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particularly three actions at Serbraxos, in May an l it has proved peculiarly useful both in pub1771. In each of them Bruce acted a consider- lic and private despatches. Such was the worthy able part; and, for his valiant conduct in the conclusion of his memorable journey through the second, received as a reward from the king a desert—a journey, which, after many hardships chain of gold of 184 links; each link weighing and dangers, terminated in obtaining this great 34 dwts., or somewhat more than 2} lbs. troy, in national benefit. At Cairo, Mr. Bruce's earthly all. At Gondar, after these engagements, he career had nearly been concluded by a disorder again earnestly entreated to be allowed to return in his leg, occasioned by a worm in the flesh. home, which was long resisted : but his health at This accident kept him five weeks in extreme last giving way, from the anxiety of his mind, agony, and his health was not re-established till the king consented to his departure, on condition a year afterwards, at the baths of Poretta in Italy. of his engaging by oath to return to him in the On his return to Europe, Mr. Bruce was received event of his recovery, with as many of his kindred with all the admiration due to so exalted a chaas he could engage to accompany him. After a After passing some time in France, parresidence of nearly two years in that wretched ticularly at Montbard, with his friend the Comte country, he left Gondar, Dec. 16th, 1771, taking de Buffon, by whom he was received with much the dangerous way of the desert of Nubia, in hospitality, he at last revisited bis native country place of the most easy road of Masuah, by which from which he had been upwards of twelve years he entered Abyssinia. He was induced to take absent. On his return public curiosity was this route from his experience of the savage highly excited to sec a narrative of his travels; temper of the naybe of Masuah. Arriving at but this was retarded by various circumstances. Teawa, 21st March 1772, he found the sheik At last, however, he found leisure to put his Fidele, at Atbara, the counterpart of the naybe materials in order; and in 1790 his long expected of Masuah in every bad quality. By his intre- work appeared in five large quarto volumes, pidity and prudence, however, and by making embellished with many plates, maps, and charts. good use of his foreknowledge of an eclipse of The work has been criticised and the author acthe moon, which happened on the 17th of April, cused of vanity, and even of falsehood; some he was permitted to depart next day, and arrived even asserted that he had never seen Abyssinia; at Senaar on the 20th. At this miserable and but later travellers have confirmed most of his inhospitable place he was detained upwards of statements, which they themselves had not befour months. This delay was occasioned by the lieved when first made by him. To one objecvillany of those who had undertaken to supply tion, the account which he gives of his prediction him with money; but at last, by disposing of of an eclipse-the time of which, by some strange 178 links of his gold chain, the well-earned tro- mistake, refers to Britain--no answer we believe phy of Serbraxos, he was enabled to make prepa- was ever made. The story, indeed, seems to be rations for his dangerous journey through the taken from a similar occurrence which happened deserts of Nubia. He left Senaar on the 5th of to Columbus. September, and arrived on the third of October There never, perhaps, existed a man better at Chendi, which he quitted on the 20th, and qualified for the hazardous enterprize he undertravelled through the desert of Gooz, to which took than Mr. Bruce. His person was of the village he came October 26th. On the 9th of largest size, his height exceeding six feet, and his November he left Gooz, and entered upon the bulk and strength proportionally great. He exmost dreadful and dangerous part of his journey, celled in all corporeal accomplishments, being a the perils attending which he has related with a hardy, practised, and indefatigable swimmer, power of pencil not unworthy of the greatest trained to exercise and fatigue of every kind, masters. All his camels having perished, he was and his long residence among the Arabs had under the necessity of abandoning his baggage in given him a more than ordinary facility in. mathe desert, and with the greatest difficulty reached naging the horse. In the use of fire-arms he was

the Nile, November 29th. After unerring; and his dexterity in handling the some days rest, having procured fresh camels, he spear and lance on horseback was also uncomreturned into the desert and recovered isis bag- monly great. He was master of most languages, gage, among which was a quadrant, of three feet understanding the Greek perfectly; and was so radius, supplied by Louis XV. from the Military well skilled in Oriental literature, that he revised Academy at Marseilles, by means of which the New Testament in the Ethiopic, Samaritan, noble instrument, now deposited in the museum Hebrew, and Syriac, making many useful notes at Kinnaird, Mr. Bruce was enabled with pre- and remarks on difficult passages. He had apcision and accuracy to fix the relative situations plied from early youth to mathematics, drawing, of the several remote places he visited. On the and astronomy: and had acquired some know10th of January 1773, after more than four years ledge of physic and surgery. His memory was absence, he arrived at Cairo, where, by his manly astonishingly retentive, his judgment sound and and generous behaviour, he so won the heart of vigorons. He was dexterous in negociation, a Mahomet Bey that he obtained a firman, permit- master of public business, animated with the ting the commanders of English vessels belonging warmest zeal for his king and country, a physito Bombay and Bengal, to bring their ships and cian in the camp or city, a soldier and horseman merchandise to Suez, a place far preferable, in all in the field, while at the same time his breast respects, to Jidda, to which they were formerly was a stranger to fear, though he took every preconfined. Of this permission, which no Euro- caution to avoid danger. Of his learning and pean nation could ever before acquire, many sagacity, his delineation of the course of SoloEnglish vessels have already availed themselves; mon's fleet from Tarshish to Ophir, his account

Assouan upon

of his age.

of the cause of the inundations of the Nile, and fundament with two black spots. It is a native his comprehensive view of the Abyssinian his- of North America, and destroys whole fields of tory, afford ample proofs. He was preparing a peas. It is now found in several of the southern second edition of his travels for the press, when parts of Europe, where it does great injury to he died, April 27th, 1794, in consequence of a the corn. 7. B. theobromæ, with whitish fall dowr his own stairs, in the sixty-sixth year elytra, interspersed with black points. It fre

quents the theobrome or chocolate-trees in the BRUCE (Robert), son of the earl of Carrick, East Indies. being competitor with Baliol for the crown of BRUCIA, or Brucine, a new vegetable alScotland, lost it by the arbitration of Edward I. kali, lately extracted from the bark of the false of England, for generously refusing to hold that angustura, or brucia antidysenterica, by M.M. crown as dependent on him, which his ancestors Pelletier and Caventou. Its taste is exceedingly had left him independent.

bitter, acrid, and durable in the mouth. When Bruce (Robert), grandson of the preceding, administered in doses of a few grains, it is when Baliol broke his agreement with Edward, poisonous, acting on animals like strychnia, but was easily persuaded to side with him against much less violently. It is not affected by the Baliol, upon promise that he would settle him air. The dry crystals fuse at a temperature a on the throne. Having contributed much to the little above that of boiling water, and assume breaking of Baliol's party, he demanded the ac- the appearance of wax. At a strong heat it is complishment of king Edward's promise, who resolved into carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, is said to have given him this answer: 'What! without any trace of azote. It combines with have I nothing else to do but to conqner king- the acids, and forms both neutral and superdons for you? He, however, recovered his salts. crown, defeated the English in several battles, BRUCKER (John James), a Lutheran clerraised the glory of the Scots, and extended their gyman, was born in 1696 at Augsburgh, and dominions. See Scotland.

studied at Jena. In 1724 he became rector of BRUCEA, in botany, a genus of the tetran- Kauf beueren, and was, in 1731, chosen a memdria order, belonging to the diæcia class of her of the Berlin academy of sciences. He was plants.

afterwards pastor of St. Ulric's, and senior miBRUCHHAUSEN, a county of Westphalia, nister in his native city, where he died in 1770. lying on the Weser, in Hanover, near the terri- He was the author of several works and tracts tory of Bremen. It is composed of the two on philosophy, but his most important productowns of the Old and New Bruchhausen, each tion is his Historia Critica Philosophiæ, four with a town and bailiwic. They are about four volumes, 4to. which appeared in 1744, and miles asunder, and between five and six miles with great improvements, in six volumes, 4to. west of the town of Hoya.

1767. This work acquired the general approbaBRUCHSAL, the head of a district in the tion of the learned, as the most copious and mecircle of the Pfinz and Enz, in the grand duchy thodical history of philosophy ever written.-A of Baden, is situated on the Salza. It is well judicious abridgment of it was published by built, especially the suburbs of St. Peter and St. Dr. Enfield, in 1791, two volumes, 4to. Paul, and has seven churches. The population BRUCKNER (John), a literary divine of the is about 6000. The principal public buildings Lutheran persuasion, settled at Norwich; was and institutions are the elegant castle, formerly born in the island of Cadsand in 1726, and rethe residence of the bishop, a Catholic academy, ceived his education at Leyden and Franeker, founded in 1803, the town-house, and hospital. after which he became pastor of the Walloon It is eleven miles south-east of Spires, and congregation at Norwich until his death, in 1804. fifteen south of Heidelberg.

He was author of–1. Theorie du Systeme AniBRUCHUS, in zoology, a genus of insects male, which has been translated into English, belonging to the order of coleoptera. The spe- under the title of a Philosophical Survey of the cific character of this insect is, body black; an- Animal Creation, 1768; in this work is some tennæ filiform, testaceous; feelers equal, fili- anticipation of the sentiments of Mr. Malthus' form; lip pointed; thighs unarmed; head pro- famous Essay on Population. 2. Criticism on minent; thorax tapering before; shells striate; the Diversions of Purley, in which he discovers species twenty-seven; scattered over the globe, great knowledge of the various Gothic and of which the B. seminarius is the only one traced Hebrew dialects. 3. Thoughts on Public Worin our own country, and inhabiting our flowers. ship, in answer to Gilbert Wakefield. He also The other principal species are ; 1. B. bactris, commenced a didactic poem in French verse on with smooth elytra, a hoary body, and the hind the principles of his Theorie. part of the thighs oval. It frequents the palm- BRUGĖS, a large and opulent city of the Nethertrees of Jamaica. 2. B. gleditsiæ, with striated lands, the capital of West Flanders, and, during elytra, of the same length with the belly, a pitch- the domination of the French, the chief town of the colored body, and green feelers. It is a native department of the Lys. It is situated in a spacious of America. 3. B. granarius, has black elytra; plain, intersected by a great number of canals, the fore-feet are red, and the hind-feet are den- about six miles from the sea. Before the French tated. It infests the seeds of plants in different Revolution it formed, with its territory, a sepaparts of Europe. 4. B. pecticornis, with comb. rate district. No river passes near it, but the shaped feelers longer than the body. It is a na- canals leading to Sluys and Ostend bring up, at tive of Barbary and China. 5. B. pisi, has gray high water, vessels of from 200 to 300 tons. clytra, interspersed with white spots, and a white The trade and manufactures of Bruges were once

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far more flourishing than at present.

In the in dissecting animals, and also in astronomy. fourteenth century, under the dukes of Bur- He published dissertations De Vi altrice; De Corgundy, it was one of the greatest places of com- porum Gravitate et Levitate : De Cognitione Dei merce in Europe, forming an important branch Naturali; De Lucis Causâ et Origine, &c. He of the Hanseatic confederacy, and carrying on a had a dispute with Isaac Vossius, to whom he lucrative intercourse with England, Venice, &c. wrote a letter printed at Amsterdam, 1663 ; Towards the end of the fifteenth century it began wherein he criticises Vossius's book De Natura to decline, Antwerp becoming its rival, and after- et Proprietate Lucis; and strenuously maintains wards ts superior. On the decay of the latter, the hypothesis of Descartes. He died in 1675, hy the shutting up of the Scheldt, Bruges partly after he had been professor twenty-three years. recovered its prosperity, and still carries on a BRUISE', v.& n., A.S. brysan ; Teut. brisen ; considerable trade with Ostend, Sluys, Ghent, BRUIS'ER. 3 Bel. bryzin; Arm. brisa and the north of Europe. It takes an active Fr. briser. See To BRAY. To crush, beat, and part in the herring-fishery. The exchange here mangle. To press together so as to destroy the is one of the earliest establishments of the kind continuity of the parts. in Europe, and still a fine building. During the Then searcht his secret woundes, and made a priefe great fairs the merchants expose their goods Of every place that was with bruizing harmed, here, and the retail trade is carried on to a great Or with the hidden fire too inly warmed. Spenser. extent. There is besides a chamber of commerce, Fellows in arms, and my most loving friends, a large insurance company, a dock-yard, and a Bruised underneath the yoke of tyranny. Shakspeare. navigation school. The population is about And fix far deeper in his head their stings, 45,000. The streets are in general wide and Than temporal death shall bruise the victor's heel, well-lighted, and the houses large.

There are
Or theirs whom he redeems.

Milton. seven gates and six market-places.

The prin

One armed with metal, the other with wood, cipal public buildings are the lycée, formerly This fit for bruise, and that for blood. Hudibras. the celebrated convent of the Downs the

I since have laboured

To bind the bruises of a civil war, town--house, the exchange, and the church of Notre Dame, having a lofty spire. The autho

And stop the issues of their wasting blood, Dryden. rities are two burgomasters, twelve echevins,

They beat their breasts with many a bruising blow, twelve councillors, ten pensioners, and two trea

Till they turn livid, and corrupt the snow. Id. surers. In 1559 Bruges was made a bishopric

As in old chaos beaven with earth confused, by Paul IV., and continued so until it was And stars with rocks together crushed and bruised.

Waller. taken possession of by the French army in 1794. At that time it contained not less than twelve BRUISER, in mechanics, a concave tool used convents for the different orders of both sexes; tor grinding and polishing the specula of teleall of which were forth with abolished. During scopes. It is made of brass, about a quarter his consulate Buonaparte annexed Bruges to of an inch thick, and hammered as near in the the bishopric of Ghent, confiscated the revenues, gage as possible. It is tinned on the convex and caused the cathedral church of St. Donatus side, and made equally broad at bottom and top. to be demolished. It has long been the resi- It serves to reduce the figures of the hones, dence of a convent of English nuns, who, during when too convex, and to rub down any gritty the late stormy periods, fled to their native matter that happens to be mixed with the putty, country, but have since returned, and enjoy their before the speculum is applied to the polisher. former revenues.

In the church of Notre Dame BRUISING, in pharmacy, the operation of the tombs of Charles the Brave and his daugh- breaking or pounding a thing coarsely; freter, Mary of Burgundy, are preserved. They are quently practised on roots, woods, and other formed of touch-stone, and beautifully gilt, and hard bodies, to make them yield their juice more though constructed in 1550 appear as perfect freely than they would do whole. as if new. Bruges carries on a considerable BRUIT, v. & n. Arm. bruit, Fr. bruit, Span. trade in grain, particularly when the ports of ruido, see Rout. To report, to spread a ruEngland are open, likewise a good traffic in mor; to make anything known with noise and coarse lace, made by the female population, and clamor. some trade in linen. The manufactures of As slander's loathsome bruit sounds folly's just reearthenware, &c. have dwindled to nothing. ward, This city gave birth to John of Bruges, the in- Is put to silence all betime, and brought in small reventor of painting in oil. The French entered it gard, in the summer of 1794, and the town was soon Even so doth time devour the noble blast of fame, after incorporated with the French empire, a

Which should resound their glories great that do de. part of which it remained till the fall of Buona

serve the same.

Earl of Surrey. parte. In 1798 an English force, under general

His death Coote, attempted to destroy the sluices between

Being bruited once, took fire and heat away this place and Ostend : they succeeded in their

From the best tempered courage in his troops.

Shakspeare. object, but the greater part were made pri

I am not soners. Twelve miles east of Ostend, twenty- One that rejoices in the common wreck, two north-east of Ghent, and th:rty-three north- As common bruit doth put it.

Id. east of Dunkirk.

It was bruited, that I meant nothing less than to go BRUIN (Johu de), professor of natural phi- to Guiana.

Raleigh. losophy and mathematics at Utrecht, was born A bruit ran from one to the other, that the king at Gorcum in 1620. Ile possessed great skill

was slain.

Sidney.

BRUMAIRE, i.e. the foggy month, French, sculpture at Paris, and formed the plan of from brume, fog. the second month in the French another for the students of his own nation at revolutionary calendar. It began October 22d. Rome. The king gave him the direction of all and ended November 20th, consisting of thirty his works, particularly of his royal manufactory days.

at the Gobelins, where he had a handsome house BRU'MAL, adj. Lat. brumalis. Belonging with a large salary. He was the author of two to the winter.

treatises ; 1. On Physiognomy, and 2. On the Ahout the brumal solstice, it hath been observed, Different Characters of the Passions.

The even unto a proverb, that the sea is calm, and the pieces that gained him the greatest reputation winds do cease, till the young ones are excluded, and were those which he finished at Fontainebleau, forsake their nests.

Brown. the great staircase at Versailles, and especially BRUMALIS PLANTÆ, in botany, from bruma, the grand gallery, which is the last of his works, winter; plants which flower in our winter; and is said to have taken tim up

fourteen years. common about the Cape.

He died at Paris in 1690. BRUMALIA, in Roman antiquity, festivals BRUNCK (Richard Francis Philip), a modern of Bacchus, celebrated twice a year; the first on classical scholar and critic of the greatest reputathe 12th of the kalends of March, and the other tion; he was a native of Strasburg, and educated on the 18th of the kalends of November. They by the Jesuits at Paris. He was made early in were instituted by Romulus, who during these life a commissary at war and receiver of finances; feasts used to entertain the senate. Among but finally settled at Strasburg, and devoted all other beathen festivals which the primitive his leisure to the study of the Greek language. Christians were much inclined to observe, Ter- His Greek Anthology was first published at tullian mentions the bruma or brumalia. Strasburg in 1776, 3 vols. 8vo.; and followed in

BRUMALIS, in ornithology, a species of 1779 by Selections from the works of Æschylus, emberiza, found in the north of Italy, the Brumal Sophocles, and Euripides, 2 vols. In 1780 apBunting of Latham

peared his edition of Apollonius Rhodius; and BRÙMOY (Peter), a learned Jesuit, born at his Aristophanes in 1783. In 1785 he published Rouen, in 1668, distinguished by his talents for an edition of Virgil ; and in 1786 appeared the the belles lettres. His works are 1. A History whole works of Sophocles, 2 vols. 410. Brunck of the Gallican Church, 6 vols ; 2. Morale was now partially disturbed in his pursuits by the Chretienne, 12mo.; 3. Examen dú Poeme sur storms of the French Revolution, and became one la Grace; 4. La Vie de la Imperatrice Eleo- of the first members of the popular associations nora ; 5. Theatre des Grecs, Contenant des Tra- at Strasburg. He was imprisoned at Besançon ductions et Analyses des Tragedies Grecques, during the tyranny of Robespierre, on whose des Discours et des Remarques Concernant la death he was liberated. In 1791 and 1801 our Theatre Grecque, 3 vols. 4to. This very valuable critic was under the necessity of selling portions perforinance was translated into English by Mrs. of his fine library; which affected his composure Lenox, who received assistance from Dr. Johnson to such a degree as to compel him to give up and other able writers; 6. History of the Revo- bis Greek studies. He still, however, proceeded lutions of Spain, 3 vols. 4to. He died at Paris with the Latin poets; and in 1797 published a in 1742

beautiful edition of Terence. He was preparing BRUN, Bran, Brown, Bours, Burn, are the works of Plautus for the press, when he all derived from the Saxon born, bourn, brunna, died, June 1803. burna; all signifying a river or brook.

BRUNDISIUM, or BRUNDUSIUM, in ancient Brun (Charles Le), was born in 1619, of a geography, a town of Calabria, with the best family of distinction in Scotland. His father harbour in Italy. It was a very ancient town, was a statuary by profession. He discovered and belonged originally to the Salentines; but such an early inclination for painting, that his was taken by the Romans about A, A. C. 256. father being employed in the gardens at Seguier, It is now called Brindisi ; which see. the chancellor placed him with Simon Vouet an BRUNETT, n. s. Fr. brunette. A woman eminent painter. He was afterwards sent to with a brown complexion. Fontainebleau, to copy some of Raphael's Your fair women therefrre thought of this fashion, pieces. He sent him next to Italy, and sup- to insult the olives and the brunettes. Addison. ported bim there for six years. Le Brun, in his BRUNIA, in botany, a genus of the monoreturn, met with the celebrated Poussin, with gynia order, and pentandria class of plants. whom he contracted a friendship which lasted The flowers are aggregate or clustered; the filaas long as their lives. A painting of St. Stephen, ments inserted into the heels of the petals ; the which he finished in 1651, raised his reputation stigma is bifid ; the seeds are solitary, and the to the highest pitch. Soon after, the king made capsule is bilocular. There are eight species, all him his first painter, conferred on him the order Cape plants. of St. Michael, and spent two hours every day

BRU’NION, n. s. Fr. brugnon. A sort of fruit to see him work, while he was painting the between a plum and a peach. family of Darius at Fontainebleau. *About 1662 BRUNN, a circle and town of Moravia ; the he began his five large pieces of the history of former, bounded by Bohemia on the north, and Alexander the Great, in which he is said to have Austria on the south, contains about 1860 square set the actions of that famous conqueror in a miles, and a population of 299,960 individuals. more glorious light than Quintus Curtius has Corn, flax, and large herds of cattle, are the done in his history. He procured several ad- chief produce. It also contains mines, medicinal vantages for the royal academy of painting and springs, marble quarries, forges, alum-works and

glass-houses. Brunn is considered the capital of whose characteristics are sensation and motion. the kingdom, and has, besides the government The capability of being affected by external offices, several large manufactures of fine woollen powers is termed excitability; the agents, sticloths and kerseymeres. It is well supplied with muli, or exciting powers; the result excitement. coals, water, and other requisites for these works, Without this property (excitability), the body and was once fortified; but the trenches are now would be dead' inert matter : By this property, well filled with tanneries, rope-yards, dye-houses, it becomes living matter; by this property, &c. The principal buildings are the church, called into action by the exciting powers, it bewith an elegant spire covered with copper, the comes a living system. While the stimuli act state-house, the town-house, and the palace of on the excitability with a sufficient degree of prince Lichtenstein. Near it, on the top of a power, then is the pleasant sensation of health ; hill, stands the fortress of Spielberg, now used when they raise the excitement above this point, as a state-prison. The town and suburbs contain or depress it below it, disease takes place : when about 24,000 inhabitants. Here are very large the stimuli cease to act, or the system to feel fairs for general commerce, held quarterly. their power, death ensues. Excitability is a Brunn is 100 miles south-east of Prague. property of living matter, peculiar and inherent,

BRUNNEUS, in entomology, a species of hut it is a property which Dr. Brown did not pinus, and also the name of a species of cur- pretend to explain. He left it as Sir Isaac culio, cimex, cryptocephalus, coluber, asilus, Newton did his Attraction, as a property not to and elater.

be investigated. Of this energy or power, there BRUNNICHIA, in botany, a genus of plants, is assigned to every living system, at the comclass decandria, order tryginia : Cal. five-cleft: mencement of life, a certain quantity or procor. none : capsule one-celled, many-seeded. portion; but its quantity differs in each, and Species one, a Bahama plant.

in the same body it is found to change, for BRUNO, i. e. Brown, Ital. the Latin name the excitability, according to circumstances, assumed by the late Dr. Brown, in his Elementa may be abundant, increased, accumulated, suMedicinæ ; whence the epithet Brunonian. perfluous, exhausted, consumed, &c. The sti

Bruno, Giordano, a dominican, born at Nolo, muli, or exciting powers, are of two classes : in Naples. About A. D. 1582 he began to call external and internal. The external stimuli are in question some of the tenets of the Romish heat, light, sound, air, and motion; food, drink, church, which obliged him to retire to Geneva: medicines, and whatever else is taken into the but after two years stay there, he expressed his body, not excepting poisons and contagions. aversion to Calvinism in such a manner that he The internal are the functions of the body, the was expelled the city. After having staid some blood, the secretions, muscular exertion, and time at Lyons, Toulouse, and Paris, he came to finally the powers of the mind, as sensation, London, and continued two years in the house passion and thought. Dr. Beddoes, we know of M. Castlenegu the French ambassador. He not for what reason, ranks the blood and sewas very well received by queen Elizabeth and creted Auids' among the external stimuli. Exthe politer part of the court. His principal citement is Life; the natural movements of the friends were Sir Philip Sidney and Sir Fulk Gre- machine, and the functions resulting from these, ville. With these, and some others of their club, as sensation, reflection, and voluntary motion ; Bruno held assemblies; and, at Sir Philip's request, which, as they immediately flow from the exciting he composed his Spaccio della Bestia 'î'rionfante, powers, are vigorous when they are strong, lanwhich was printed in 8vo. 1584 and dedicated guid when they are weak, and cease when they to that gentleman. This work, which is re- are taken away entirely. Thus our body is markable for nothing but its impiety, we are continually moved by external agents, and life is told in the Spectator, No. 389, sold at an auction a forced 'state. The frame has an unceasing in London for £30. From England he went tendency to dissolution, which is opposed only to Wirtemberg, and thence to Prague, where by the incessant application of exciting powers ; he printed some tracts, in which he openly dis- which are the sources of life, and which being covered his atheistical principles. After visiting partially or completely withdrawn are immesome other towns in Germany, he made a tour diately followed by disease or death. It is also to Padua ; where he was apprehended by the a principle of this doctrine, that 'all stimuli by inquisition, tried, condemned, and, refusing to acting on the excitability exhaust it.' Ouawaking retract, was burnt at the stake in Rome, February we feel a new power of excitement in every object 9th, 1600.

around us; we are refreshed in the morning, and BRUNONIAN System, a system of medicine, languid at night, and our whole life is an alternation discovered by the late Dr. Brown, and explained of motion and rest, of action and sleep, of apathy at large in his Elements of Medicine. It differs and pleasure, of wasting our excitability by day so widely from all former systems of that science, in labor or enjoyment, and of recruiting it by and made so extensive an impression on the night by the abstraction of all stimulant powers, medical world at the time of its appearance, The same philosophy extends to the duration of that we think it consistent with propriety to de- life: in childhood, excitability is abundant in lineate it under its own title. The following quantity, as being little exhausted ; but it is low will give a sufficient view of its outlines, to such in power, because the tender stamina, and acas are unacquainted with it : and for its minutiæ cumulated excitability of children, can neither we must refer to the Dr's own orks, and those of

fler nor support high excitement. Their exDr. Beddoes, Dr. Jones, &c.

citability is so abundant, that they are easily The human body, particularly the system of supported by weak diet and low exciting powers, solids it consists of, is a form of living matter, avd therefore most of their diseases are diseases of

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