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HONORABLE LEONARD J. HACKNEY. We owe the teacher much. He stands in loco parentis to our children when our hopes and ambitions for them are highest. There is no more important office. Are these facts generally recognized ? Emphatically, no! The teacher is poorly paid and no encouragement is offered to make teaching a profession, a life-work. Our bookkeepers, clerks and other guardians of the dollar, are more carefully chosen and better paid than those who mould the character, develop the intellect and mark the lifecourse of our children. The demand for compensation proportioned to the sacred duties of the office is usually answered by pointing to the supply of teachers larger than the demand. The supply is large because the standard is not high enough. The position is occupied too frequently as a makeshift, a mere tiding over until something better offers, a means of support while reading law or studying for the ministry. The place should not be kept within the reach of any such occupants. It should be measured by the high standard proportioned to its exalted duties and responsibilities. It would then command remuneration sufficient to justify one in selecting it as a life work. Who is to elevate the standard ? Those teachers who are well enough equipped to measure up to the required standard. They can exclude the weaklings. They can demonstrate the superior value of the professional over the nonprofessional. Their number is large ; their cause is just ; their influence reaches the firesides of those who rule the land. A united, determined, intelligent effort is certain of success.




It was a fortunate day for the study of is of greater moment in the teaching of history, as well as for the cause of educa- history in the high school to give the stution in general, when it began to dawn dent an inspiration which will lead him upon men that not quite the whole realm to read widely and judge intelligently of historical truth can be bound up in a throughout all his after life than merely four or five hundred page book. This

to pour a meager quantity of dead facts idea originating in the higher institutions into his reluctant memory and in doing of learning--particularly the German uni- so forever disgust his finer nature. versities-gave rise to the seminary plan With this idea in mind and with the of study, and in recent times has been desire to to see in how far our history gradually sifting down in its essence to the teachers believe in such a principle and secondary schools, so that now it is to be act upon it in their teaching, inquiry was presumed that there is not anywhere a made as to whether or not their students teacher of history who does not appreciate are required to use library facilities in the in some degree the inadequacy of that preparation of their work from time to method which relies exclusively upon the time and to what extent this sort of work use of a single text. In forming an esti- is actually done. Of course replies to this mate of the history work which is now ac- question were subject to considerable tually being done in the high schools of

vaguieness. After eliminating such meanour state, therefore, it becomes a matter ingless answers as “It depends," or, "As of vital importance to know the extent to far as possible,” the results appear about which students are encouraged and re- as follows: In 44 of the 53 schools which quired to make use of libraries and maintain a course in United States history broaden their information by collateral collateral use of library facilities is rereading.

quired; in English history the proportion While it is doubtless true that in high using library work by way of supplement school work-unless conducted by a very to the text is 25 out of 53; in Grecian and exceptional teacher under very exceptional Roman history, strangely enough, the procircumstances the text-book method is portion is higher, being 18 out of 20; best, vet one of the greatest educational

while in general history it falls very lowblessings which the high school can be

only 20 out of 71. These figures in themstow upon a pupil is a keen realization of selves indicate a great deal, but they may the fact that no one man has ever been be made more significant by a further clasable to analyze and set forth the facts of sification of our data. Obviously the exhuman history, or even any considerable tent to which collateral reading is required portion of them, in such a way as to ren- varies extremely. I know of no better der the careful reading of other writers way of collating the very heterogeneous unnecessary. Aside from considerations

answers upon this point than by arranging of general culture and enlightened citizen- them under three words (1) "much." (2) ship, it is believed that the value of his- “some," (3) "little” recognizing, of tory work in ine high school is by no course, that no very sharp lines can be means to be measured by the greater or drawn between such general terms. On smaller amount of actual historical facts this basis, however, it is found that in acquired by the pupil, but is in reality to United States history 27 schools report be measured by the inclination and ability "much” use of the library, 6 "some” use, developed in the pupil to use books in- and 11 "little” use. In English history telligently, judiciously, and effectively. It 14 report “much” use, ✓ "some" use,

and 4 "little” use. In Grecian and Roman history 8 report “much” use, 4 “some" use, and 6 "little” use. In general history only 10 report any systematic attempt to secure collateral work on the part of pupils. Some reasons for the very manifest neglect of library work in general history will be indicated in connection with another subject to be treated in a following paper.

Although I hesitate to draw rigid conclusions on this point, it is certainly to be inferred from the tenor of the reports that while, with the exception of general history, these figures might seem to indicate that in approximately half the schools there is a somewhat extensive use of library facilities, yet the school in which a good collection of standard historical works is accessible and in which the teacher is actually able to lead all the pupils to an habitual and effective use of these books is an exception as rare as it is commendable. And yet it is not to be imagined that the fault lies wholly, or even for the greatest part, with the teacher. Over and over again in answer to my question came the familiar plea that while the value of library work is appreciated by the teacher and while effort is made to use the facilities at hand, yet satisfactory work of this sort is rendered virtually impossible by the sad lack of books. As one teacher pathetically declared, it is difficult to accomplish much that is worth while in the use of collateral readings when the only books accessible are a copy of Swinton's General History and a half dozen of Abbott's Biographies. It would seem that in too many instances where there is the semblance of a library for history work the books in it are old, wornout desk copies, as uninviting in external appearance as they are antiquated in their contents. While there is revealed a lamentable indifference on the part of a very few teachers, we are led to believe that the great majority are attempting to utilize such resources as are at their command. But there is something radically wrong when high school students in towns of eight and ten thousand people (and, if the truth were told, in some much larger) have practically no facilities for broad

reading and for laying the foundation of the only true and effective study of human history. One wonders whether the high schools in many of these same towns have not well-equipped laboratories for use in the study of physics and chemistry; if so, it is indeed well, but we must learn that it is as great folly to expect the teacher of history to accomplish that of which his subject is capable when deprived of library facilities as to expect the same of the teacher of physics when totally deprived of laboratory equipment. There must be increased effort to remedy those defects of history teaching which are due to enforced slavery to a single textbook (1) by engendering a progressive spirit among all who are in any way responsible for high school education so that liberality and sound judgment shall alike prevail in the provision of materials for the most effective study of history, and (2) by inspiring teachers of history with zeal which shall become contagious among pupils and lead to a greater measure of well-balanced and sustained interest in history work.

Closely connected with the question of collateral reading is the yet more vexed problem of original sources. From an inquiry as to whether or not the use of original materials is attempted in high school work it was ascertained that such effort is made by twenty-six teachers of United States history as against nineteen who give no attention to it. In English history this ratio is eighteen to thirty-one; in Greek and Roman history it is seven to nine; in general history only a very insignificant number make any claim to the use of original sources. From statements made in a number of reports it is fair to conclude that considerable effort is being made along this line in all history courses except general history, and that it is being increased from year to year. Of course there are many obstacles in the way of an effective use of original materials by high school students, among which may be indicated (1) lack on the part of teachers of an appreciation of the importance of such work, (2) difficulty of procuring the necessary books and documents, and (3) scarcity of time. It is worthy of note that


the second of these hindrances at least is being rapidly overcome by the publication of such works as Professor Hart's “Source Book of American History,” and Dr. Lee's "Source Book of English History.” It is to be hoped that the other difficulties may likewise be removed.

It has been suggested frequently that high school students are too young and inexperienced to be expected to use original sources profitably. The force of this proposition depends wholly upon the nature of he sources used and the methods followed in using them. Of all things liable to abuse in history teaching, the use of original materials in secondary schools certainly stands in the front rank. And yet it is well maintained by many of our best teachers that history can not be

taught most effectively in the high school without a judicious use of original sources. Space forbids a consideration of the merits of the question. Suffice it to say that, while there is manifest need that the courses in history as presented in our high schools be enriched by leading the pupil to feel the pulse of history at first hand, still the wise teacher will be very careful to guard against indiscriminate and ineffective effort of this sort—ineffective, as a rule, because attempting to accomplish too much.

In a following paper we shall consider the matter of text-books and arrangement of courses of study in history as revealed by the data recently collected among the schools of the state.





One of the ear-marks of the good seemingly little things are in reality great, teacher is the ability to attend to the and when viewed in relation to other various details of the work. The many things, they "exceeding wise." little duties incident to the management Many of them add a culture and disciand instruction of a school, when consid- pline of their own, and perhaps play as ered in the aggregate, have great signifi- important a part in the formation of charcance. Many of these little things are acter as the more apparent work of the mechanical but none the less essential. school. "To neglect these signifies general failure; We suggest a few of the more importto attend to them implies the very essence ant details that should receive the considof good management and instruction. eration of thoughtful teachers. The attention to details is largely the

PROMPTNESS. work of the objective mind. It means the full play of the senses as well as the It should be an infallible law of the faculties. To be able to instruct is good school that it open and close at the exact in its place, but it is comparatively useless time specified. This should also be true without its counterpart, good manage- of the recitations and the intermissions. ment. Each supplements the other. Ev- Pupils are accustomed to give six hours to erything is right and

proper in its

the school work, but any excess of time place, but hurtful out of its place. is usually given grudgingly and results The subjective obliviousness to surround- in waste of energy. The pupil feels that ings so desirable to the scholar may in- , his rights have been taken from him, dicate a high degree of mentality, but it and he rebels against any such practice, would be a poor quality and a demoral- but aside from this, a business principle izing factor to a common, grade or district has been violated. Time is money. What teacher in a room with forty or fifty av- belongs to this can not be given to that «erage American children. Many of these in the economy of exchange. Even adults

become restless and annoyed when a little more of their time is taken than they have promised.

The business world knows no excuse for the failure to keep appointments. Banks close at the precise moment. Factory whistles always blow on time. Promptness is the cardinal virtue of the business world and the public schools should set the example and insist on the rigid adherence to the law. Certainly no individual has any moral or legal right to use extra time belonging to another. If extra time is given it should be the voluntary act of the giver. Much care should be exercised in the arrangement of programs, each branch receiving its due proportion of time and it should be understood that the program is made to follow, not for an ornament.

The teacher who has a time for everything and who does everything in its season is begetting habits among his pupils that will tell for the best in whatever vocation they may be engaged in the future.

HEATING AND VENTILATING. Not only the health of teacher and pupils depends upon good physical conditions, but to a great extent the success of the school. The average temperature of the schoolroom, the constant supply of fresh air, regulate brain work. Impure air dulls the faculties. Headaches, sluggishness, indigestion result. If the ventilation is inadequate, which it is in many schoolrooms, the windows should be thrown open and the rooms thoroughly cleansed with fresh air at the intermissions. It is not consistent to teach the laws of health and practice the laws of disease. Every year the schoolrooms breed a crop of pale and sickly teachers and pupils. The vitiated air and the overheated rooms certainly lie at the foundation of many physical disorders. To shut children up in hot, ill-ventilated rooms is as wrong morally as to feed them upon putrid flesh. The life-giving oxygen is not limited in quantity and should be used as generously as nature has supplied it.


LINES AND PASSING, POSITION IN CLASS, ETC. Reasonable freedom should be given to

Quiet, orderly movements and proper the games and plays of children. As long position are a part of good decorum. as they are not injurious, and innocent in

There is culture and disciplinary value their nature, they should be approved, but

even in knowing how to walk Bodily it must be remembered that children are

habits influence mental habits. Common not altogether capable of self-direction

politeness, correct movement, have a teneven in play. They are liable to en

dency to induce clear and concise thinkgage in objectionable exercises. The

ing. If pupils could move to the sound average boy is quite changeable in his

of music, the value of the exercise would pastimes. Games soon grow old and he

be increased. The pell-mell method of seeks new amusements. One day he may

leaving the schoolroom, so common in take to ball and the next day to marbles,

many of our schools, is not only a bad the next to climbing flag poles. Proper

break of manners but it reacts unfavorsuggestion as to games seems not only ably upon the general discipline of the

school. If the pupil leaves the school necessary but very beneficial. Yard supervision must be liberal at all

with polite habits, good bodily movements times and not partake of the nature of

and carriage, his more intellectual acfaultfinding. It seeks to prevent rather

quirements will carry greater weight and than to cure evils. It will encourage all


SLATE AND BOARD WORK that is best on the playground as to character of amusements and it will interfere Should be scrupulously neat and accuonly when injuries and improper conduct rate. This should be true of all kinds are likely to occur.

of written work. Slovenly work, whether

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