substance of any art can not be discussed separated from the convention which embodies them. Art includes the two and they are inseparable; subtract either and art
ORIGIN OF "CANARD." The phrase "newspaper canard,” according to Invention, originated in the following way: About fifty years ago a French journalist contributed to the press an account of an experiment which he declared he had himself performed. Twenty ducks were placed together, and one of them having been cut up into small pieces, was gluttonously gobbled up by the other nineteen. Another bird was then sacrificed for the remainder, and so on, until one duck was left, who thus contained in his inside the other nineteen. The story “took," and was copied into all the journals of Europe and America. It has long since been forgotten, but the "canard” has remained as a title, canard being the French word for “duck.”
PURDUE'S NEW PRESIDENT.
Dr. Winthrop E. Stone is a native of Chesterfield, New Hampshire, where he was born in 1862 and lived until 1874, when his parents removed to Amherst, Mass. He enjoyed the usual school facilities and entered the Massachusetts agricultural college in 1878, graduating four years later with honors and the degree of B. S. Later he received the same degree from the Boston university. During four years after graduation he was employed as assistant in experiment station work, chiefly at Amherst.
Tennessee, at Knoxville. In less than a year he was called to the vacant chair of chemistry at Purdue, to which position he was appointed in September, 1889. In this capacity Dr. Stone has greatly developed his department and completed numerous researches which have been published in various scientific journals in this country and a broad. In 1892 he was appointed vicepresident of the university by the board of trustees, since which time his services have been absorbed in the administrative work of the institution in a constantly increasing degree. In late years he became President Smart's chief assistant and was frequently called upon to assume charge of matters of the greatest importance. During much of the past two years the entire burden of the university has rested upon him. Dr. Stone is a member of many learned and scientific societies. He had a prominent part in the work of the State Teachers' Association, was last year president of the State College Association and has served frequently during the past two years as a member of the State Board of Education, of which he now becomes ex-officio member. He was for three years president of the West Side school board.
Dr. Stone was the logical successor to the office of president and he is but receiving the reward for the most faithful and ceaseless services in behalf of the university. That he conducted the office in an entirely capable and satisfactory manner is evidenced by the fact that the trustees have unhesitatingly concluded to place him permanently at the head of the institution.
HAMILTON COUNTY NORMAL,
In 1886 he went abroad for study in chemistry and for two years was a member of the German university at Goettingen, studying chemistry and botany under V. Meyer, Tollens, Berthold and their colleagues. Here he received the degree of Ph. D. in 1888, and was at once appointed as chemist in the experiment station of the University of
The annual county normal school will begin July 30 and continue till August 24th, which will be followed by the county institute. A large enrollment is reached each year and the enthusiasm of the teachers is
gh. Superintendents Hutchens and Haines are the principal instructors.
INDIANA COUNTY INSTITUTE INSTRUCTORS, 1900. (Unless otherwise stated, institutes are all held at tho
Greene-E. B. Bryan, Lydia R. Blaich.
JULY 30-AUGUST 4. Jennings-E. B. Bryan, W. H. Glascock.
Owen-W. W. Black, Sherman Davis, Fred Muchler.
The attendance at the summer session at Indiana University is two hundred and sixty, an increase of ninety-six over the attendance of last year. The summer term is now a part of the regular university work and the wisdom of the change is shown in the increased attendance.
The attendance at the Indiana University Biological Station at Winona is sixty-five, and the work is progressing in a very satisfactory manner.
Indiana University is very fortunate this Fear in securing fellowships and scholarships for its graduates. Among those who will have these privileges for the coming collegiate year are: Ulysses S. Hanna and Caroline Colvin, University of Pennsylrania; Edgar H. Sturtevant, William J. Moenkhaus and Morton C. Bradley, University of Chicago; Clark Wissler, Columbia University; Rolla R. Ramsey, Cornell University; Leo F. Rettger, Yale University; Sanford Bell and Andrew J. Kinnaman, Clark University; William E. Clapham, Harrard University.
Morgan-W. W. Black, J. F. Brown. Ohio-F. D. Churchill, M. C. Marble. Orange-J. H. Tomlin, Sanford Bell. Rush-Lydia R. Blaich, H. M. Butler. Vermillion-E. B. Bryan, W. E. Henry.
Bartholomew-J. L. Jones,, J. C. Hartzler.
EASTERN INDIANA NORMAL UNIVERSITY.
SPECIAL COURSES IN PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY.
Dr. T. S. Lowden, of the Eastern Indiana Normal University, will offer, the coming year, a full year's work (forty-eight weeks) in philosophy and psychology, in addition to the philosophy, psychology and professional work regularly given in the teachers' course.
The work in philosophy will carefully consider its history, systems, their growth and development, and give special attention to the great epoch makers of philosophical thought-Plato, Descartes, Kant and Spencer.
The studies in psychology will consider the exposition and opinions of Dewey, Ladd, Baldwin and James, with special attention to animal and child psychology, life, growth and development.
These special courses will doubtless attract those who desire to devote considerable time to the mental sciences, and who are looking forward to the ministry, medicine, law, or teaching as professions.
Adams-H. R. Pattingill, H. A. Hartman. Benton-W. N. Giffin, W. W. Black.
Crawford-(Leavenworth)-W. E. Henry, Mrs. E. E. Olcott.
Clay-E. S. Ames, A. R. Charman, Fred Muchler.
Daviess–J. E. McGilvery, A. W. Connor.
Dekalb-W. W. Parsons, Andrew Stephenson.
Floyd-L. J. Rettger, Chas, Prosser.
Lake-Geo. W. Neet, Mrs. Emma Mont. McRae.
Laporte_Sherman Davis, M. V. O'Shea.
Montgomery--E. B. Bryan, T. F. Fitzgibbon.
Randolph-E. E. White, T. A. Mott.