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ness the interference of the health officer that there are communities without numis often met in cases of this kind. Only ber where these maladies are almost as a few weeks ago I learned that an epi- rare as smallpox, where nine-tenths or demic of measles was in progress in a cer- more of the people live and die without tain part of my county. I had on file at ever contracting them, simply by observmy office the official reports of twenty ing a degree of prudence not at all onercases then in progress there and had reli- ous, we will have established the beginable information of several cases not then ning of reform. We can't make neople officially reported.

quarantine against death from senile I learned that a young lady lay at the decay. People solicit the aproach of these point of death with it (she died next day), diseases to their children simply because and that a neighboring lady of average in- they regard them as inevitable and think telligence was proposing to send her child the period of youth is the safest period to over there that it might catch the disease. encounter them, and when death or other Humanity and official obligation prompt- serious consequence follows they resigneded me to call the lady to the 'phone and ly accept it as unavoidable, a dispensation to suggest to her the danger and responsi- of divine providence, a natural death. bility she was about to risk. The quick Following our instruction that these and blazing response I received made my diseases can be avoided, we should strive 'phone feel like a live wire. A good neigh- to make the people understand how very bor lady on the same line whose ear hap- serious they are. If some velvet-footed pened to pick our controversy off the wire, animal were stealing through our state joined in the chorus, and I-fled. I had year after year and each year marking his learned, though, that that crop of measles path by thousands of cases of sickness, was the common property of that neigh- more or less severe and protracted, by borhood and that these families had deter- large expense for medical aid, by anxious mined to have their share of it before the hearts of parents, by loss of time to the supply was exhausted, without regard to laborer, by interruption of schcols and consequences. I reported the facts to the business, by hundreds of bright eyes destate health officer, and they got into stroyed or dimmed, by hundreds of quick print. The next week an anonymous

ears ruined or dulled, by the prophetic writer assailed me through the neighbor- hectic on scores of cheeks, by the hollow ing paper as a slanderer, a meddler and cough telling of the fatal wound, by about liar, and offered to prove by the same doc- 500 fresh graves every year, our help tors whose certificates I had on file that would not be needed to drive the whole there was no such malady in the neighbor- people into arms against the marauder. hood. Do you ask, “What can the health But such is the annual record that measles officer do, where such a disease invades the is writing against itself in our commonschool in a neighborhood like this?” He wealth. And yet fond and foolish mothers can only strike at the symptoms—for the coddle and toy with this malignant beast malady is located outside the schoolroom and invite it to become their guest. and in the minds of the parents.

We have been clothed with some measQuarantine and the prosecuting attor- ure of official authority to battle against ney may aid, but perversity will prevail diseases like this, for the life and health when backed by the approval of the com- of our fellow men. I have tried to be dilimunity. The real remedy is an educa- gent and faithful in the exercise of this tional one. We must break down the fixed trust. But as often as I have been called and false conviction that every child

is to meet these scourges the autocrat's foredoomed to have these diseases. We aphorism comes back to me. My visitamust make it thoroughly understood that tion is too late. Some one, alive to duty there is no more excuse for having these and opportunity, should have been sent diseases widely prevalent than there is for to the grandfathers and grandmothers of having smallpox an universal scourge. the children of the present day to teach Could these good people be made to know them that all these pests are largely subject to the dominion of man and that man the bringing of at least the elements of himself, in most cases, is responsible for sanitary science into our system of school them. I am more and more impressed laws. I do not forget that we have textwith the belief that the burden of this books on anatomy, physiology, and hyfight against them must be borne, not by giene, which some of the pupils reach and our profession, but by the educational study if they hang on long enough. But forces of the country, and I include in the ABC of personal habit has been acthose forces, not the schools alone, but the quired and fixed before that period is press, the pulpit, the rostrum, all the reached, and the lore of these text-books agencies for the dissemination of knowl- bears much the relation to personal guidedge. Ours is the surgical and relief ance and training that geography has to corps, which gathers up the wounded; the raising of crops. But in addition to ours is the pioneer corps that pilots the the instruction of pupils in the laws of way; but teaching, teaching, teaching is health and their training as to bodily the need of the hour. Until the teaching habits, I would have the whole educaforces are made to realize that the laws tional force charged with the duty of cothat send the blood through the body, and operating with health officers in the perthe air through the lungs are from the formance of all such of their functions as same source that sends the planets around are connected with public schools. I would the sun and speaks redemption to a soul, put the physical man in evidence in these and fully as worthy of study and applica- schools much more conspicuously than he tion, the war against these diseases will is to-day. The laboring forces of the continue to be a series of guerrilla skir- future might have less to forget about mishes. I do not underestimate the im- Plato and his republic, but they would portance of the office which we hold, nor have a better equipment of muscles and the beneficence of the statutes which as- rear a healthier brood of children, and sign our duties. They are already excel- even the future scholar would carry a lent and productive of a rich return to the better body and more capable brain into public; they will be still further improved the fields of higher learning. and enlarged; but I feel that the step to Spencer, Ind. be taken which is now most important is



The proverbs already given predict weather changes that may be expected to occur within a short time. Some of them are contradictory, but most of them are trustworthy, may be verified by careful observation, and are easily explained. In another group of proverbs the originators were more ambitious, attempting to predict changes in the weather for weeks and months ahead.

“A favorable January brings a good

"If Candlemas day (Feb. 2) be fair and

Winter will have another flight."

“On Candlemas day, the bear, badger or woodchuck comes out to see his shadow at noon; if he does not see it he remains out; but if he does see it he goes back, and cold weather continues six weeks longer.”

“As it rains in March, so it rains in June.”

“Rain in March, a poor harvest.”

"March comes in like a lamb and goes out like a lion, and vice versa.”

"April and May are keys of the year."
“A moist April, a clear June."
“A windy May makes a fair year.”


“A January thaw is a sign of a July freshet.

"If February gives much snow,
A fine summer it doth foreshow."

“A dry May is followed by a wet June." “When the bushes are full of berries a

"If it rains on the first of May a fertile hard winter is on the way.” year may be expected to follow.”

“A double husk on corn indicates the “A cold and wet June spoils mostly the coming of a hard winter.” whole year."

“If the leaves are slow to fall, expect a “If the first of July be rainy weather, cold winter.” 'Twill rain more or less for three weeks These in reality are much like the together."

others. How many know the average “As July, so the next January.” number of husks on an ear of corn or just “As August, so the next February." when the leaves should fall? "If the first week in August is unusu- "Before early and long winters the ally warm,

beaver cuts his winter supply of wood and The winter will be white and long." prepares his house a month earlier than “Fair on the first of September, fair the

before late and mild winters.” entire month."

"When squirrels and other small ani“As September, so the coming March.” mals lay away a larger supply of food than

"Much rain in October, much rain in usual, it indicates that a long and severe December."

winter will follow." “As October, so the coming March." “When geese are supplied with a very

“When it freezes and snows in October, heavy plumage in the fall, it indicates the January will bring mild weather.”

aproach of a cold winter.” “As November, so the coming March.” Careful scientific investigations do not

“Thunder in November indicates a fer- encourage us to trust these proverbs, tile year to come.”

plausible as they may appear. The beha“A warm Christmas, a cold Easter.” vior of plants and animals may indicate

“The first three days of any season rule changes of weather for two or three days the weather of that season.”

in advance, but hardly for three or four “The last twelve days of January rule months ahead. the weather of the whole year.”

A large number of long distance prov“The first Thursday in March, the first erbs relate to the moon. Thursday in June, the first Thursday in “Two full moons in a calendar month September, and the first Thursday in De- bring on a flood.” cember are the governing days for each “Go plant the beans when the moon is season.”

light, These and hundreds of similar proverbs And you will find that this is right.” are quoted and considered trustworthy by “Plant the potatoes when the moon is many people everywhere. In general it is

dark, not claimed that any casual relation And to this line vou will always hark.” exists, only that certain weather on a cer- “The farther the moon is to the south, tain day of a certain month indicates that the greater the drouth; the farther west, there will be some particular weather at the greater the flood; and the farther some time during some subsequent northwest, the greater the cold.” month. In some, as, “A moist April is “A new moon far in the south indicates followed by a dry June,” the principle of dry weather for a month.” averages seems involved; in fact, that idea "If the new moon appears with the is manifest in many of the proverbs points of the crescent turned up, the quoted. It seems possible that the weather month will be dry. If the points are phenomena of the year should be so re- turned down, it will be wet.” “There will lated that particular weather at one time be as many snow storms during the winter should be followed by some particular as the moon is days old at the first snow weather at a subsequent time, but as yet storm.” “A change of the moon on Satscience has discovered no such relations. urday is always followed by a severe

But no

storm.” “The Thursday before the moon lowing Sunday.” “Wednesday clearing, changes rules the moon.”

clear till Sunday.” “If the moon changes with the wind in These and many others suggest that the east, the weather during that moon weather phenomena are periodic. That will be foul.”

idea is present in many of the proverbs "The old moon seen in the new moon's relating to the moon. The chief of the arms is a sign of fair weather.

weather bureau says that an area of high "Five changes of the moon in one pressure follows a low pressure area in month denote cooler or colder weather.” about three days. There are cold waves,

The attraction of the moon causes tides that persist for several days; heated terms in the ocean and doubtless causes great that continue for many days; droughts movments in the atmosphere. The radiant that last for weeks, but the idea is comenergy reflected from the moon to the mon that the weather will change within earth doubtless modifies atmospheric phe- three days. It really is exceptional for nomena. The attraction is constant and one set of weather phenomena to continue its effects must vary with the motions and for more than three days. The great position of the earth. The quantity of weather phenomena are periodic, season radiant energy must also vary with the follows season, day follows night, and it motions of the earth and moon.

seems natural to expect other climatic one has yet been able to tell just what phenomena to be periodic. But no such changes in the weather are due to the in- law has yet been discovered. fluence of the moon. The moon waxes and These proverbs are in general old, the wanes so gradually that it seems impossi- work of uncultured men. Whether good, ble that the influence should be concen- bad, or indifferent, they represent a great trated at certain times so that there should amount of careful observation, expressed be changes of the weather at the time of in quaint, vigorous forms. Many unletthe changes of the moon, that could in tered men, farmers, hunters, sailors, with any way be caused by the moon.

their stock of proverbs and personal obThe dark and the light of the moon servations, are almost as trustworthy may have some influence upon growing weather prophets as the weather bureau, vegetation, but it can not be very power- with all the helps of refined instruments, ful. Persons succeed in agriculture who extensive records and scientific methods. plant their beans and potatoes when the The great body of these proverbs, involvsoil and the weather are favorable without ing almost every object and circumstance reference to the phases of the moon. It familiar to the people of long ago, not is impossible to see how the moon's posi- only emphasizes the idea of careful obtion, north, south, east or west, should in- servation, but gives some idea of the imfluence the weather. And no one is able portance which our forefathers attached to explain how the position of the points to the phenomena of the weather. With of the moon could have any influence the growth of cities and the multiplicaupon the rainfall. Scientific investigations tion of indoor and sedentary employindicate that changes in the weather fol- ments, many are losing sight of the imlowing changes of the moon are, in the portance of the weather. Climate is the main, simply coincidences. Moon haloes most important set of physical phenomare primarily due to conditions of the ena, the most important thing, in the earth's atmosphere, and seem to be trust- world. It conditions the existence of life worthy indications of rain. But most and all its activities. It ought to be studother proverbs relating to the moon are of ied more generally in the schools. It is little or no value.

one of the most interesting and important “If it rains on Easter, it will rain on the of the nature studies. No laboratory is seven following Sundays." "First Sunday necessary, no costly apparatus, no expense in month rain, it will rain every Sunday of for material; the phenomena are univerthe month.” “As the Friday, so the fol- sal, crowding themselves upon every one. It is hot or cold; it is calm, breezy, windy, phenomena, read the instruments, make or there may be a tornado; it is clear, fair notes, compare notes, and when facts or cloudy; it is dewy, frosty or foggy; it enough have been gathered, or toward the rains, hails, or snows. Apparatus neces- close of the term, discuss the facts and sary, a cheap thermometer, a notebook, draw conclusions. and, if possible, a barometer. Observe the Terre Haute, Ind.





This paper, as well as those which are to follow in the series, is based upon some investigations made a few months ago under the auspices of the historical seminary of Indiana university, and to which a considerable number of the teachers of the state have contributed by supplying the necessary data. For the benefit of those who did not attend the meeting of the historical section of the State Teachers' Association last June, it may be explained that early in the year a circular setting forth a variety of questions regarding history teaching was sent to two hundred high schools of the state, with the design of securing from principals and teachers of history such information as might be of service in making an estimate of the extent and character of the work now actually being done in the history departments of these schools. Of the two hundred circulars distributed, only one hundred were returned bearing evidence of such care in their preparation as to Warrant their use for the purpose in hand. This was somewhat discouraging, yet but little more so than the apathy which, on a larger scale, the committee of seven had to meet, a few years ago, when conducting a similar investigation; so that the results here to be presented can make no claim to completeness—even if that had been intended. Data from but 35 per cent. of the high schools of the state have been obtained. But on the ground that they are thoroughly representative, the facts to be cited are worthy of consideration. They are based upon reports from schools in all parts of the state—all but ten counties

being represented-schools of every size, condition, and influence. There is no reason to believe that if statistics were to be obtained from the 150 schools not represented in our present report the essential facts revealed would be in any way modified.

What, then, of our teachers of history? The fountain head of high school work in history, as indeed in any subject, is the teacher. In making inquiry concerning high school teachers it was proposed to ascertain (1) the total number of teachers in all departments of all the schools included in this report, (2) the number of teachers giving their entire time to history, and the number giving only a part of their time to that subject, (3) the preparation of history teachers for their work -both academic and professional.

The total number of teachers in all departments of the 100 high schools upon which our conclusions are to be based is 394, having under their instruction 10,352 pupils. Of this total enrollment, 28 schools have each fewer than 50, 39 schools between 50 and 100, 26 schools between 100 and 300, and schools more than 300. Of course the 394 teachers are distributed approximately after the same proportion as the ten thousand pupils. But the vital question with us is as to the number of these teachers who are engaged, either wholly or in part, in the teaching of history. That number is 128. Of these 128, however, a surprisingly small proportion are teachers of history exclusivelythe number of such being only 22. That is to say, 32 per cent. of the total number

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