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Claude Lorraine, or Ruysdael, or Turner, and add Corot, and Daubigny and Constable, and such landscape backgrounds as Millet and Breton paint, and feel the differences. Then think of the English poets, from Chaucer through to Tennyson, and see if in their treatment of landscape a somewhat similar movement has not taken place. Compare the great portraits -Bellini's Doge Leonardo Loredano, Holbein's Erasmus, Rembrandt's men, and those of Dürer, Van Dyke, Franz Hals, Velasquez—and revel in the types. Study children as they have been painted (often in subordinate figures lovelier than the main ones), by Bellini, Carpaccio, both Lippis, Botticelli, Melozzo da Forli, Velasquez—to name the ones most likely to be overlooked. And as we look for any of these things, a score of others will suggest themselves (and no suggestion should ever be allowed to pass without being instantly noted down), and the old material, studied over and over again, always from some new point of view, will gain in fresh
ness, rather than grow stale. And all this, from beginning to end, not just to get to know more about pictures, but to enhance one's joy in them. For here, if ever, “to miss the joy is to miss all.”
How far shall all this be given to the children? Not at all, until the teacher has thoroughly done his work, and fallen in love with it. If that happy experience has not been his or hers, better let the children well alone. But if it has been, one or two or half a dozen larger pictures on the walls can be made the starting point, with the aid of the cheaper reproductions, of such excursions as have been suggested, into many fascinating fieldsalways assuming that such work be not allowed to pass beyond its proper bounds. And it will be the object of the series of brief articles that follow this, to point out even more concretely. by means of a few selected pictures, something of how this may be done.
PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL PRACTICE.
(Concluded from November.) The argument may be summarized by psychology, are abstract. They transform saying that there is controversy neither as specific acts and relations of individuals to the ethical character of education, nor into a flow of processes in consciousness; as to the abstraction which psychology and these processes can be adequately performs in reducing personality to an ob- identified and related only through referject. The teacher is, indeed, a person ence to a biological organism. I do not occupied with other persons. He lives in think there is danger of going too far in a social sphere—he is a member and an asserting the social and teleological nature organ of a social life. His aims are social of the work of the teacher; or in asserting aims; the development of individuals tak- the abstract and partial character of the ing ever more responsible positions in a mechanism into which the psychologist, as circle of social activities continually in- a psychologist, transmutes ihe play of creasing in radius and in complexity. vital values. Whatever he as a teacher effectively does, Does it follow from this that any athe does as a person; and he does with and tempt on the part of the teacher to pertowards persons. His methods, like his form this abstraction, to see the pupil as aims, when actively in operation, are prac- a mechanism, to define his own relations tical, are social, are ethical, are anything and that of the study taught in terms of you please-save merely physical. In causal influences acting upon this mechcomparison with this, the material and the anism, are useful and harmful? On the data, the standpoint and the methods of face of it, I can not understand the logie which says that because mechanism is scientific control of our practice in these mechanism, and because acts, aims, values directions; that at bottom our difficulty is are vital, therefore a statement in terms local and circumstantial, not intrinsic and of one is alien to the comprehension and doctrinal. If our teachers were trained as proper management of the other. Ends architects are trained, if our schools were are not compromised when referred to the actually managed on a psychological basis means necesary to realize them. Values as great factories are run on the basis of do not cease to be values when they are chemical and physical science; if our psyminutely and accurately measured. Acts chology were sufficiently organized and are not destroyed when their operative coherent to give as adequate a mechanical machinery is made manifest. The state- statement of human nature as physics does ment of the disparity of mechanism and of its material, we should never dream of actual life, be it never so true, solves no discussing this question. problem. It is no distinction that may I can not pass on from this phase of be used off-hand to decide the question of the discussion without at least incidental the relation of psychology to any form of remark of the obverse side of the situapractice. It is a valuable and necessary tion. The difficulties of psychological obdistinction; but it is only preliminary. The servation and interpretation are great purport of our discussion has, indeed, led
enough in any case. We can not afford to us strongly to suspect any ideal which neglect any possible auxiliary. The great exists purely at large, out of relation to advantage of the psycho-physical laboramachinery of execution, and equally a ma- tory is paid for by certain obvious defects. chinery that operates in no particular di- The complete, control of conditions, with rection.
resulting greater accuracy of determinaThe proposition that a description and tion, demands an isolation, a ruling out of explanation of stones, iron and mortar, as the usual media of thought and action, an absolutely necessary and causal nexus which leads to a certain remoteness, and of mechanical conditions, makes the re- easily to a certain artificiality. When the sults of physical science unavailable for result of laboratory experiment informs purposes of practical life, would hardly us, for example, that repetition is the chief receive attention to-day. Every sky factor influencing recall, we must bear in scraper, every railway bridge, is a refuta- mind that the result is obtained with nontion, compared with which oceans of talk sense material-i. e., by excluding the are futile. One would not find it easy to conditions of ordinary memory. The restir up a problem even if he went on to sult is pertinent if we state it thus: The include, in this same mechanical system, more we exclude the usual environmental the steam derricks that hoist the stones adaptations of memory the greater imporand iron, and the muscles and nerves of tance attaches to sheer repetition. It is architect, mason and steel worker. The dubious (and probably perverse) if we say: simple fact is still too obvious: the more Repetition is the prime influence in memthorough-going and complete the mechan
ory. ical and causal statement, the more cor. Now this illustrates a general principle. trolled, the more economical are the dis- Unless our laboratory results are to give covery and realization of human aims. us artificialities, mere scientific curiosities, It is not in spite of, nor in neglect of, but they must be subjected to interpretation because of the mechanical statement that by gradual reapproximation to conditions human activity has been freed, and made of life. The results may be very accurate, effective in thousands of new practical very definite in form, but the task of redirections, upon a scale and with a cer- viewing them so as to see their actual imtainty hitherto undreamed of. Our dis- port is clearly one of great delicacy and cussion tends to suggest that we entertain liability to error. The laboratory, in a a similar question regarding psychology word, affords no final refuge that enables only because we have as vet made so little us to avoid the ordinary scientific difficulheadway—just because there is so little ties of forming hypotheses, interpreting
results, etc. In some sense (from the very relation to presented objects we are enaccuracy and limitations of its results) it abled to get outside of the existing situadds to our responsibilities in this direc- ation; to see it objectively, not merely in tion. Now the school, for psychological relation to our traditional habits, vague purposes, stands in many respects midway aspirations and capricious desires. We are between the extreme simplifications of the able to see clearly the factors which shape laboratory and the confused complexities it, and therefore to get an idea of how it of ordinary life. Its conditions are those may be modified. The assumption of an of life at large; they are social and prac- identical relationship of physics and psytical. But it approaches the laboratory in chology to practical life is justified. Our so far as the ends aimed at are reduced in freedom of action comes through its statenumber, are definite, and thus simplify ment in terms of necessity. By this transthe conditions; and their psychological lation our control is enlarged, our powers phase is uppermost—the formation of are directed, our energy conserved, our habits of attention, observation, memory, aims illuminated. etc.-while in ordinary life these are sec- The school is an especially favorable ondary and swallowed up.
place in which to study the availability of If the biological and evolutionary atti- psychology for social practice; because in tude is right in looking at mind as funda- the school the formation of a certain type mentally an instrument of adaptation, of social personality, with a certain attithere are certainly advantages in any mode tude and equipment of working powers, of approach which brings us near to its is the express aim. In idea at least no Various adaptations while they are still other purpose restricts or comprises the forming, and under conditions selected dominance of the single purpose. Such is with special reference to promoting these not the case in business, politics and the adaptations (or faculties). And this is professions. All these have upon their precisely the situation we should have surface, taken directly, other ends to in a properly organized system of serve. In many instances these other aims education. While the psychological are of far greater immediate importance; theory would guide and illuminate the the ethical result is subordinate or even practice, acting upon the theory would incidental. Yet as it profiteth a man immediately test it, and thus criticise it, nothing to gain the whole world and lose bringing about its revision and growth. his own self, so indirectly and ultimately In the large and open sense of the words all these other social institutions must be psychology becomes a working hypothesis, judged by the contribution they make to instruction is the experimental test and the value of human life. Other ends may demonstration of the hypothesis; the re- be immediately uppermost, but these ends sult is both greater practical control and must in turn be means; they must subcoatinued growth in theory.
serve the interests of conscious life or else
stand condemned. II.
In other words, the moment we apply
an ethical standard to the consideration of I must remind myself that my purpose social institutions, that moment they does not conclude with a statement of the stand on exactly the same level as does auxiliary relation of psychology to educa- the school, viz., as organs for the increase tien; but that we are concerned with this in depth and area of the realized values of as a type case of a wider problem-the life. In both cases the statement of the relation of psychology to social practice mechanism, through which the ethical in general. So far I have tried to show ends are realized, is not only permissible, that it is not in spite of its statement of but absolutely required. It is not merely personal aims and social relations in terms incidentally, as a grateful addition to its of mechanism that psychology is useful, normal task, that psychology serves us. but because of this transformation and ab- The essential nature of the standpoint straction. Through reduction of ethical which calls it into existence, and of the
abstraction which it performs, is to put individual is dominated by the mass life in our possession the method by which of his group. Institutions and the customs values are introduced and effected in life. attaching to them take care of society The statement of personality as an object; both as to its ideals and its methods. But of social relations as a mechanism of stim- when once the values come to consciousuli and inhibitions, is precisely the state- ness, when once a Socrates insists upon ment of ends in terms of the method of the organic relation of a reflective life and their realization.
morality, then the means, the machinery It is remarkable that men are so blind by which ethical ideals are projected and to the futility of a morality which merely manifested, comes to consciousness also. blazons ideals, erects standards, asserts Psychology must needs be born as soon as laws without finding in them any organic morality becomes reflective. provision for their own realization. For Moreover, psychology, as an account of ideals are held up to follow; standards are the mechanism of workings of personality, given to work by; laws are provided to is the only alternative to an arbitrary and guide action. The sole and only reason class view of society, to an aristocratic for their conscious moral statement is, in view in the sense of restricting the realizaa word, that they may influence and direct tion of the full worth of life to a section conduct. If they can not do this, not of society. The growth of a psychology merely by accident, but of their own in- that, as applied to history and sociology, trinsic nature, they are worse than inert. tries to state the interactions of groups of They are impudent imposters and logical men in familiar psychical categories of self-contradictions.
stimulus and inhibition, is evidence that When men derive their moral ideals and we are ceasing to take existing social laws from custom, they also realize them forms as final and unquestioned. The apthrough custom; but when they are in plication of psychology to social instituany way divorced from habit and tradi- tions is the only scientific way of dealing tion, when they are consciously pro- with their ethical values in their present claimed, there must be some substitute for unequal distribution, their haphazard excustom as an organ of execution. We ecution and their thwarted development. must know the method of their operation It marks just the recognition of the prinand know it in detail. Otherwise the ciple of sufficient reason in the large matmore earnestly we insist upon our cate- ters of social life. It is the recognition gorical imperatives, and upon their su- that the existing order is determined preme right of control, the more flagrantly neither by fate nor by chance, but is based helpless we are as to their actual domina- on law and order, on a system of existing tion. The fact that conscious, as distinct stimuli and modes of reaction, through from customary, morality and psychology knowledge of which we can modify the have had a historic parallel march, is just practical outcome. There is no logical althe concrete recognition of the necessary ternative save either to recognize and equivalence between ends consciously con- search for the mechanism of the interplay ceired, and interest in the means upon of personalities that controls the existing which the ends depend. We have the distributions of values, or to accept as same reality stated twice over:
final a fixed hierarchy of persons in which
a value to be realized, and once as mechan- the leaders assert, on no basis save their ism of realization. So long as custom own supposed superior personality, certain reigns, as tradition prevails, so long as ends and laws which the mass of men passocial values are determined by instinct sively receive and imitate. The effort to and habit, there is no conscious question apply psychology to social affairs means as to the method of their achievement, and that the determination of ethical values hence no need of psychology. Social in- lies not in any set or class, however sustitutions work of their own inertia, they perior, but in the workings of the social take the individual up into themselves and whole; that the explanation is found in carry him along in their own sweep. The the complex interactions and interrelations which constitute this whole. To save, mechanism through which conscious value personality in all, we must serve all alike and meaning are introduced into human -state the achievements of all in terms experience. As it makes its way, and is of mechanism, that is, of the exercise of progressively applied to history and all reciprocal influence. To affirm personal- the social sciences, we can anticipate no ity independent of mechanism is to re- other outcome than increasing control in strict its full meaning to a few, and to the ethical sphere—the nature and extent make its expression in the few irregular of which can be best judged by considerand arbitrary.
ing the revolution that has taken place in The anomaly in our present social life the control of the physical nature through is obvious enough. With tremendous in- a knowledge of her order. Psychology crease in control of nature, in ability to will never provide ready-made materials utilize nature for the indefinite extension and prescriptions for the ethical life, any and multiplication of commodities for hu
more than physics dictates off-hand the man use and satisfaction, we find the ac- steam engine and the dynamo. But tual realization of ends, the enjoyment of science, both physical and psychological, values, growing unassured and precarious. makes known the conditions upon which At times it seems as if we were caught in certain results depend, and therefore puts a contradiction; the more we multiply at the disposal of life a method for conmeans, the less certain and general is the trolling them. Psychology will never tell use we are able to make of them. No won- us just what to do ethically nor just how der a Carlyle or a Ruskin puts our whole to do it. But it will afford us insight into industrial civilization under a ban, while the conditions which control the formaa Tolstoi proclaims a return to the desert. tion and execution of aims, and thus enaBut the only way to see the situation ble human effort to expend itself sanely, steadily, and to see it as a whole, is to rationally and with assurance. We are not keep in mind that the entire problem is called upon to be either boasters or sentione of the development of science, and of mentalists regarding the possibilities of its application to life. Our control of our science. It is best, for the most part, nature with the accompanying output of that we should stick to our particular jobs material commodities is the necessary re- of investigation and reflection as they sult of the growth of physical science-of come to us. But we certainly are entitled our ability to state things as intercon- in this daily work to be sustained by the nected parts of a mechanism. Physical conviction that we are not working in inscience has for the time being far outrun difference to or at cross-purposes with the psychical. We have mastered the physical practical strivings of our common humanmechanism sufficiently to turn out pos- ity. The psychologist, in his remote and sible goods; we have not gained a know- technical occupation with mechanism, is ledge of the conditions through which contributing his bit to that ordered knowlpossible values become actual in life, and edge which alone enables mankind to so are still at the mercy of habit, of hap- secure a larger and to direct a more equal hazard, and hence of force.
flow of values in life. Psychology, after all, simply states the
A SONG FOR THE OLD YEAR.
Yes, sing a song for him, my friends,
The year is lonely now!
Lie thick on beard and brow.
His follies, doubts, and fears;
Yes, take him all in all, 'tis true,
He brought more smiles than tears.
We loved him well, you know,
-Helen Whitney Clark.