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distinguished from the absolute, eternal, objective and fundamental and are termed the relative, transient, subjective and derivative relations respectively. He perceives also that the highest derivative of objective reality is termed man. The modern geographer now generalizes and conceives that every organism on the terrestrial sphere is rated in importance as it is related to energy. Then in true ecstacy as of old, he exclaims, "Eureka, Eureka! The pole-star! The function of every organism is to dissipate and manipulate energy! Then speeding to the limits. of organic development, he reflects again. and conceives that that organism is most important in the scale of terrestrial creation that manipulates the most energy the most economically. And the form of that organism is found to be that of modern man. Then, with confidence sustained by
BASIS OF AN ABSOLUTE CURRICULUM.
Engagers of Energy from the sun.
the dicta of his brethren, the modern geographer proclaims for the first time in the annals of history these words: "The greatest thing in this world is energy and the greatest thing man can do is to manipulate it;" and to his consciousness come assurances from all the world in cosmic tongue, "It is so, it is so."
From the dim past, the dictum of classical antiquity, "Know thyself." comes in fainter and fainter whispers at each annual tour of the terrestrial sphere. From the immediate present there rings out in full and increasing tone a voice chanting a simple theme of cosmic song, "Know the world and find thyself." This is the function of the study of the fundamentals of modern geography. The basis of an absolute curriculum derivative from this conception of modern geography may be outlined as follows:
Thus it is believed that modern geography sounds the key-note of a true civilization, presents the brightest luminary in the galaxy of human conceptions and acquaints the mind with the divinest and
Horse, Ox, Camel, Hog,
Dissipators of Energy back to space.
most potent characteristic in human affairs, the basis of a true philosophy, the spirit of a true religion-The Rightful Manipulation of Energy.
MAKE THE SCHOOL WHAT YOU WOULD HAVE THE STATE.
MINNIE CHAMBERS, COLLEGE CORNER, OHIO.
Every individual, high or low, has some goal for which he is striving, and no matter how faint or how strong the endeavor may be, every goal in every heart reaches out toward but one, toward the same great ideal. This striving may be illustrated by the circle: No matter how large or how small the circumference, every radii which you start from it must reach the center. This great center of all our striving, the goal of every individual is freedom. Ruskin tells us that it is only by obeying certain laws that we can attain this freedom, because life must necessarily be in a community and the liberty which we would wish, is restricted by community life. Our lives are not as individuals, but are parts of a great whole. If each molecule of a certain mass moves in a given direction, the mass itself is moved to just the extent the molecules are moved. The community, then, is moved toward freedom to just the extent that each individual in that community is moved toward freedom.
The ideal community is one in which each individual is striving toward his own freedom. In this community there is no law, written or unwritten, no conventionalitv. no custom nor class distinction standing in the way of each and every individual becoming all he can be. Here is the means for working out personal freedom by self-activity. Such a community can not exist in perfection, there may be a possible time when it will exist in imperfect reality. The Suez canal existed many years in idea before it became a canal. Not only that, but after its construction it was destroyed and became a canal in idea again. To-day, this canal is not perfect; the perfect Suez canal is still in idea. This ideal community is a democracy, and the perfect idea of democracy is that state of society in which there is nothing between the individual and his highest possible development, but himself; then, that each individual may attain. this ideal community, he must do his part in attaining perfect self-activity.
To the pupil in school, his community is the school. School to him is "not a preparation for life, it is life." The child himself is not in school to gain knowledge, but he is there to live, to put his life into the life of his community. To be sure, his community is made up of individuals. who have a common occupation and a leader, but is this not true of people who are in what they think is real life? We, as teachers, feel that we have a community of our own, one in which we live, not one in which we feel we are getting ready to live.
The composition of the school is such that all the social elements are there, only limited by age and normal conditions. Here the rich and the poor, the cultured and the ignorant meet. Here temptations and trials assail each individual. Here all the bad and evil tendencies that are a part of our inheritance are met. Here, too, is a natural leader, a boy or girl, whose influence is felt by every member of that particular community. In a school there is an opportunity for the constant exercise of every article in a positive code of ethics. What more does the mature child meet when put into life's great school? Therefore, granting that life in the common school has all the ethical characteristics of the community, will it be illogical to grant that the aim and end of our school work is to meet society's needs.
To-day the state needs men and women of strong character. Those whose moral characters are good, those who will legislate for the good of self? Not for the good of others; those who will not accept bribes; those who will scorn to do an act for self-advancement, at the expense of another's misfortune; those who make the poorest and weakest the subject of the tenderest care.
A great man has said: "As the twig is bent the tree's inclined." Another, "Who possesses the youth, possesses the future." If these be true, the motive and scope of the school must bear directly upon the child's present good. And the great mo
tive, the one thing to develop in human beings, is the motive to help, to have mercy, to do for others, to never hinder, to know the needs of the community and to give one's self to those needs; or, in other words, it is the altruistic motive.
To develop this motive is the limitation. of educative work, and the underlying principle of its development is school discipline. Every item in school order, rules, regulations for whispering, undue noise, tardiness, disorder, etc., should be governed by the pupil feeling the needs of his community, just as we as men and women, feel the necessity of just laws. And under this the pupil, just as the citizen is, should be led to feel this responsibility. What are we all worth but our influence? If the child can be made to feel that his example is worth something, that it is his only capital, will he not preserve it? We believe, if the child should be led to feel the responsibility of his example, of his influence, the matter of school reports would be reversed and we would receive the parent's report instead of our reporting to the parent.
Then, with the feeling of responsibility, there must come a change in the child's idea of advancement. To-day a child's To-day a child's notion of promotion depends upon the grade he gets. By the way, is it any wonder that men in responsible positions sell themselves and their constituents for silver and gold when they have been nurtured in such an atmosphere? Why, from babyhood they have been bribed: At home, by promises; at Sunday school, by pretty picture cards and prizes for committing a great number of texts, and the common schools, by per cents., honor rolls and all sorts of queer devices. These things but make marketable men and women. Each child should be made to feel that his advancement is absolutely limited by his own activity; that his promotion does not depend upon his per cent., or that he is equal to, or better than some one else, but that he will be promoted as soon as he can do more good in another grade; that his advancement determines his promotion.
These ideas of responsibility and promotion, altruistic in their tendencies, lead
to the ultimate end of self-government. Self-government in the state is pure democracy. Self-government in the school is the ideal school. What is wrong when a teacher does not dare to leave the room for a few minutes? Children can be trusted. In a certain school in Ohio, a teacher left a room of one hundred and fifty pupils for two days and a half. He was in a distant city and no one had direct charge of the room, but those boys and girls behaved and did their work. The secret lies in the fact that he, the teacher, held each one responsible for the whole room. He used in his school government the altruistic motive and the school became self-governing. Self-government is the movement toward higher spiritual life and solves the problem between the individual and the State. Our country's welfare and good, its prosperity and honor, are our dearest inheritance. Its advancement our aim. "The school of to-day becomes the state of to-morrow."
He who would seem truly courteousand no one can be truly courteous without seeming to be so-must show by his words and his acts, in all his intercourse with others, that he is thinking of the one whom he addresses rather than of himself; that he has more pleasure in hearing what that person says to him, in expressing his recognition of that person's worth, than in telling what he has done, or in speaking of what concerns himself alone. Courtesy may be intrinsic; but again it is more the result of earnest effort. In either case it is an honor to him who exhibits it and a gain to him who is its recipient.
At the request of the University of Pennsylvania, Martin G. Brumbaugh, Professor of Pedagogy in that institution, has been made supervisor of public schools in Porto Rico. This is regarded as a commendable appointment. It insures vigorous work in the founding of the institution upon which, more than upon any other, we rely in aiding the Porto Ricans.
SIR LAUNCELOT, SIR BOHORT AND SIR GALAHAD.
CORRELATED WITH FIFTH-YEAR HISTORY-LYDIA R. BLAICH,
Sir Launcelot, in seeking the Holy Grail, followed no definite path, but wont wherever wild adventures led him. At last he reached a stone cross and an old chapel. Looking through a crevice in a wall, he saw, on a silk-covered altar, a silver candlestick with six candles. He wished to enter, but found no door; and, being fatigued, he lay down to sleep before the cross. Half sleeping and half waking, he saw a sick knight, borne on a horse, ride up to the cross and pray. Then the candlestick and the Holy Grail appeared in front of the cross. Again the sick man prayed, touched the holy vessel, kissed it, as well as the cross, and said: "I thank God right heartily, for I am healed." During all this wonderful event, Sir Launcelot could not move, though he saw and heard all.
After the departure of the strange knight, Sir Launcelot thought about all he had just seen and also about his own life. He said: "My sins have brought me into great dishonor. When I sought worldly adventures I ever achieved them, and had the better in every place. Now that I take upon me the adventure of holy things, my sins hinder me so that I was unable to stir or speak when the Holy Grail appeared before me."
He rose and traveled on till he met a good hermit, to whom he said: "Give me advice; I have done many great deeds for my own glory; never did I battle all for God's sake alone, but to win worship and be better beloved. I thanked God very little, or none at all, for my good fortunes." The hermit replied: "Work not for your own glory, but for the glory of right, and look that your heart and your mouth accord."
Launcelot repented, and proceeded on his way till he approached a fair castle,
where he heard a voice command: "Enter into the castle, where thou shalt see a great part of thy desire." He went through every room, but at last reached a bolted door. Listening, he heard the sweetest singing: "Joy and honor be to the Father of Heaven." Launcelot prayed that he might see that which he was seeking. The door opened, and a voice said, "Enter not." This saddened him, but he saw in the room the holy vessel, and many angels about it. For very wonder, he forgot himself and entered the room, when a flame smote him in the face. He fell back, and for many days he appeared to be dead. When he revived, he said: "I have seen great marvels that no tongue can tell, and more than any heart can think." The people said: "You have gotten as much of the Holy Grail as you can get; never shall you see more of it." He answered: "I thank God for His great mercy." Then he returned to King Arthur's court, where he was much welcomed, for more than half of the Round Table knights had been slain in their quests.
Sir Bohort had not proceeded far into the forest when he met two knights who were treating his brother, Sir Lionel, most cruelly. Just as he prepared to rescue Lionel, he saw another man dragging a helpless woman along the ground. Sir Bohort, much perplexed, cried out: "Whom shall I help my brother or the lady?" He did not hesitate long, but rescued the latter and took her to her companions. Then he went to his brother's assistance, but, finding a corpse in the forest and hearing that his brother had been killed, he gave it honorable burial.
Some time after, he met Sir Lionel at a great castle, and was much rejoiced that his brother was still alive. Sir Lionel, however, met Sir Bohort in great anger for not having helped him first. He insisted on a duel with his brother, who begged again and again for mercy. "Pray ye not me for mercy," retorted Sir Lionel.
Weeping, Sir Bohort drew his sword, as he said: "Now, God have mercy upon me, though I defend my life against my brother." Just at that moment, a voice said: "Flee, Sir Bohort, and touch him not." A cloud of fire alighted between them, and both fell to the earth in a swoon. When they revived, Sir Lionel begged his brother for forgiveness. Sir Bohort answered: "God forgive thee, and I do."
With that Sir Bohort heard a voice say: "Go to the sea; Sir Perceval awaits thee there." He found a ship by the sea, and, entering, saw Sir Perceval, who said: "We lack nothing now but the good
knight, Sir Galahad." Both were very happy.
After Sir Galahad had rescued Sir Perceval from the twenty men, he wandered in forests, over mountains and seas, through many strange lands, often singing such words as these:
My good blade carves the casques of men,
When down the stormy crescent goes.
Between dark stems the forest glows.
Sometimes on lonely mountain meres
I find a magic bark;
I leap on board; no helmsman steers:
I float till all is dark.
When on my goodly charger borne
The cock crows ere the Christmas morn,
The streets are dumb with snow.
The tempest crackles on the leads,
And ringing, springs from brand and mail; But o'er the dark a glory spreads,
And gilds the driving hail.
I leave the plain, I climb the height;
Such hope, I know not fear;
I yearn to breathe the airs of heaven
I muse on joy that will not cease,
Whose odors haunt my dreams.
And thro' the mountain walls
A rolling organ-harmony
Swells up and shakes and falls.
So pass I hostel, hall and grange;
By bridge and ford, by park and pale, All-armed I ride, whate'er betide, Until I find the Holy Grail.
One night he stopped at a hermitage, where the sister of Sir Perceval met him, saying: "Follow me, for I will show you the highest adventures that ever knight saw." They soon entered the ship on