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oral or written, has but little educational both from an educational and an ethical value. The habit of doing things well standpoint. To gain the respect and adcan not be established too early in the miration of the pupils is no small matter school. The moral and ethical value, to to the teacher. It makes discipline easier say nothing of the educational advantages and inspires better work. Neatness in of clean, neat written work, is sufficient dress does not imply the height of fashion, reason why no lower standard should ever but the teacher should at least wear clothbe tolerated or accepted by the teacher. ing of a good quality and especially cloth

ing that fits. Gaudy clothing always

seems out of place. Plain, simple attire, The influence of neatness in dress has with few adornments, seems best. Cleanan important bearing on the school. liness, of course, greatly enhances the efChildren are great imitators. No slouchy, fect. For the teacher to be neat and uncouth person has any right to go before clean at all times in personal attire is to children as their teacher. This is true add to his respect and influence.






The same results obtained from the following lesson in the Indiana Second Reader worked out in four lessons might be obtained from two lessons. It depends on the class.


In preparing a reading recitation every teacher is confronted with the question, "Ilow shall I conduct this lesson, so that the child will get the most out of it?” The chief aim of the teacher in the recitation, and especially in the primary grades, is to lead the children to form good habits of reading.

First in importance is the habit of thinking of what they are reading. The child should form accurate and clear mental pictures as they appear in the reading lesson. Next we should strive to form in our children the habit of judging upon what they read. If we can get our children to ask a question when a part of the lesson is not clear to them, much is accomplished toward this habit. A child who is free to express himself is uttering judgments. Then the child, to become an independent reader, must work out new words for himself. He must cultivate the habit of trying first one sound and then another until he has the word. Sometimes the teacher may pi a letter on the board and ask him to give its different sounds.

1. Preparation for oral reading.
Lesson I.
Aim to get difficult words of lesson.

Teacher should put hard words of lesson, one at a time, on board. Children work these words out phonetically. Those that are known may be pronounced at

When a letter has a sound new to the child it may be given by the teacher. Sometimes by giving the first sound or two the word comes to his mind. Letters italicized are to be sounded together.


one once






Lesson II.

this morning. Did they sing? Where Aim to prepare the children to under- were they going? Why? Get them to tell stand the selection. (a) Did you ever visit all they know about them. Use charts a place where things were sold to get and draw different kinds of birds on the money for poor people?

blackboard. What were some of the things that were In teaching direction ask the children, for sale?

What direction did you come to school Where were these things gotten that from home this morning? Where do you were sold?

live? On what side of the street do you What was this place called ?

live? Who lives next door to you on the (If sale is given, tell that it is sometimes right? Who on the left? What street in called a fair.)

front of your home? (b) These words, previously worked out Where does the sun

seem to rise ? phonetically, have written large Where does it set? Face the north in slips of paper. Hold for an instant before the schoolroom; face the east; face south; class, then have pronounced by some one. face west. (It may be necessary to take a short period In teaching distance, ask how far is from each lesson for drill on these words.) the courthouse from the schoolhouse? Lesson III.

How far from home is the school? How Aim to have children get, by questions, far are you from me? How long is that clear pictures of what is in the lesson. - pencil? Let them guess how many inches Read lesson over silently.

long is the desk, book, hand; then use the Why do you like this little girl? ruler or tapeline and have them measure Can you see her? Tell about her. the sandtable, blackboard and various

How did she show that she was very other things in the schoolroom. fond of her doll?

In teaching the divisions of land take Why did Blue-eyes go to this fair?

the country around you and ask if the What did she do with Belle?

country is hilly or level? What do we What did the old lady think?

mean by hilly? Model a hill on the sandWhy did she think the doll was for table. Have the pupils to understand the sale?


modeled on the sandtable is only Did Blue-eyes sell her?

a miniature hill. Have them to measure Do you think she did right?

the hill, then draw it on the board. What 2. Oral Reading.

is a mountain?. The difference between Lesson IV.

a mountain and a hill? Have the children Aim-Correct expression in oral read- to model it in the sand, then draw it on ing.

the board and paper.

In this way go After a paragraph has been read si

through all the divisions of land, having lently, have it read aloud.

the children do the work while you

direct If right expression of any part of para- them. graph is not given, a pointed question may be asked to bring out this expression.


Miss Blank has a class of the youngest

first-grade pupils, and being ready to give Among the first things to be taught them their first lesson in reading, she in primary geography is observation. called them to her. Birds had been the Get the children to talk about the weather subject for several mornings past, so their and have them observe the different lesson in reading was to be on the woodchanges in the weather, notice the clouds, pecker. Not having a stuffed specimen, sunshine and rain, and keep a record on the next best thing was to use a life-sized the blackboard of the kinds of weather. woodpecker, which had been previously Ask how many have noticed the birds drawn in colors on the board.


Pointing to the bird she asked, “What years at Vincennes, to start us on that do you see?” Almost instantly the en- topic. He described the wide and fertile tire class called out “a woodpecker.” valleys of the Wabash with their fields of Knowing that this was just what they corn and tried to show why corn, rather would do (her object being to secure the than other grains was the chief product attention of the class) she now requested of the soil. He urged the point that their them to hold up their right hand and great fertility made the raising of corn keep their lips closed, when she again very profitable, but we pushed the matter asked the same question. This time se- out a little further and found that until lecting one of the little fellows she re- a few years ago large starch works were ceived the answer, "a woodpecker.” located at this place and after these were

Emphasizing the word see, she secured destroyed by fire, distilleries took their the answer, “I see a woodpecker.” After place, thus giving a home market for corn; a few more questions, she drew from them and for this reason, the class decided, it the desired sentence, “I see a bird.” was the chief grain produced. But these

A number of the little ones were called conditions had not always been so; there upon to repeat the sentence. They were was a time when this fertile spot attracted now told that the chalk would say the other people, and then before we knew it, same thing that they had been saying. we began drifting into history. . We So she wrote upon the board, “I see a learned from another pupil in the class bird.” The class was now dismissed to that he had read of many large mounds be called again a few minutes later, when near Vincennes and this boy verified these the sentence “The bird has a red head," statements by saying that he had seen was developed in the same manner. The them. They were large mounds and were next day, finding that every little one in covered with large trees in some places the class could distinguish the two sen- which showed they had been there a long tences, a third was given by one of the time and those who built them were children, in the form of a question, "Has known as Mound Builders. After these the bird a nest?”

people the Indians came and as they, too, In a few days she was ready for the raised corn and used it as food, they built words, and taking the first sentence she here one of their largest villages. But the asked, “What did you say last?" The name Vincennes is not Indian, so that answer came, “bird.” Then, “What did

gave us a question to answer. All the you say first?” When “I” was given. In girls knew it was a French name, hence like manner every word in the little les- these people must have been here, too, son was recognized. She was not sur- and lived here. The boy helped us here prised one morning when one of the by telling us that a part of the city of brightest in the class told her that he Vincennes is still called "Frenchtown," could “spell bird,” and another little one because the residents speak French. He could spell “red.” Miss Blank was not also knew of the houses still standing, quite ready for “letters” at this time, but built of mud and straw more than a hunfinding that the children were ready, she

dred years ago.

So many things were let them grow as fast as they wished. crowding into the history here that we

found it necessary to continue this an

other day, if our books should not come. GEOGRAPHY WORK UI. A third day we were compelled by force

PRIMARY HISTORY. of circumstances to use the time of geography recitation without our text-books. It appeared to us that every one in the The purpose of the history work in the class actually knew some facts in local third and fourth years is to bring children geography and we selected the son of a in closer touch with their environments; Methodist minister who had lived for two to show them that system and law are

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necessary to permanent and successful or- Just west of us is a village: Beside the ganization; that growth has been gradual difference in the number of people and but steady; and that as progress depends houses, what other difference is there? If upon them they must learn to bring them- the town has laws and officers that are selves into proper relation to law and sys- different from those of the village they tem. That this work may be logical it is must both obey some of the same laws. thought best to begin with the growth of The village and town are parts of what? the village into the town. The following These must all obey the laws of what? questions are suggestive:

Where are the state laws made? In the We call the place in which we live a succeeding lessons the officers of the town town. What was it before it was a town? and their duties will be considered. Those What was here before the village? Who of the county and state will follow, showlived here then and in what kind of ing their interrelation and dependence houses did they live? When white men upon each other. In this way it is became what kind of houses did they build? lieved the pupils will see the purpose and How did the village become a town? benefit of the work.



O, may I join the choir invisible
Of those immortal dead who live again
In minds made better by their presence; live
In pulses stirred to generosity,
In deeds of daring rectitude, in scorn
For miserable aims that end with self,
In thoughts sublime that pierce the night like stars,
And with their mild persistence urge men's minds
To vaster issues.

-George Eliot.


sense or justice in calling an act, regard

less of its motive, bad. Do we ever question ourselves as par- When we have once attributed an evil ents and teachers of children, concerning motive to a child in the commission of an the part that we play in causing them act, we have implanted in his mind the to become conscious wrongdoers? The idea of the connection of such a motive motives of children are essentially differ- with such an act. We have done him in ent from those of adults. They do not this an incalculable injury. The harm know sin or evil and are, in the natural done has a twofold aspect. In the first state, incapable of sinful or evil motives. place he smarts under the sense of the inNo act is, in itself, and independent of justice done him in accusing him of wrong motive, wrong. At the worst, the acts of where no wrong was meant; in the second children before the age of reason can be place, he gets his first lesson in associating truly classed only as inexpedient, unde- wrong motives with acts; the next step is sirable, unsuitable or harmful.

for him to associate the two himself in When we call a child "naughty" or some new form of combination. “bad,” we are going back of his act and The initial steps in making "sinners” finding or attributing a motive. We must, or "reprobates” of children are often thus perforce, do this, as there would be no taken by parents who would give their own souls to save them from the conse- Emerson tells us somewhere that if we quences of sin in this world and the next. would find a man great we must treat him Children who are brought "under convic- greatly, or words to that effect. Our new tion of sin” at an early age may become education (which is not so new after all bright and shining lights through con- except in adopting some very old but sadly version and keep in the straight path overlooked truths), tells us that we can always. They are quite likely, however, cause a person to become whatever we to become more hardened, reckless and wish by assuming that he is already in dedaring in wrongdoing than others who sire and intention what we would have do not come from such strictly religious him to be. homes.

Why is this? The reason is not a difficult one to find. It is because the child

POLITICS IN SCHOOL. has been made to believe from the first that the various inexpedient, inappro- Of course partisan politics have no place priate and mistaken acts which he com- in schoolroom discussions. But as the mitted were sins and should be as burdens schoolboy, in our country at least, is irreon his conscience. From the period of in- pressible in his interest in politics the fancy this load has accumulated under question is, "How shall we furnish a the well-meant but sadly mistaken minis- safety-valve for his enthusiasm?” trations of those over him. By the time It is becoming quite common to hold he really reaches the age where reason an election in school on election day. should in the normal course of things as- Sample ballots in sufficient numbers can sume its sway, he is oppressed by the feel- usually be obtained at the nearest voting ing that he is already a hardened sinner. place. Arrangements for conducting the It is easy to see why recklessness takes election on the Australian plan are easily possession of him at this stage and why so made. An inspector, clerk and judges many "parsons' sons” verify in their lives

are appointed. A few words may be said the truth of the old adage.

by the teacher regarding the rights of This is not an argument for laxness in each to his individual opinions and prefercorrecting mistaken tendencies. As Froe- ences. A little explanation may be given bel says, there is a third something be- of the rules and then if the school is given tween the child and the adult which the some work to do the election will go on child should be educated into an apprecia- quietly and without friction. It is intertion of; and he should be brought early esting to watch the genuine dignity and to realize the existence of this standard seriousness of purpose with which each of what is right, just, pure, upright and pupil leaves his seat, takes the blue pencil honorable; he should be brought early to and ballot from the clerk and retiring to a desire to shape his own life by such a the booth, places the mark in the proper standard. Froebel says farther that con- place and then returns to his seat with an formity to such a standard should be, if air which indicates that he has done somenecessary, sternly insisted upon. But thing toward saving his country. while sternness may sometimes be neces- No reasonable objection can be made to sary, it should never in the early stages this. The voting is secret, and a judicious of child-training at least take the form teacher can make of it a lesson in fairness of impugning the child's motives.

and regard for each other's rights as well Indeed, the persons most successful in as an object lesson. The latter would not managing men and women, whether big seem to be altogether unneeded, as a part or little, are those whose apparent faith of the education of the coming man, since in their motives never wavers except in in the presidential election of 1896 several the presence of absolute proof of wrong thousand ballots cast in this state were motives.

thrown out because not properly marked.


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