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over most of his English readers, Cardinal but pay the price for it.” The question Newman must be ranked with Carlyle, becomes a practical one. Put in a pracRuskin, and our own Emerson as one of tical way which we are well qualified to the greatest prose writers in the great- understand, are we not paying too great est age of prose in English literature. a price for the things in which we so much That such authors as Cardinal New- pride ourselves? Let us hope our eyes may man, who wrote the wonderful hymn be speedily opened that we may see things “Lead, kindly light, amid the encircling as they really are. gloom," and Matthew Arnold, who has Changes have taken place so rapidly, written poetry which ranks him next to and we have progressed at such a rate that Tennyson and Browning, should abandon we have grown impatient with what is poetry, and devote their lives to the writ- old. Innovation is almost a ruling pasing of prose is certainly significant. The sion. Often we are led to give up the old technique of Victorian poetry is good, but too soon, and to welcome ardently plans the high spirit of inspiration is lacking. which prove not to have been sufficiently As to our poetry in general, we have speci- wrought out. Good things are
conmens of the most elaborate workmanship, demned because they are old, and new as in Tennyson, yet lacking in depth and things are praised because they are the originality, and poems of great originality latest while often they are not superior and profundity as in Robert Browning, nor are they the equal of the old. So far yet crude in expression. The bird-like note as literature is concerned such experiof spontaneity, the fine careless rapture of ments are not fraught with dangers. We the early years of our century is lacking. have had artistic fads in the Victorian era. For example, you may search through They have been tried by time, and conStedman's Victorian Anthology, and Pal- clusively and speedily relegated to their grave's second series of the Golden Treas- proper places. Hereafter it will be only ury of Lyric Poetry, the most recent and the special student of literature who will most representative volumes of the poetry care to enter into more than a casual readof our age, and if your search be for å ing of the aesthetical school of poets or poem coming from the very heart of na- the works of the Symbolists or Impresture herself, as Shelley's Ode to the Sky- sionists. So also the extreme realists will lark, your search will be in vain. At first doubtless prove in the future but "idle one might think that the temptation to singers of an empty day.” All such atwin sudden renown by contributing to the tempts prove the lack of genuine inspirapopular magazines and newspapers would tion. Sometimes the innovators become account for lack of merit in the poetry of too bold and the outcry against works the age, but it is not so. A great amount such as those of the Naturalistic school is of time and conscientious effort has been irrepressible. Yet denunciation avails litexpended on poetry, and the amount pro- tle. Some readers are led through curiosduced is great, but our poets do not sing ity to read the works so condemned. Any to appreciative ears. They are not en- recognition of them is more than they decouraged and stimulated to higher flights. serve. It is fortunate that the prominThey appeal to cold hearts, to calculating ence of such works is short. Our literaminds and to deadened ears. Calliope, ture in general grows cleaner and purer the name among the Greeks for the muse every day-a progress which is due to the of poetry and eloquence, has been given development in public taste, for we have hy us to the steam piano. It is the steam no other censorship of the press. The whistle and the whirr of factory wheels purity of Victorian poetry and prose is which make the only sweet music to the one of the great features for which it ears of most of the money-making men of should be praised. In true literature the the present age, and the laws of compensa- element of novelty, mighty and attractive tion apply here. Nature says to us in the as it is in the periodical, has no legitimate language of Emerson, “the world is all place. What is older than Homer, yet before you; children, take what you want; what is more genuinely new? Dante, Gabriel Rosseti and William Morris soon find he has yielded to the sadness of the age, their place. They appear artificial; they and he has forfeited that which seems his do not satisfy. Kindred souls are at- by virtue of divine gift. The malady of tracted to them but they do not influence the century is seen also in such poets as their age nor are they influenced by it. Arthur Clough. It is the sadness resultThey are treated as Orlando and Rosa- ing from the ruin wrought by the sweeplind each in turn treat the melancholy ing changes in all domains of thought and Jaques in the forest of Arden. When Or- action. In contrast to all other authors of lando is encountered by this type of the the age let us dwell upon Browning and melancholy man who "is sad as night only Emerson. Their voices are so clear and for wantonness” and is bidden by him inspiring, so helpful and ennobling to “sit down with me, and we two will rail all who desire to live in the spirit that against our mistress, the world and all they must ever rank among the most inour misery,” the manly reply comes at fluential writers of this age. Our human once, although Orlando has many causes impulses toward beauty and love, they asto be sad, "I will chide no breather in the sure us, have their true and natural field world but myself, against whom I know of expression. They urge us toward endmost faults” - "Adieu, good monsieur less endeavor; the triumphant optimism melancholy.” And Rosalind says to this of them both is the healthiest and truest same Jacques, “Farewell, monsieur trav- note which has been struck in this era. eller; look you, lisp and wear strange suits; Browning's "God's in His Heaven-All's disable all the benefits of your own coun- Right with the World” awakens an try; be out of love with your nativity and swering echo in our hearts. We read almost chide God for making you that Browning and Emerson in spite of their countenance, you are, or I will scarce obscurity and peculiarity. We learn to love think you have swam in a gondola.” them because they have done so much for
It is here also that Swinburne fails. us, and we defend them when they are He is out of touch with his age. Had he assailed. We even come at last to think continued as he began, and had he ful- their faults are beauties, and battle for filled the expectations of all those who these authors, forgetting that in matters read his early poems, the world would of taste there should be no dispute. have been delighted to place upon his head the wreath of the poet laureate; but
[Concluded in September.]
AN INDIANA TEACHER IN CHARLESTON.
P. KATHARINE BEESON.
The National Educational Association has been to Charleston and gone home to talk it over. A more interesting place in itself and its environs could hardly have been chosen. A place more unfitied for taking care of a convention would be hard to find.
Charleston is all untouched by the spirit of progress that is so evident in many parts of the South. There the southern gentleman still lives behind his wall and the visitor rings at the gate for admittance. There the vultures "clean up” the market space when market hours are over. Siege, cyclone, tornado, fire and
earthquake have left their marks on more than one quarter of the city, but the chimes of grand old St. Michael's are just as sweet as when, for one hundred and sixty-two years they rang the curfew for a people living under a social regime more interesting than anything since feudal times.
The N. E. A. had rivals in plenty. Magnolia cemetery is one of the most beautiful of the cities of the dead. Old Fort Sumter, grim guardian of the harbor, with its tremendous guns, is a trifle disappointing in extent, but full of interest for all that. It is interesting to know that, while this old fort retains the show which way the wind of progress is outward appearance that it wore at the blowing close of the Civil War, the inner walls This from the Charleston News and have been strengthened until they are Courier: practically impenetrable. A shot or shell, "Booker Washington spoke at the Nato reach the men in the gun pits, would tional Educational convention last night have to crush through several hundred and spoke well. He never fails to impress feet of concrete.
himself on his audience, whatever that auPalm Island, which boasts the finest dience. We regard him as one of the surf bathing in the world, attracted hun- greatest men of the South to-day. He is dreds of visitors daily. Chicora Park pro- at once the Moses and the Aaron of his vided amusement of many kinds, and race—a wise leader and always a forcible this is a fact to which every visitor can speaker. He has accomplished more to testify -- the mosquitoes greeted guests set his people in the right way, to lead cordially and, in large armies, guarded them up to an appreciation of true liberty them while they slept.
and civilization, than any other man that But, for all this, Charleston is not an has ever lived and spoken in this land. ideal convention city. No town with but “Mr. Washington is doing a grand one hotel, however delightful its sur- work, not only for the uplifting of his roundings, can successfully handle a con- race but for the benefit of the white peovention whose minimum attendance is ple of the South as well. He deserves the three thousand, when the mercury is sympathy and support of all those who, frisking around the hundred mark. Visi- like him, are working for the best solutors are apt to grow ill tempered when tion of the social and political problems they have no place to sleep and not much which confront us. His constructive to eat. Those who were fortunate enough genius, his wise leadership, his thoughtto secure entertainment in one of Charles- ful eloquence, all commend the utterances ton's old homes feel that the people there of this spokesman of the colored people to fully justify their reputation for hospital- the consideration of the white men of the ity, but the committee had too few such country, and should command for him the places on its list. Twenty-four hours support of those of us in the South who spent in looking for a comfortable lodging would promote the welfare of the country place seemed a waste of time. Half that by improving the citizenship of the time spent on the Isle of Palms would South.” have left pleasanter memories.
Indiana had a prominent place in the The convention itself, though smaller program and was liberally remembered in in numbers than any for a great many the distribution of offices for next year. years, was generally conceded a success. Dr. Swain's paper was regarded as one of The program committee did well to so ar- the strongest, productions of the convenrange the exercises that interest in the tion. sessions was sustained to the last. A Charleston, with a commendable courhigher standard of excellence than here- age, urged the convention to come to her tofore in the character of the papers and in order to encourage on the part of the attention of the audiences southern workers in the educational field reached. This was true of the depart- broader conceptions of the duties and remental meetings as well as those of the sponsibilities of the schoolmaster, a deeper general sessions. The papers presenting appreciation of the demands of the souththe highest ideals, not only in educational ern field. Realizing the need of the cowork, but concerning all matters touching operation of those who live and work in the relations between South and North other parts of the country in meeting the were received with the highest enthusi- difficulties and overcoming the obstacles asm. The reception accorded to Booker to southern development and progress, T. Washington, the orator of the conven- she reached out for the convention, and tion, is one of the significant straws which
Utterances from many sources in the South indicate that the meeting has already proven of more service than any convention ever held in the South in sup
porting and inspiring a revival of interest in education and particularly in industrial education.
MODERN GEOGRAPHY THE BASIS OF AN ABOLUTE CURRICULUM.
C. A. BOWSHER, CHAMPAIGN, ILL.
The function of the study of geography a relative term. (f) However great man's is to acquaint man with his most general conception of reality may become, it may terrestrial world relations and to properly be divided into a series of orders of notions correlate him with them. Modern geog- such that any order is of an infinitesiraphy is the general premise from which mal relation to the order following it and all other branches of study are derived of an infinite relation to the order precedand co-ordinated. Consequently it fur- ing it respectively. Each order of notions nishes the basis of an absolute curriculum. possesses a definite measuring unit and Its central theme is the general consid- limit. The units and limits of the orders eration of energy and gravitation in their are such that the unit of any order is the manifold relations with matter of the ter- limit to the unit of the next lower order restrial sphere and their myriads of de- and the limit of the order is the unit of rived relations known as terrestrial crea- the next higher order of notions respection.
tively. Modern geography teaches that all ter- All reality may thus be conceived as restrial relations and creation may be a summation of the infinite and infinitesiclassified into objective reality, subjective mal world relations arranged in a series of reality and pure subjective.
orders of notions. The names of the orObjective reality includes all terrestrial ders of notions as determined by their relations independent of man. Subjective respective units and limits are, the reality includes all terrestrial relations de- ethereal, the molecular, the biological, the pendent on man. Pure subjective in- subjective, the geographical and the ascludes those relations not wholly con- tronomical orders of notions respectively. trolled by the universal psychological law. In the ethereal order of notions, the
The universal psychological law is as unit is the particle of ether, the limit is follows: Any two minds may attain iden- the molecule. Knowledge of this order is tical opinions concerning the same thing, obtained by the study of physics. provided they speak the same language, In the molecular order of notions, the employ the same terminology, use the unit is the molecule, the limit is the cell. same units of measurement for contrast- Knowledge of this order is obtained by ing conceptions, classify deductions by the study of chemistry. the same system of co-ordination and have
In the biological order of notions, the the same point of view.
unit is the cell, the limit is man. KnowlModern geography also teaches that: edge of this order is obtained by the study (a) Anything whatever that may be of biology. thought upon may be termed a world re- In the subjective order of notions, the lation. (b) That form of thought express- unit is man the limit is the earth. Knowling relations existing between the factors edge of this order is obtained by the study of reality is mathematical. (c) The sum- of sociology, or the relations existing bemation of all possible world relations is tween the home, church, school, State termed the universe. (d) The visible uni- and vocation. verse is termed the world. (e) Man is In the geographical order of notions, finite; the worid is infinite, and man's the unit of measurement is the earth, the conception of the world must ever remain limit is the solar system. Knowledge of
this order is obtained by the study of unit of measurement and the point of geology and physiography.
view employed to make deductions in In the astronomical order of notions, fundamental relations. Heretofore, the the unit of measurement is the solar sys- geographer and the philosopher (fundatem, the limit is the visible universe. mentally the same) have considered Knowledge of this order is obtained by world relations from the standpoint of the study of astronomy.
the individual. Consequently, the unit Hence, from the ether particles to the of measurement and the point of limits of the visible universe, all possible view have been erroneously taken and world relations may be arranged into a deductions made by them provsystem of co-ordination of notions in ing inadequate for present-day terms of their units and limits. The six quirements. Modern man is deriving a orders of notions thus co-ordinated may new geographical science, a new world be expressed in their relations in mathe- philosophy. The spirit of the age can not matical language by taking the geographi- be adequately expressed in the termincal order of notions as a basis and repre- ology of the past. Man finds himself in senting it by the symbol A. Letrepre- a maze of new world relations with which sent an infinite relation of the first order. the experiences of his ancestry do not Then will represent an infinitesimal wholly prepare him to contend. It is the relation of the first order or the unit of
business of the modern geographer to set the next lower order, which in this case the mind of man to right relations, find is the subjective order of notions. A for him the psychological pole-star, conwill represent the unit of the second lower struct for him a compass for his guidance, order or an infinitesimal relation of the
determine the latitude and longitude of second order below or the biological order
his activities and the haven for which he
is bound while on this terrestrial sphere. of notions. Consequently, all world relations may be represented in a series of or
So, in company with his beloved and talders of notions by the following formula:
ented astronomical brother, the modern A+A+A -A+A+A+A &
geographer, betakes himself to the plane 02
of the ecliptic in the fourth quadrant at 1
the twentieth celestial hour outside and all possible world relations. A popular near the earth's orbit and there contemrepresentation of the same thing may be plates terrestrial relations for the enlightstated as follows: (Ether particle.... enment of man. Here he establishes conmolecule) + (molecule....cell) + (cell.... ceptions of them in the grand system of man) + (man....earth) + (earth....so- co-ordination of notions, by the aid of his lar system) + (solar system. ... visible uni
other equally beloved brethren, the physiverse) equal all possible world relations cist, the chemist, the biologist and the in terms of their units and limits. If sociologist--from the ether particles to the last two terms of the above formula the limits of the visible universe. be omitted, the remaining terms express In this wonderland the earth is his unit all possible terrestrial world relations that of measurement, the plane of the ecliptic may be conceived by mortal man. Thus is his point of view and the solar system it may be demonstrated that the function is his limit to terrestrial world relations. of the study of geography is properly to From this standpoint, the geographer conorient man with his world relations and ceives the earth in its relative dimensions that in doing so he will necessarily be and distances from the sun and its two compelled to agree with the Universal motions. The thin column of energy from Mind in the matter by obeying the dic- the sun is perceived to affect the rotating tates of the universal psychological law. surface in beautiful mathematical rela
In modern geography, man must con- tions around the central and direct eclipsider his world relations from God's tic ray. And as each portion of the surstandpoint; that is, off the earth. The face intercepts this column of celestial pofinite notion of things depends upon the tency, terrestrial relations arise which are
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