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lion and nerve has its evolutionary history of the expression determines also the qualby specific activity. These agents of ity of the physical agent in expression. thought power were created by activity Then with this physical basis of nerves for activity. Knowledge cumulates and we have the expression through physical culminates in expression. The manifesta- agents. The educative value of the tion of a thought means knowledge thought expressed is determined by the changed to nutrition--knowledge that is motive of the expression. The higher memory and
power at the same time. Ex- the motive the better the thought, the pression focusses brain, mind and motive. better the nerve action. Education, then, Votive is thought direction. Thought, from first to last, means the best that one knowledge unexpressed, is stagnant, in
can do. complete, useless. It is safe to say that Art is doing the best under the highest most children are starved in school for motive of which the doer is capable. Art lack of knowledge made nutritious by ex- depends upon quality of thought and expression.
pression. Like beauty and taste, art can The modes of expression-gesture, never be defined except from a personal voice, speech, music, making, modeling, standpoint. It is entirely a personal matpainting, drawing and writing, have been ter. It means one's selfhood. It reveals developed by expression, each of its kind one's best thought and emotion to others. and in its kind. The co-ordination of Art is best doing in every way, and best muscles, the growth of nerves
doing depends entirely upon the motive. physical evolutions through expression. The best may be a daub, a blotch, a shapeEach mode of expression has its special less mass of clav, a discordant cry, but it and peculiar function. In its reaction is art if it is the best. When that best is upon consciousness, in the development felt by others; when it reveals the selfof nerve power and in the evolution of hood of the artist; when it tells something moral qualities, all the modes, each and to the observer of the inner nature of the every mode in turn, has a mutual rela- one who expresses thought, then it is fine tion to all the others, in unifying and art. All the steps up to fine art are strengthening mental and moral power. through art. Fine art is the highest plane All the modes of expression are one in of art. From these facts we may get some developing motive and morals, in reac- sound pedagogical principles: tion of thought and in making the body (1) Expression should always be educaan expression of the will. But there may tive art. be a continuous expression of thought and (2) All the modes and agents of expresskill and yet little or no education. Physi- sion should be brought into fullest and ological psychology has brought us some most complete action. seemingly great truths, truths that are (3) There can be no expression without reconciled to the soundest common sense. thought or knowledge behind it. The I know of no more important pedagogical bare technique of modes of expression has truth than this: The quality of expres- little that is educative in it. The real sion determines the quality of growth of education springs from the expression of the nerve centers used in expression. We growing thought, which has its sources in now take it for granted that mind action the study of man and nature. depends upon physical nerve action; that (4) Expression should always be the there is the closest relation between the genuine reflex of the pupil's thought. The two. Conscious action that does not move moment it ceases to be this genuine reflex into expression is retarded and weakened. it degrades itself into mere imitation. Take an image in consciousness for the (5) Opportunities of expression spring initiatory. That image has a strong ten- from a close and careful study of man dency to move outward-manifest itself and nature. All knowledge thus gained to others. The quality of the image de- becomes through expression nutrition, and termines the quality of the nerve action, each mode of expression has its peculiar if the image is expressed. The quality reacting function.
(6) The quality of expression deter- means by which this growth can be mines its educative value. Expression is watched and criticized. educative movement.
(7) Doing the best always arouses enThe results of education are all found thusiasm, earnestness and courage on the in the growth of the individual; in the part of the doer. It stimulates persistence growth of muscle, brain, mind and mo- and opens a vista of better things before. tive. The expressed product is the one
E. B. BRYAN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR PEDAGOGY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY.
In discussing the training of the will to bear upon neople all those influences it is of greatest importance to know from which will permanently endow them with the outset what is meant by the term will. the ability or disposition or habit of facIt must not be confused with wilfulness or ing situations, discerning the desirable contrariness. Almost every day we hear it course, choosing it, and if possible accomsaid of some one who “sets his head” and plishing it. It can be seen, of course, that can not be changed that he has a strong will carries with it the machinery for realwill. When children persist in lines of izing the end chosen. A man without legs conduct regardless of consequences it is can not will to run a footrace. A man said that they have strong wills. In all without arms can not will to pitch a game such cases there is a muddling or confu- of ball. The motor element is always sion of terms. At least the terms are not present in will. This suggests what is clearly defined.
In most such cases as true, namely, that the tap root of will is these given the individual, instead of hav- in our physical lives. Many people fail ing strong will, is void of will. We should to accomplish desirable ends for the reacease complimenting the contrary, stub- son that they literally do not have the born man by insinuating that he is a man nerve to do it; others do not have the of strong will, when, in fact, he posssesses blood; others do not have the glands, etc. few of the elements of genuine will. In The body should be kept in good trim, for every act of will, properly speaking, there it is the instrument through which many must be present at least these elements: of our choices are realized. We can not (1) It must be seen that, all things con- be effective without good bodies. We can sidered, a certain line of action is desira- not be moral in the highest sense if we fail ble—it is best, or most expedient, or most to keep our bodies in first-class repair. profitable. (2) There must be an unco- The person who fails to do good because erced choice of this line of action. (3) his body is sick, when with care his body The individual must exert the effort nec- would have been well, is immoral. essary for the accomplishment of the end The last and one of the most important chosen. Will carries with it the thought steps in the whole complex process of of making things come to pass. The young character building is in essence an act of man who sits around wishing that he had will, taking will in this sense of making a college education has no will.
things come to pass, of bringing someIt is the young man who sees that such thing about, of acting effectively. Not an education is desirable, that chooses to only our chief but our only ground for make the sacrifices necessary to secure it judging character is a knowledge of one's and then goes to work providing ways and reactions under certain conditions. When means whereby it can be accomplished. I am hungry and penniless in the presence Half of the vague, general wishes of the of goods that might be stolen undetected world are not expressions of will, but are is the time to determine if I am a thief. indications of its absence.
If the goods are untouched it is reasonaWill training, then, consists in bringing bly certain that I am no thief. Because I do not steal the church draperies in the plan, and goes to workman excellent opmidst of a revival when I am well clothed, portunity for will and moral trainingwell fed and have my pocket filled with and it must be said an excellent opportunmoney is no very strong indication that ity for will and moral demoralization. If I would not steal. The point I am trying the child is expected to select a plan and just now to bring out and emphasize is then hold to it till the task is completed, that our only way of getting at a person's good results in training are sure to follow, character is by knowing how he will be- but if the child is permitted to dilly dally, have under certain conditions, that one's to try this thing a while and then that will determines largely his behavior and thing, never completing anything, noththat one's will training is one of the most ing but moral disaster should be expected. important factors in his will capital. We Here we have a criterion for all of the assee here why it is that one's profession of signments in the school room. The conduct and his actual life often do not teacher should be reasonably sure that all coincide. The former is set forth in sober of the assignments are within the capabilmoments, when conditions are favorable ities of the children. Nothing should be to serious thoughts, when one comes face required of the child that it can not do to face with himself. The latter is one's within the prescribed time and from its actual performance under all the varying standpoint do it well. Nothing is more conditions of life; and it is the latter, demoralizing than a great, long, indefinite rather than the former, that determines assignment, with the direction, "Let cach what one's character is and what it will one do as much of this as he can." All be, although the former plays a by no assignments should be clear-cut and defimeans insignificant role.
nite, and in every case the results of the In this particular phase of child train- child's work should be the same. It is ing, in school or out of it, at least four better in every way. More objective work things should be borne in mind. (1) The will be done and it will lead to moral child should be allowed, yes, even re- strength rather than moral degradation. quired, to pass judgment upon certain For the common man and the child, it is lines of conduct. History and literature not true that "there is more in the runoffer an excellent opportunity here. (2) ning than winning the race." Neither He should makc choice of a line of action McKinley nor Bryan believes it; the ownas determined by his judgment. By this I ers of Star Pointer and Joe Patchen never do not mean that the philosophy of his- believed it; the athletes and their trainers tory and literature should be taught and thousands of admiring supporters do young children. On the contrary, I think not believe it. The farmer who goes they should not be. But any child old about his daily tasks early and late, year enough to be in school can pass upon the in and year out, does not believe it. The conduct of Arnold on the one hand and child in his tasks at home and at school Marion on the other. (3) It is the duty can not believe it; and we should accord of every parent ind teacher to so train the him the same fighting chance as we do child that his mental and physical ma- adults by making the conditions such that chinery, so to speak, will be kept in good he can win the race; so that he will turn repair, and be able to effectually re-en- up some place with something, and not force its judgments and choices. (4) Ev- expect him to work for exercise alone (alery child should be required to perform though every one must see that this in tasks that offer an opportunity for devel- itself is worth while). The only hope for opment in all of these ways. Every sub- will training is to put the child to work ject in the school and every task about the at something which will require an exerhome offer this chance. It can be illus- cise of the will. In a word, nothing is so trated well in manual tarining. The child beneficial to the child from the standpoint has a certain piece of work assigned. Out of will training and character building, to of many possible ways of getting at it, one say nothing of health, escape from vice, seems most desirable; he chooses this etc., old fashioned, honest work
adapted to the child's years and strength. to work when they pleased, as they We say that tramps have no character, pleased. It is found that a reasonable that they have no will power, etc. Within amount of systematic work is the thing the last three or four years a friend of they need above all things else. A few mine has employed from time to time years of such work result in two things more than one hundred tramps to work which save the boy. In the first place, he about the house, barn and garden. Out of leaves the institution not helpless, but this more than one hundred men, not one able to do well. In the second place, he has been found who was fit for anything. has developed a disposition for this kind They don't know how to chop wood, or of thing, and he prefers to do it. Actual hoe, or mow, or spade, or carpenter. It is statistics support both of these statealso true that as a rule they do not have ments. The ultimate problem in training a disposition to do so, but care was exer- is the problem of will training, and there cised to find out their methods of doing seems to be but one way to secure it, and things, and every one showed incapacity that is by consistent, systematic work. from lack of training. I think it is not This is becoming a serious problem, especlaiming too much to say that lack of cially in large cities. If the home can not training in childhood in doing things just do so, the school or community must offer right has affected the dispositions of these opportunities for such work to every men as much as it has their capabilities. child. The problem has its serious side
In the Reform School at Elmira, New in the country as well, for although the York, noted for excellent work and bene- opportunities for work are practically unficial results, the theory is to overcome limited, many parents know nothing evil by doing good. The boys are not about doing things well, and the children moralized to death. When a boy enters come along in that happy, go easy, carethis institution his capabilities are ascer- less way which is demoralizing in the extained. Every morning a definite task treme. What have I said about will trainwithin his power is assigned and dinner ing? Not much, to be sure, but about all never comes until that piece of work is that can be said. It is this: A healthy done to the best of his ability; in the af- mind in a healthy body and opportunities ternoon the same thing is repeated. It is and encouragement from childhood up; to found with these boys, as with the tramps apply both consistently to tasks that are mentioned above, that as a rule they can worth while. do nothing well. They have been allowed
J. T. SCOVELL.
Weather proverbs more commonly refer to the phenomena that precede and attend cyclonic storms. These consist mainly of changes in temperature, and in atmospheric pressure; of changes in the form and motions of clouds, in the velocity and direction of winds, changes in the electrical conditions of the air, and in the quantity of water vapor it contains. Weather proverbs pertain to these changes and to their effects upon plants, animals and inanimate things. An optically clear blue sky often precedes a rain storm. “When the sky is very full of stars, expect rain.'
"If the stars appear large and clear, expect rain or wind.” “The further the sight, the nearer the rain.” “An unreasonably fine day in spring is often called a weather breeder.” Increasing quantities of water vapor lessen atmospheric pressure and enable the air to transmit sound more freely. "Much sound in the air is a sign of rain." "A good hearing day is a sign of wet.” “When the distant train sounds clear, be sure that rain is near.” The gathering moisture often manifests itself in halos, mock suns and bright-colored skies. “The moon with a
circle brings water in her beak.” “When round the moon there is a trough, the Weather will be cold and rough.” “A bright circle around the sun indicates a storm and cooler weather.” “Halos and mock suns predict a storm at no great distance."
At the weather station in London during the six years ending June, 1882, 155 solar and sixty-one lunar halos were observed. With the solar halos in eightyone cases rain fell the same day, in thirtyone it fell the second day, in ten it fell the third day, and in only twenty-six cases was there no rain in the immediate locality.
With the lunar halos rain followed in fifty-three cases. “A red sun has water in his eye." "Evening red and morning gray will set the traveler on his way." "Evening gray and morning red will bring down rain upon his head." "Light, delicate, quiet tints or colors with soft, undefined forms of clouds, indicate and accompany fair weather; but unusual or gaudy hues, with hard, definitely outlined clouds, foretell rain." "Red clouds at sunrise indicate a storm." "If there be red clouds in the west at sunset it will be fair.” Color seems a trustworthy prognostic, but the apparent discrepancies are not easily explained.
Clouds are important features of weather phenomena, and frequently indicate approaching rain. Clouds present a great variety of forms, some of which are common and characteristic. The cumulus or heaped cloud is white, massive in structure, and generally characteristic of fair weather. Cumulus clouds sometimes merge into cumulo-stratus, and these into the nimbus, or rain clouds of thunder storms. They are frequently called thunderheads, and often indicate rain. "If a fair day with cumulus clouds, expect rain before night." "A cloud with rounded top and flattened base (cumulo-stratus) carries rainfall on its face." The cumulus cloud follows the ordinary cyclonic storm and precedes the local thunder storm.
Cirrus clouds are of a delicate, fibrous structure, appearing in a great variety of forms, usually at high altitudes. Some
are known as mares' tails, cats' tails, twisted tufts, plumage clouds, etc. In general they indicate approaching storms. Cirrus clouds are frequently continuous westward with thin, sheet-like clouds called cirro-stratus, and these again with the rain clouds of a cyclonic area. Cirrus clouds are among the most constant and trustworthy indications of approaching storms, sometimes appearing before the barometer has given notice of diminishing pressure. “When cirri threads brushed back from a southerly direction, expect rain and wind.” “When cirri merge into cirro-stratus, and when cumulus increase toward evening and become lower clouds, expect wet weather.” “When cirro-cumuli appear in winter, expect warm and wet weather." Cirro-cumulus, or fleecy clouds, making a mottled or mackerel sky, indicate stormy weather.
“Mackerel scales and mares' tails make lofty ships carry low sails.” “Mackerel sky, mackerel sky, never long wet, never long dry.” “If, in winter, the clouds appear fleecy, with a very blue sky, expect cold rain or snow.”
"If the woolly fleeces strew the heavenly way, be sure no rain disturbs the summer day.” “Narrow, horizontal red clouds after sunset in the west indicate rain before thirty-six hours." "If clouds float at different heights and rates, but generally in opposite directions, expect heavy rains." "Clouds floating low enough to cast shadows on the ground are usually followed by rain.” From the great majority of the 200 weather bureau stations cirrus, cirro-stratus cirro-cumulus clouds are mentioned as indicating approaching storms.
“When the fog goes up the mountain you may go hunting, it will be fair; when
comes down the mountain, you may go fishing, it will rain.” “When the fog falls, fair weather follows; when it rises, rain follows.” “When the fog goes up the hill, the rain comes down by the mill.” These and many others are contradictory. "If it rains before seven, it will clear before eleven.” As the sun mounts toward the meridian it often dissipates fogs, mists and rain clouds. "Rainbow in the morning, shepherds take warning:" it is liable