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many branches, each terminated by an umbel of who flourished in the beginning of the sevenwhite flowers, which are succeeded by oblong hairy teenth century. In the reign of king James seeds. The seeds of this plant enter into the I. he was made one of the gentleren of the celebrated compounds mithridate and theraca. privy chamber, knighted, and constituted master
4. B. rigidum, hard or rigid ferula, is a native of the revels. He wrote, 1. The History of the of Sicily. It is a low perennial plant, with short, Reign of Richard III. in which he takes great stiff, and very narrow leaves. The foot stalk pains to wipe off the bloody stains that have rises a foot in height, and is crowned with an blotted his character, and represents the person umbel of small white flowers, to which succeed and actions of that prince in a much less odious small, oblong, channelled seeds.
light, than other historians have done : 2. A 5. B. levigatum, a native of the Cape. Mr. Treatise of the Art of Revels; and 3. A work Masson introduced this species into England in entitled the Third Universitie of England. 1774.
BUCARDIA, or BUCARDITES, in natural BUBONA, in ancient mythology, the tutelar history, a name given by many authors to a stone, goddess of the larger cattle.
in some degree resembling the figure of an ox's BUBONIUM, a name given by some botan- heart. It is usually of the substance of the ists to the aster atticus, or golden star-wort, be- coarser stones, and is no other than a quantity cause it was supposed to be efficacious in mala- of the matter of such stone, received while moist dies of the groin.
into the cavity of a large cockle, and thence, asBUBONIUS Laris, a figured stone, in shape suming the figure of the inside of that shell, resembling an owl's head, of a flinty substance, the depression of the head of the cockle, where black within, and cineritious without; thus denio- the cardo or hinge of this shell is, makes a long minated by Dr. Plott.
and large dent in the formed mass, which gives
it a heart-like shape. Plott mentions a bucarBUBONOCEʻLE, n. s. Lat. from Bußww dites, which he found at Stretford in Staffordthe groin, and kyan, a rupture. A particular shire, which weighed twenty pounds, though kind of rupture, when the intestines break down broken half away, curiously reticulated, with a into the groin. See HERNIA INGUIRALIS. white-spar colores stone
When the intestine, or omentum, falls through the BUCARDIUM, in natural history, a name rings of the abdominal muscles into the groin, it is given by authors to a kind of heart shell, recalled hernia inguinalis, or if into the scrotum, scro- sembling an ox's heart in shape: it is of the talis : these two, though the first only is properly so
properly so genus of the cordiformes, or heart-shells, and
cenne of the cordiformes called, are known by the name of bubonocele. Sharp. differs from the other kinds, in being of a more
BUBROMA, in botany, a genus of the dode- globular figure. candria order, and polyadelphia class of plants: BUCCĂ, in anatomy, the cheek. CAL. perianth three-leaved ; leaves. ovate, con- Buccæ Musculus, in anatomy, a name given cave, acute, reflected, deciduous: COR. petals by some to the muscle more usually called the five, concave, inserted into the nectary at the base: buccinator, and contrahens labiorem. STAM. filaments five, filiform, upright, bent out- 'Bucca FERREA, in botany, a name given by wards at the tip; antheræ three on each filament; Michaeli to a genus of plants, since called rappia the cells marginated : PIST. germ superior, round- by Linnæus. ishi, hispid; style filiform; stigma simple : PERI- BUCCALES GLANDULE are small glands CARP, capsule, subglobular, woody, muricated all dispersed over the inner side of the cheeks and round with clubshaped tubercles, five-celled; lips. cells lined with a thin membrane : SEEDS nu- BUCCAN, the place where the Buccamerous, angular, almost reniform. B. guazuma, niers smoke and dry their meat. The name is bastard cedar, grows from forty to fifty feet in also applied to the grate or hurdle, made of height; trunk nearly the size of a man's body, Brasil wood, upon which the meat is hung above covered with a dark-brown, furrowed, bark; the fire. branches horizontal; leaves alternate; racemes BUCCANIERS', n. s. A name assumed by corymbose ; flowers small. A native of the East Pirates on the coast of America, from boucan, a and West Indies. A decoction of the inner bark kind of wooden frame used by the savages of is very glutinous, and is said to be excellent in Cayenne for drying flesh or fish. the elephantiasis, a disorder common among the BUCCANIER, or BUCANIER, one who dries negroes.
and smokes flesh or fish after the manner of the BUʼBUKLE, n. s. A red pimple.
Indians. The name was particularly given to His face is all bubukles, and whelks, and knobs, and
the first French settlers on the island of St. Dofames of fire.
14 mingo, whose sole employment consisted in adanepaure. hunting wild bulls or boars, in order to sell their
Shakspeare. BUBULCA, in ichthyology, a small fresh- hides and flesh. It has also been applied to water fish, called by some bouviera and petense. those famous piratical adventurers, chiefly It is small, Aat, and very short, approaching to English and French, who joined together to make a round rather than a long shape, and of a fine depredations on the Spaniards of America. The silvery whiteness, seldom above two inches in latter had not been long in possession of the length.
West Indies and the continent of America, when BUBULCUS, BUBULUS, names of the con- other nations, especially the English and French, stellation Bootes.
began to follow them. But though the Spaniards BUC (George), a learned English antiquary, were unable to people such extensive countries,
themselves, they were resolved that no other Spaniards to let them live in peace. But their nation should join with them in it; and therefore enemies were intent on their destruction: and made war on all those who attempted to settle the island was turned into a slaughter house. in any of the Antilles or Carribee islands. The At length the Spaniards had recourse to their French, however, were at last fortunate enough old method of surprise, which against enemies to acquire some footing in the island of St. Chris- of more courage than vigilance was likely to topher; but, by the time they began to form a succeed better. This put the buccaniers under regular government, the Spaniards found means a necessity of never hunting but in large parties, to dislodge them. Upon this the fugitives, con- and fixing their boucans in the little islands on sidering at how great a distance they were from the coast, whither they retired every evening. their mother country, and how near to the island The expedient succeeded : and the boucans, by of Hispaniola or St. Domingo, the northern being more fixed, soon acquired the air of small parts of which were then uninhabited and full towns. Each boucan ordered scouts every of swine and black cattle, immediately resolved morning to the highest part of the island, in to take possession of that country, in conjunction order to reconnoitre the coast, and see if any with some adventurers from Great Britain. The Spanish parties were abroad. If no enemy apDutch had promised to supply them plentifully peared, they appointed a place and hour of renwith all kinds of necessaries they might require, dezvous in the evening, and were never absent in exchange for the hides and tallow they should if not killed or prisoners. When therefore any procure by hunting. These new settlers obtained one of the company was missing, it was not the name of buccaniers, from their custom of lawful for the rest to hunt again till they had got buccaning their beef and pork to preserve it for intelligence of him if taken, or avenged his consumption. And upon some of them growing death if killed. Things continued long in this tired of this new way of life, and commencing situation till the Spaniards destroyed all their planters, many more chose to turn open pirates, game, and put the buccaniers under a necessity trusting to find among those who remained on of betaking themselves to another course of life, shore a quick sale for all the plunder they could and some of them turned planters; and thereby make at sea. The new body of adventurers increased some of the French settlements on the were called free-booters, from their making free coast; others entered among the free-booters. hooty of whatever came in their way. Numbers France, who had hitherto disclaimed for her subof emigrants from France, soon joined the settlers jects these ruffians, whose successes were only in quality of indented servants, though they temporary, acknowledged them, as soon as they toiled like slaves during the three years for formed themselves into settlements; and took which they generally bound themselves. Thus measure for their government and defence. The the colony consisted of four classes : buccaniers ; hides, and boar-meat, in packs, were long confree-booters; planters; and indented servants; siderable articles of trade in the neighbouring who began to call themselves the body of ad- islands. See DOMINGO, St. venturers. They lived together in perfect har. The habits of these people were in many resmony, under a kind of democracy; every freema pects singular. Their towns, as we have seen, had a despotic authority over his own family; were called boucans; their huts they termed and every captain was sovereign in his own ship, Ajoupas, a word which they borrowed from the though liable to be discarded at the discretion of Spaniards, and the Spaniards from the natives. the crew. The planters settled chiefly in the These ajoupas lay open on all sides, which was very little island of Tortuga, on the northern coast of agreeable to the hardy inhabitants, in a climate Hispaniola; but on some of them going to the where wind and air are so very desirable. Having great island, to hunt with the buccaniers, the rest neither wives nor children, the buccaniers associwere surprised by the Spaniards; and all, even ated by pairs, and mutually rendered each other all those who had surrendered at discretion, were the services a master could reasonably expect from put to the sword or hanged. The Spaniards a servant, living together in so perfect a community. now resolving to rid the great island of the buc- that the survivor always succeeded his deceased caniers, assembled a body of 500 lance men, partner. This kind of union or fellowship they who, by their seldom going fewer than fifty in a called s'emateloter, insailoring, and each other, company, obtained the name of the fifties from matelot, or sailor, whence was derived the custom their enemies. At first they met with great suc- of giving, in some parts of the French Antilles, cess; for the buccaniers hunting separately, the name matelotage, sailorage, to any kind of every one attended by his servants, they were society formed by private persons for their mueasily surprised. Hence the Spaniards killed tual advantage. They behaved to each other numbers, and took many more, whom they con- with the greatest justice and openness, we are demned to a most cruel slavery. But whenever told ; it would have been a crime to keep any the buccaniers had time to put themselves into a thing under lock and key; but on the other state of defence, they fought like lions : there hand, the least pilfering was unpardonable, and are many instances of single men fighting their punished with expulsion from the community. way through numbers. These dangers, however, Indeed there could be no great temptation to and the success of the Spaniards in discovering steal, when it was reckoned a point of honor their boucans, where they used to surprise and never to refuse a neighbour what he wanted; cut the throats of them and their servants in and where there was so little property, it was their sleep, engaged them to assemble in great impossible there should be many disputes. If numbers, and even to act offensively, in hopes any happened, the common friends of the parthat by so doing they might at last induce the ties at variance interposed, and soon put an end
to the difference. As to laws, the buccaniers Thus they lived till they had completed the acknowledged none but some rules drawn up number of hides, for which they had agreed with in conventions among themselves. They silenced the merchants; when they carried them to Torall objections from strangers, by coolly answering tuga, or some port of the great island. As the that it was not the custom of the coast; and buccaniers used much exercise, and fed only on grounded their right of acting in this manner, on flesh, they generally enjoyed a good state of their baptism under the tropic, which freed them, health. They were indeed subject to fevers, but in their opinion, from all obligations antecedent this they wholly slighted. The most considerate to that marine ceremony. The governor of Tor- among them, however, after they had obtained tuga, when that island was again settled, though money, turned planters. In their piratical exappointed by the French court, had very little peditions the buccaneers formed themselves into authority over them; they contented themselves small companies, consisting of 50, 100, or 150 with rendering him from time to time some men each. A boat, of a greater or smaller size, slight homage. They had in a manner shaken was their only armament. Here they were exoff religion. They even laid aside their surnames, posed night and day to all the inclemencies of and assumed martial names, which long con- the weather, having scarce room enough to lie tinued in their families. On their marrying, down. A love of absolute independence, the which seldom happened till they turned planters; greatest blessing to those who are not proprietors they took care to have their surnames inserted of land, rendered them averse from those mutual in the marriage contract; and this practice gave restraints which the members of society impose occasion to a proverb in the French Antilles, a upon themselves for the common good. As the man is not to be known till he takes a wife, authority they had conferred on their captain, Their dress consisted of a filthy shirt, dyed with was confined to his giving orders in battle, they the blood of animals they had killed; a pair of lived in the greatest confusion. Like savages, trousers of the same complexion, a thong of having no apprehension of want, nor any anxiety leather by way of belt, to which they hung a to preserve the necessaries of life, they were case containing some Dutch knives, and a kind of constantly exposed to the severest extremities of short sabre called manchette ; a hat without any hunger and thirst. But deriving, even from brim, except a little flap on the front; and shoes their very distresses, a courage superior to every of hog skins. Their guns were two feet and a danger, the sight of a ship transported them to a half in the barrel, and of a bore to carry balls of degree of frenzy. They never deliberated on an ounce. Every man had his contract servants, the attack, but it was their custom to board as more or fewer according to his abilities; besides quickly as possible. The smallness of their a pack of twenty or thirty dogs, among which vessels, and the skill they showed in the managethere was a couple of beagles. Their chief em- ment of them, screened them from the fire of the ployment at first was ox-hunting ; and, if at any greater ships ; they presented only the fore part time they chased a wild hog, it was rather for of their vessels filled with fusileers; who fired pastime, or to make provision for a feast, than at the port holes with so much exactness, that it for any other advantage. But, in process of time, enterely confounded the most experienced gunsome of them betook themselves entirely to ners. As soon as they threw out the grappling, hunting of hogs, whose flesh they buccaned in the largest vessels seldom escaped them. In the following manner: First, they cut the flesh cases of necessity, they attacked the people of into very long pieces, an inch and an half thick, every nation, but fell upon the Spaniards at all and sprinkled them with salt, which they rubbed times. Whenever they embarked on any exoff after twenty-four hours. Then they dried pedition, they used to pray to Heaven for the these pieces in stoves over the fire, made of the success of it; and never came back from the skin and bones of the beast, till they grew as plunder, it is said, but they constantly returned hard as a board, and assumed a deep brown ihanks to God for their victory! The ships that color. Pork prepared in this manner will keep sailed from Europe to America seldom tempted in casks above a year; and, when steeped but à their avidity; but they waited for their return, little while in lukewarm water, becomes plump laden with gold, silver, and jewels; when they met and yields a most grateful smell. In hunting a single ship, they were sure to attack her. The they continued the chase till they had killed as Spaniards, who trembled at the approach of the many beasts as there were heads in the company. buccaniers, whom they called devils, immediately The master was the last to return to the boucan, surrendered. Quarter was granted, if the cargo loaded like the rest with a skin and a piece of proved to be a rich one; if not, all the prisoners meat. Here the buccaniers found their tables were thrown into the sea. At first the buccaniers, ready: for every one had his separate table; when they had got a considerable booty, held which was the first thing, any way fit for the their rendezvous at the island of Tortuga, to purpose, that came in their way, a stone, the divide the spoil; but afterwards the French trunk of a tree, and the like. No table-cloth, went to St. Domingo, and the English to no napkin, no bread or wine, graced their board; Jamaica. Each person, holding up his hand, not even potatoes or bananas, unless they found solemnly protested, that he had secreted nothing them ready to their hands. When this did not of what had been taken. If any one was happen, the fat and lean of the game, taken al- convicted of perjury, a case that seldom hapternately, served to supply the place. A little pened, he was left, as soon as an opportunity pimento, and the juice of an orange, was their offered, upon some desert island, as a traitor only sauce ; contentment, a good appetite, and unworthy to live in society. Such as had been abundance of mirth, made every thing agreeable. maimed in any of their expeditions, were first provided for. If they had lost a hand, an arm, was such a man as they wanted, cheerfully ac a leg, or a foot, they received £26. An eye, cepted his offer. The same day they overtook finger, or toe, lost in fight, was valued at only the enemy, and Montbar attacked them with an half the sum. The wounded were allowed two impetuosity that astonished the bravest. Scarce shillings and sixpence a day for two months, to one Spaniard escaped the effects of his fury. The enable them to have their wounds taken care of. remaining part of his life was equally distinIf they had not money enough to answer these guished. The Spaniards suffered so much from demands, the company engaged in some fresh ex- him, both by land and at sea, that he acquired pedition, till they had acquired a sufficient stock. the name of the Exterminator. After this the remainder of the booty was equally T heir associations now became more numedivided; the commander only claiming a single rous. The first that was considerable was formshare. Every share was determined by lot. If ed by Lolonois, who, from the abject state of a a person had been killed, his part was sent to his bondsman, had gradually raised himself to the relations or friends when known, and when there command of two canoes, with twenty-two men. were no friends or relations to claim it, it was with these he took a Spanish frigate on the coast distributed in charity to the poor, and to churches. of Cuba. He then repaired to Port-au-Prince, These duties having been performed, the victors in which were four ships, fitted out purposely to indulged themselves in gaming, wine, women, pursue him. He took them, and threw all the and every species of debauchery. The Spanish crews into the sea, except one man, whom he colonies, reduced almost to despair in finding saved, in order to send him with a letter to the themselves a perpetual prey to these ruffians, governor of the Havannah, acquainting him with grew weary of navigation, and formed themselves what he had done, and assuring him that he into many distinct and separate states. They would treat in the same manner all the Spaniards were sensible of the inconveniences arising from that should fall into his hands, not excepting the such conduct, but the dread of falling into the governor himself, if he should be so fortunate as hands of these rapacious monsters, had greater to take him. After this he ran his canoes and influence over them than the dictates of honor, prize ships aground, and sailed with his frigate interest, and policy; and gave rise to a spirit of only to Tortuga. Here he met with Michael de total inactivity. This despondency increased Basco, who had distinguished himself by having the boldness of the buccaniers. As yet they had taken, even under the cannon of Porto Bello, a only appeared in the Spanish settlements to Spanish ship, estimated at £218,500, and by carry off some provisions when they were in want other actions equally brave and daring. These of them. They no sooner found their captures two soon collected together 440 men. This begin to diminish, than they determined to re- body, the most numerous the buccaniers had yet cover by land what they lost at sea. The richest been able to muster, sailed to the bay of Veneand most populous countries of the continent zuela, which runs up into the country fifty were plundered and laid waste. The culture of leagues. The fort that was built at its entrance lands was equally neglected with navigation; was taken; the cannon spiked ; and the whole and the Spaniards dared neither appear in their garrison, consisting of 250 men, put to death. public roads, nor sail in the latitudes which be- They then re-embarked, and went to Maracaybo, longed to them.
built on the western coast of the lake, at the disAmong those who signalised themselves in this tance of ten leagues from its mouth. This city, new species of excursion, was Montbar, a gen- which had become rich by its trade in skins, totleman of Languedoc. Having, in his infancy, bacco, and cocoa, was deserted, but the inhabimet with a circumstantial account of the cruelties tants had retired with their effects to the other practised by the Spaniards, in the conquest of side of the bay. Exasperated at this, they set the New World, he conceived an aversion which fire to Gibraltar. Maracaybo would have shared he carried to a degree of frenzy against that na- the same fate, had it not been ransomed. Betion; and having heard that the buccaniers were sides the sum they thus received, they also carried the most inveterate enemies to the Spanish name, off with them all the crosses, pictures, and belis, he embarked on board a ship to join them. In of the churches; intending, as they said, to build his passage he met with a Spanish vessel; at- a chapel in the island of Tortuga, and consecrate tacked, and immediately boarded it. IIurrying this part of their spoils to sacred purposes. twice from one end of the ship to the other, heA bout the same time Morgan, the most relevelled everything that opposed him. When nowned of the English buccaniers, sailed from he had compelled them to surrender, leaving to Jamaica to attack Porto Bello. His plan of his companions the dividing of a rich booty, he operations was so well contrived, that he surcontented himself with the savage pleasure of prised the city and took it without opposition. contemplating the dead bodies of the Spaniards, The conquest of Panama was an object of much lying in heaps together. Fresh opportunities greater importance. To secure this, Morgan soon occurred that enabled him to glut his inve- thought it necessary to sail in the latitude of terate hatred. The ship arriving on the coast of Costa Rica; and procure some guides in the St. Domingo, the buccaniers there informed him island of St. Catharine's, where the Spaniards that their enemies had overrun the country, laid confined their malefactors. This place was waste their settlements, and carried off all they strongly fortified, and ought to have held out for could. Montbar immediately offered to join an ten years against a considerable army. Notexpedition then preparing, not as commander,' withstanding this, the governor, on the first apsaid he, but as the foremost to expose myself pearance of the pirates, sent privately to concert to danger.' The buccaniers perceiving that he measures how he might surrender himself without incurring the imputation of cowardice. The easily pillaged; and after the buccaniers had result of this was, that Morgan in the night at- carried off what was most valuable, they made a tacked a fort at some distance, and the governor proposal to the citizens in the churches, to ransallying out of the citadel to defend the post, the som their lives and liberties at a contribution of assailants attacked him in the rear, and took him £437,500. The unfortunate people, who had prisoper, which led to a surrender of the place. neither ate nor drank for three days, readily acThe buccaniers, after having totally demolished cepted the terms that were offered them. Half the fortifications, and put on board their vessels of the money was paid the same day; the other a prodigious quantity of ammunition which they part was expected from the internal parts of the found at St. Catharine's, steered their course to country; when there appeared on an eminence a wards the Chagre. At the entrance of this con- considerable body of troops advancing, and near siderable river, a fort was built upon a steep the port a fleet of seventeen ships from Europe. rock, and this bulwark, very difficult of access, At the sight of this armament the buccaniers, was defended by an officer whose abilities were without any marks of surprise, retreated quietly equal to his courage. The buccaniers, for the with 1500 slaves as hostages for the rest of the first time, here met with a determined resist- money. Their retreat was equally daring. They ance; but while it was doubtful whether they boldly sailed through the midst of the Spanish would succeed, or be obliged to raise the siege, fleet; which let them pass without firing a single the commander was killed, and the fort took fire. gun, and were in fact rather afraid of being They now therefore made themselves masters of attacked and beaten. The Spaniards would not the place, where Morgan left his vessels at an- probably have escaped so easily, if the vessels chor, and sailed up the river in sloops, till he of the pirates had not been laden with silver, or came to Cruces, where it ceases to be navigable. if the Spanish fileet had been freighted with any He then proceeded by land to Panama, five other effects but such merchandise as was little leagues distant; though he met with a conside- valued by the buccaniers. rable body of troops in the neighbourhood, he A year had scarce elapsed since their return put them to flight with the greatest ease, and en- from Mexico, when they were seized with the tered the city, now abandoned. Here were found rage of plundering Peru. It is somewhat reprodigious treasures, and several rich deposits in markable, that both the English and French assothe neighbouring forests. Having burnt the city, ciations had projected this plan at the same they set sail with a great number of prisoners, who time, without any communication, or intercourse. were ransomed in a few days; and came to the About 4000 men were employed in this expemouth of the Chagre with a prodigious booty. dition. Some of them came by Terra Firma,
In 1603 an expedition of the greatest conse, others by the Straits of Magellan, to the place quence was formed by Van Horn, a native of that was the object of their wishes. If the inOstend, but who had served all his life among trepidity of these barbarians had been directed the French. His intrepidity would never let by a skilful commander, they would doubtless him suffer the least signs of cowardice among have deprived the Spaniards of this important those who associated with him. In the heat of colony. But their character was an invincible an engagement he went about his ship; observed obstacle to such an uuion: they always formed his men; and immediately killed those who themselves into several distinct bodies, someshrank at the sudden report of a pistol, gun, or times even so few in number as ten or twelve, cannon. This extraordinary discipline had made who acted together, or separated, as caprice dihim become the terror of the coward, and the rected. Grognier, Lecuyer, Picard, and Le Sage, idol of the brave. He readily shared with the were the most distinguished officers among the men of spirit and bravery the immense riches French: David, Samms, Peter, Wilner, and that were acquired by so truly warlike and dia- Towley, among the English. Such of those adbolical a disposition, and he generally sailed in a venturers as had come into the South Sea by the frigate which was his own property. New ex- Straits of Darien, seized upon the first vessel they peditions requiring greater numbers to carry found upon the coast. Their associates, who them into execution, he took to his assistance had sailed in their own vessels, were not much Gramont, Godfrey, and Jonque, three French- better provided. Weak however as they were, men, distinguished by their exploits; and Law- they beat several times the squadrons that were rence de Graff, a Dutchman. These famous fitted out against them. When there were no commanders were joined by 1200 buccaniers, more ships to be taken, they made descents upon and sailed in six vessels for Vera Cruz. The the coast for provisions, or went by land to plundarkness of the wight favored their landing, der those cities where the booty was secured. which was effected at three leagues from the They successively attacked Seppa, Puebla-Nuevo, place, where they arrived without being dis- Leon, Realejo, Puebla-Viejo, Chiriquita, Lescovered. The governor, the fort, the barracks, parso, Granada, Villa-Nicoya, Tecoanteca, and the posts of the greatest consequence, were Mucmeluna, Chiloteca, New Segovia, and Guayall taken by the break of day. All the citizens, aquil, the most considerable of all these places. men, women, and children, were shut up in the Many of the towns were taken by surprise ; and churches, whither they had fled for shelter. At most of them deserted by their inhabitants, who he door of each church were placed bariels of fled at the sight of the enemy. As soon as the gunpowder to blow up the building. A bucca- pirates took a town it was set on fire, unless a nier with a lighted match was to set fire to it sum proportionate to its value was given to save upon the least appearance of an insurrection. it, and the prisoners were massacred without While the city was kept in such terror, it was mercy, if not quickly ransomed. Silver being