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distinguished from the absolute, eternal, objective and fundamental and are termed the relative, transient, subjective and derivative relations respectively. He perceives also that the highest derivative of objective reality is termed man. The modern geographer now generalizes and conceives that every organism on the terrestrial sphere is rated in importance as it is related to energy.

Then in true ecstacy as of old, he exclaims, "Eureka, Eureka! The pole-star! The function of every organism is to dissipate and manipulate energy! Then speeding to the limits of organic development, he reflects again and conceives that that organism is most important in the scale of terrestrial creation that manipulates the most energy the most economically. And the form of that organism is found to be that of modern man. Then, with confidence sustained by

the dicta of his brethren, the modern geographer proclaims for the first time in the annals of history these words: “The greatest thing in this world is energy and the greatest thing man can do is to manipulate it;" and to his consciousness come assurances from all the world in cosmic tongue, “It is so, it is so."

From the dim past, the dictum of classical antiquity, “Know thyself," comes in fainter and fainter whispers at each annual tour of the terrestrial sphere. From the immediate present there rings out in full and increasing tone a voice chanting a simple theme of cosmic song, "Know the world and find thyself." This is the function of the study of the fundamentals of modern geography. The basis of an absolute curriculum derivative from this conception of modern geography may be outlined as follows:

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Every individual, high or low, has some To the pupil in school, his community goal for which he is striving, and no mat- is the school. School to him is “not a ter how faint or how strong the endeavor preparation for life, it is life.” The child may be, every goal in every heart reaches himself is not in school to gain knowledge, out toward but one, toward the same great but he is there to live, to put his life into ideal. This striving may be illustrated the life of his community. To be sure, by the circle: No matter how large or his community is made up of individuals how small the circumference, every radii who have a common occupation and a which you start from it must reach the leader, but is this not true of people who center. This great center of all our striv- are in what they think is real life? We, ing, the goal of every individual is free- as teachers, feel thať we have a commundom. Ruskin tells us that it is only by ity of our own, one in which we live, not obeying certain laws that we can attain one in which we feel we are getting ready this freedom, because life must necessarily to live. be in a community and the liberty which The composition of the school is such we would wish, is restricted by community that all the social elements are there, only life. Our lives are not as individuals, but limited by age and normal conditions. are parts of a great whole. If each mole- Here the rich and the poor, the cultured cule of a certain mass moves in a given and the ignorant meet. Here temptations direction, the mass itself is moved to just and trials assail each individual. Here all the extent the molecules are moved. The the bad and evil tendencies that are a part community, then, is moved toward free- of our inheritance are met. Here, too, is dom to just the extent that each individ- a natural leader, a boy or girl, whose inual in that community is moved toward fluence is felt by every member of that freedom.

particular community. In a school there is The ideal community is one in which an opportunity for the constant exercise each individual is striving toward his own of every article in a positive code of freedom. In this community there is no ethics. What more does the mature child law, written or unwritten, no convention- meet when put into life's great school? ality, no custom nor class distinction Therefore, granting that life in the comstanding in the way of each and every mon school has all the ethical characterindividual becoming all he can be. Here istics of the community, will it be illogical is the means for working out personal to grant that the aim and end of our freedom by self-activity. Such a com- school work is to meet society's needs. munity can not exist in perfection, there To-day the state needs men and may be a possible time when it will exist women of strong character. Those whose in imperfect reality. The Suez canal ex- moral characters are good, those who will isted many years in idea before it became legislate for the good of self? Not for the a canal. Not only that, but after its con- good of others; those who will not accept struction it was destroyed and became a bribes; those who will scorn to do an act canal in idea again. To-day, this canal is for self-advancement, at the expense of not perfect; the perfect Suez canal is still another's misfortune; those who make the in idea. This ideal community is a dem- poorest and weakest the subject of the ocracy, and the perfect idea of democracy tenderest care. is that state of society in which there is A great man has said: “As the twig is nothing between the individual and his bent the tree's inclined.” Another, “Who highest possible development, but him- possesses the youth, possesses the future.' self; then, that each individual may attain If these be true, the motive and scope of this ideal community, he must do his part the school must bear directly upon the in attaining perfect solf-activity.

child's present good. And the great motive, the one thing to develop in human to the ultimate end of self-government. beings, is the motive to help, to have Self-government in the state is pure demercy, to do for others, to never hinder, mocracy. Self-government in the school to know the needs of the community and is the ideal school. What is wrong when to give one's self to those needs; or, in a teacher does not dare to leave the room other words, it is the altruistic motive. for a few minutes? Children can be

To develop this motive is the limitation trusted. In a certain school in Ohio, a of educative work, and the underlying teacher left a room of one hundred and principle of its development is school dis- fifty pupils for two days and a half. He cipline. Every item in school order, rules, was in a distant city and no one had direct regulations for whispering, undue noise, charge of the room, but those boys and tardiness, disorder, etc., should be gov- girls behaved and did their work. The erned by the pupil feeling the needs of secret lies in tlie fact that he, the teacher, his community, just as we as men and held each one responsible for the whole women, feel the necessity of just laws. room. He used in his school government And under this the pupil, just as the the altruistic motive and the school becitizen is, should be led to feel this re- came self-governing. Self-government is sponsibility. What are we all worth but the movement toward higher spiritual life our influence? If the child can be made and solves the problem between the indito feel that his example is worth some- vidual and the State. Our country's welthing, that it is his only capital, will he fare and good, its prosperity and honor, not preserve it? We believe, if the child are our dearest inheritance. Its advanceshould be led to feel the responsibility of ment our aim. “The school of to-day behis example, of his influence, the matter comes the state of to-morrow.” of school reports would be reversed and we would receive the parent's report instead of our reporting to the parent. Then, with the feeling of responsibility,

He who would seem truly courteousthere must come a change in the child's

and no one can be truly courteous without idea of advancement. To-day a child's

seeming to be so—must show by his words notion of promotion depends upon the

and his acts, in all his intercourse with grade he gets. By the way, is it any won

others, that he is thinking of the one

whom he addresses rather than of himself; der that men in responsible positions sell themselves and their constituents for sil

that he has more pleasure in hearing what ver and gold when they have been nur

that person says to him, in expressing his tured in such an atmosphere? Why, from

recognition of that person's worth, than babyhood they have been bribed: At in telling what he has done, or in speaking home, by promises; at Sunday school, by

of what concerns himself alone. Courtesy pretty picture cards and prizes for com

may be intrinsic; but again it is more the mitting a great number of texts, and the

result of earnest effort. In either case

it is an honor to him who exhibits it and common schools, by per cents., honor rolls and all sorts of queer devices. These

a gain to him who is its recipient. things but make marketable men and women. Each child should be made to feel that his advancement is absolutely At the request of the University of limited by his own activity; that his pro- Pennsylvania, Martin G. Brumbaugh, motion does not depend upon his per Professor of Pedagogy in that institution, cent., or that he is equal to, or better than has been made supervisor of public some one else, but that he will be pro- schools in Porto Rico. This is regarded moted as soon as he can do more good in as a commendable appointment. It inanother grade; that his advancement de

sures vigorous work in the founding of termines his promotion.

the institution upon which, more than These ideas of responsibility and pro- upon any other, we rely in aiding the motion, altruistic in their tendencies, lead Porto Ricans.

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Sir Launcelot, in seeking the Holy Grail, followed no definite path, but went wherever wild adventures led him. At last he reached a stone cross and an old chapel. Looking through a crevice in a wall, he saw, on a silk-covered altar, a silver candlestick with six candles. He wished to enter, but found no door; and, being fatigued, he lay down to sleep before the cross. Half sleeping and half waking, he saw a sick knight, borne on a horse, ride up to the cross and pray. Then the candlestick and the Holy Grail appeared in front of the cross. Again the siek man prayed, touched the holy vessel, kissed it, as well as the cross, and said: "I thank God right heartily, for I am healed." During all this wonderful event, Sir Launcelot could not move, though he saw and heard all.

After the departure of the strange knight, Sir Launcelot thought about all he had just seen and also about his own life. He said: “My sins have brought me into great dishonor. When I sought worldly adventures I ever achieved them, and had the better in every place. Now that I take upon me the adventure of holy things, my sins hinder me so that I was unable to stir or speak when the Holy Grail appeared before me.”

He rose and traveled on till he met a good hermit, to whom he said: “Give me advice; I have done many great deeds for my own glory; never did I battle all for God's sake alone, but to win worship and be better beloved. I thanked God very little, or none at all, for my good fortunes.” The hermit replied: "Work not for your own glory, but for the glory of right, and look that your heart and your mouth accord.”

Launcelot repented, and proceeded on his way till he approached a fair castle,

where he heard a voice command: “Enter into the castle, where thou shalt see a great part of thy desire.”

He went through every room, but at last reached a bolted door. Listening, he heard the sweetest singing: “Joy and honor be to the Father of Heaven.' Launcelot prayed that he might see that which he was seeking. The door opened, and a voice said, "Enter not.” This saddened him, but he saw in the room the holy vessel, and many angels about it. For very wonder, he forgot himself and entered the room, when a flame smote him in the face. He fell back, and for many days he appeared to be dead. When he revived, he said: "I have seen great marvels that no tongue can tell, and more than any heart can think.” The people said: "You have gotten as much of the Holy Grail as you can get; never shall you see more of it.” He answered: "I thank God for His great mercy.” Then he returned to King Arthur's court, where he was much welcomed, for more than half of the Round Table knights had been slain in their quests.

Sir Bohort had not proceeded far into the forest when he met two knights who were treating his brother, Sir Lionel, most cruelly. Just as he prepared to rescue Lionel, he saw another man dragging a helpless woman along the ground. Sir Bohort, much perplexed, cried out:

, “Whom shall I help-my brother or the lady?" He did not hesitate long, but rescued the latter and took her to her companions. Then he went to his brother's assistance, but, finding a corpse in the forest and hearing that his brother had been killed, he gave it honorable burial.

Some time after, he met Sir Lionel at a great castle, and was much rejoiced that his brother was still alive. Sir Lionel, however, met Sir Bohort in great anger for not having helped him first. He insisted on

a duel with his brother, who begged again and again for mercy. "Pray ye not me for mercy,” retorted Sir Lionel. Weeping, Sir Bohort drew his sword, as he said: “Now, God have mercy upon me, though I defend my life against my brother.” Just at that moment, a voice said: "Flee, Sir Bohort, and touch him

A cloud of fire alighted between them, and both fell to the earth in a swoon. When they revived, Sir Lionel begged his brother for forgiveness. Sir Bohort answered: "God forgive thee, and I do."

knight, Sir Galahad.” Both were very happy.

After Sir Galahad had rescued Sir Perceval from the twenty men, he wandered in forests, over mountains and seas, through many strange lands, often singing such words as these:


My good blade carves the casques of men,

My tough lance thrusteth sure;
My strength is as the strength of ten,

Because my heart is pure.
When down the stormy crescent goes.

A light before me swims,
Between dark stems the forest glows.

I hear a noise of hymns.
Sometimes on lonely mountain meres

I find a magic bark;
I leap on board; no helmsman steers:

I float till all is dark.
When on my goodly charger borne

Thro' dreamy towns I go,
The cock crows ere the Christmas morn,

The streets are dumb with snow.
The tempest crackles on the leads,

And ringing, springs from brand and mail; But o'er the dark a glory spreads,

And gilds the driving hail.
I leave the plain, I climb the height;

No branchy thicket shelter yields;
But blessed forms in whistling storms

Fly o'er waste fens and windy fields.
A maiden knight-to me is given

Such hope, I know not fear;
I yearn to breathe the airs of heaven

That often meet me here.
I muse on joy that will not cease,

Pure spaces clothed in living beams.
Pure lilies of eternal peace,

Whose odors haunt my dreams. The clouds are broken in the sky.

And thro' the mountain walls A rolling organ-harmony

Swells up and shakes and falls. So pass I hostel, hall and grange;

By bridge and ford, by park and pale, All-armed I ride, whate'er betide,

Until I find the Holy Grail.


With that Sir Bohort heard a voice say: One night he stopped at a hermitage, “Go to the sea; Sir Perceval awaits thee where the sister of Sir Perceval met him, there.” He found a ship by the sea, and, saying: “Follow me, for I will show you entering, saw Sir Perceval, who said: he highest adventures that ever knight “We lack nothing now but the good saw." They soon entered the ship on

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