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There are two kinds of bond in brick-work, Dutch fashions; and our workmen are so infatuwhich differ materially from each other, and as ated with this practice, that there is scarcely an the subject is of the highest importance to the instance to be seen of the old English bond. bricklayer, we shall lay before our readers some To the Flemish bond alone must be attributed remarks contained in a pamphlet, written on this the frequent splitting of walls into two thicksubject, by Mr. G. Saunders, who has treated it nesses, and various schemes have been from time with a degree of attention which its importance to time adopted for the prevention of this forrequires.- Bricks laid lengthways in the direc- midable defect. Some have laid laths or slips of tion of the wall are called stretchers, and those hoop iron, occasionally, in the horizontal joints laid in an opposite way crossing the direction of between the two courses; others lay diagonal the wall, are called headers. Old English bond courses of bricks at certain heights from each is a continuation of one kind throughout, in the other; but the good effect of this last practice is same course or horizontal layer, and consists of much doubted, as in the diagonal course, by alternate layers of headers and stretchers, the their not being continued to the outside, the headers serring to bind the wall together, in a bricks are much mangled where the strength is longitudinal direction, or lengthways; the wanted. Many other practices are enumerated, stretchers to prevent the wall splitting crossways, to unite complete bond with Flemish facings, or in a transverse direction. Of these two evils, but with no better success. the former is by much the worst kind, and is for the walls of cottages and small buildings, therefore much dreaded by the bricklayer.' the system of working walls hollow is attended

Mr. Saunders is of opinion, that old English with many advantages. Cottages in exposed brick-work is the best security against these acci- situations in the country, which are built with a dents, as work of this kind, wheresoever it is so nine inch wall, solid, from the porous nature of much undermined as to cause a fracture, is not the bricks, are damp and uncomfortable; the subject to either of the above evils, but separates rain passing from the external to the internal part by breaking through the solid brick, just as if the of the wall. The plan of building walls hollow, wall were composed of one entire piece. The as shown in fig. 1, consists in placing a course brick-work of the Romans was of this kind of of alternate headers and stretchers on cage A, bond, but the specimens of their work, which and the backing course is like it, leaving an inremain, are of great thickness, and have three terval between of the width of a half brick ; or sometimes more courses of brick laid at cer- these are then covered with a heading course, B, tain intervals of the height, stretchers on stretch- laid flat, and the system is pursued until the whole ers, and headers on headers, opposite the return height required be attained. wall, and sometimes at certain distances in the length, forming piers, that bind the wall together

Fig. 1. in a transverse direction. The intervals between these piers were filled up, and formed pannels of rubble or reticulated work; consequently great substance with strength was economically obtained.

Flemish bond, which is the second kind, consists in placing in the same course alternate headers and stretchers, which disposition, according to our author, is decidedly inferior in every thing but in appearance, and even in this, the difference is so trifling, that few common observers would be struck with any great superiority, that the former possesses over the latter. To ob Fig. 2 is a section of the wall, showing the tain this, strength is sacrificed, and bricks of two

Fig. 2.

intervals in the same, and qualities are fabricated for the purpose; a firm

describing the construction brick often rubbed, and laid in what the workmen

of it. It will be seen by term a putty joint, for the exterior, and an infe

inspection that these walls rior brick for the interior substance of the wall.

possess the desirable quaAs these did not correspond in thickness, the

lities of cheapness and duexterior and interior surface of the wall, would

rability, as, from the connot be otherwise connected together, than by an

tinued dryness of them, the outside heading brick that was here and there

Limbers of roofs, &c. which continued of its whole length. But as the work

are laid in them, are not so does not admit of this at all times, from the want

liable to decay; and the of agreement in the exterior and interior courses

saving of bricks will be these headers can only be introduced where such

1500 in a rod of reduced a correspondence takes place, which sometimes

work; and the quantity of may not occur for a considerable space. Walls

mortar less by a third than of this kind consist of two faces of four inch

in the usual way. work, with very little to connect them together, This system may be well applied to garden and, what is still worse, the interior face often walls (with piers about ten feet apart), as the consists of brick, little better than rubbish. walls retain the heat in summer; and, from their Notwithstanding this, the practice of Flemish being hollow, admit the air, so that they are bond has continued from the time of William and always dry. Mary, when it was introduced with inany other I n the old English bond, the outside of the last course, prints out how the next is to be laid, will make the work stronger. In large buildings, so that the workman cannot easily err. The or where it is thought too much trouble to dip outside appearance is all that can be urged in all the bricks separately, water may be thrown favor of Flemish bond, but even in this, Mr. on each course after they are laid, as was done Saunders is of opinion that were the English at the building uf the Physician's College, by order manner executed with the same attention and of Dr. Hooke. If bricks are laid in summer, neatness that is bestowed on the Flemish, it they are to be covered; for if the mortar dries would be considered as equally handsome. How- too hastily, it will not bind so firmly to the bricks ever this may be, it is surely the duty of all who as when left to dry more gradually. If the are concerned in this business, to recommend the bricks be laid in winter, they should also be adoption of thc old English bond in preference. covered well, to protect them from rain, snow and For the construction of chimneys, foundations, frost; which last is a mortal enemy to mortar, roofs, windows, &c. see ARCHITECTURE : and for especially to all such as have been wetted just the building of ovens, see Oven.

before the frost assaults it. BRICKING, among builders, the counter- BRICK-MAKING is mostly performed at some ieiting of a brick wall on plaster. It is done small distance from cities and towns; and by smearing it over with red ochre, and making though some, through ignorance, look upon it as the joints with an edged tool; these last are a very mean employment, because laborious, yet afterwards filled with a fine plaster.

the masters about London, and other capital BRICKLAYERS in London are a regular com- cities, are generally men of substance. See pany, which was incorporated in 1568; and con- Bricks. sists of a master, two wardens, twenty assistants, BRI'DE, v. & n.) Goth. brud; Swed. and and seventy-eight on the livery.

BRIDAL, n. & adj. Dan. brud ; Belgic, bruid; BRICKLAYERS, MATERIALS and Tools USED BRI'DALTY, Teut. braut; Ang.-Sax. BY. These are bricks, tiles, mortar, nails, BRI'DE-BED,

bryd; Armoric, bried; and tile-pins. Their tools are a brick-trowel, BRI'DE-CAKE, Welsh, priod; from Goth. wherewith to take up mortar; a brick-axe, to BRI'DE-CHAMBER, reda, bereda ; Sax. berecut bricks to the determined shape ; a saw, for BRI'DEMAID, | dian; Teut. beraten, to sawing bricks; a rub-stone, on which to rub Bri'deG ROOM, betrothe; to solemnise them; a square, wherewith to lay the bed or

BRI'DEMAN, legally. Goth. rad; Teut. bottom, and face or surface of the brick, to see BRI'DESTAKE. J heyrath, signified marwhether they are at right angles ; a level, by riage ceremony; and Sax. bryd was applied to which to cut the under sides of bricks to the any married woman. Tooke, however, is conangles required; a small trannel of iron, where- fident that bride is the past participle of the Ang.with to mark the bricks; a float-stone, with Sax. bredan, to nourish, to cherish; and that which to rub a moulding of brick to the pattern groom is the past participle of the Ang.-Sax. described ; a banker, to cut the bricks on; line- verb gyman, to take care of; to girdle; to guard; pins to lay their rows or courses by; plumb- to attend. So that, according to him, the bride rule, whereby to carry their work upright; level, is any woman nourished, cherished; and the to conduct it horizontal ; square, to set off right bridegroom is the person by whom the nourished, angles; ten foot rod, wherewith to take dimen- cherished one is attended, served, protected. sions; jointer, wherewith to run the long joints; Bruder, in Runick, signifies a beautiful woman : rammer, wherewith to beat the foundation; crow and all women at the time of their marriage are and pick-axe, wherewith to dig through walls. deemed by their lovers the fairest of their sex.

BRICK-LAYING, the art of framing edifices of The eye of love fixes on its bruder, its beauty. bricks. This business in London, includes To be sure this sometimes goes off: but bride tiling, walling, chimney-work, and paving with and loveliness are synonymous, perhaps for a bricks and tiles. In the country it also includes

moon. the mason's and plasterer's business. Moxon has a treatise on the art of brick-laying; in

At every bridale, would he sing and lioppe ; which he describes the materials, tools, and

He loved bet the taverne than the shoppe.

For whan there any riding was in Chepe, method of working, used by bricklayers. Great

Out of the shoppe, theder wold he lepo, care is to be taken, that bricks be laid joint on

And til that he had all the sight ysein, joint in the middle of the walls as seldom as

And danced wel, he wold not come again. may be; and that there be good bond made

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. there, as well as on the outsides. Some brick

Help me mine own love's praises tu resound, layers, in working a brick and half wall, lay the Ne let the fame of any be envied; header on one side of the wall perpendicular to So Orpheus did for his own bride. Spenser. the header on the other side, and so all along the And let them make great store of bridale posies, whole course; whereas, if the header on one And let them eke bring store of other flowers, side of the wall were toothed as much as the To deck the bridale bowers. Id. Epithalamium. stretcher on the other side, it would be a stronger And ye three handmayds of the Cyprian queene, toothing, and the joints of the headers of one The which doe still adorn ber beautie's pride, side would be in the middle of the headers of Helpe to adorn my beautifullest bride. the course they lie upon of the other side. If Our wedding cheer to a sad funeral feast, bricks be laid in winter, let them be kept as dry Our solemn hymns to sullen dirges change, as possible, if in summer, it will quit cost to Our bridal fowers serve for a buried corse. employ boys to wet them, for that they will then

Shukspeari. unite with the mortar better than if dry, and Come, I will bring the ti thy bridal chamber. 1.



· Now until the break of day,

hospital, the prison, and workhouse; it was Through this house each fairy stray;

founded in 1553 by Edward VI. who gave the To the best bridebed will we,

place where king John formerly kept his court, Which by us shall blessed be.

and which had been repaired by Henry VIII. to As are those dulcet sounds in break of day, the city of London, with 700 merks of land, That creep into the dreaming bridegroom's ear, bedding, and other furniture. Several youths And sumınon him to marriage.

Id. are sent to the hospital as apprentices to manuNay, we must think men are not gods :

facturers, who reside there. Having faithfully Nor of them look for such observance always, served for seven years, they have their freedom, As fits the bridal.

Id. Othello. and a donation of £10 each, for carrying on their
Round about the bridestoke. Ben Jonson, respective trades.
With the phantasies of hey-troll,

BrideWELL, is also a workhouse for vagrants,
Troll about the bridal bowl,

strumpets, and other disorderly persons: who And divide the broad bridecake

are made to work; being maintained with clothing Round about the bridestake.


and diet; and when it seems good to their goSweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright,

vernors, they are sent by passes into their native The bridal of the earth and sky,

countries. While they remain in Bridewell Sweet dews shall weep thy fall to-night; For thou must die.


they are not only made to work, but, according The amorous bird of night

to their crimes, receive once a fortnight, such a

number of stripes as the governor commands. Sung spousal, and bid haste the evening star. On his hill-top to light the bridal lamp. Milton. BRIDGE', v. & n. 1 Goth. bro, brigg; Swed. Your ill-meaning politician lords,

BRIDGʻING. S bryggia ; Teut. brucke ; Under pretence of bridal friends and guests, Sax. brieg: Dan. bre; Russ. brod, borod; Pers. Appointed to await me thirty spies.

Id. barah ; from the verb to bear. A platform or When to my arms thou brought'st thy virgin love, arch over water; strewed, stretched, or sprung. Fair angels sung our bridal hymn above. Dryden.

A ridge; what is raised for ornament, protec

A ridae
Why, happy bridegroom!
Why dost thou steal so soon away to bed ? Id.

tion, or support; the bridge of the nose; the In death's dark bowers our bridals we will keep,

bridge that secures a safe passage; the bridge of And his cold hand

a violin. Shall draw the curtain when we go to sleep. Id.

At Trompington, not fer fro Cantebrigge, The day approached, when fortune should decide Ther goth a brook, and over that a brigge. The' important enterprize, and give the bride. Id. Upon the whiche brook ther stont a mille The lovely Thais by his side,

And this is veray sothe I you telle.
Sat like a blooming eastern bride,

Chaucer's Canterbury Taies.
In flower of youth and beauty's pride. Id.

It was a bridge ybuilt in goodly wize

With curious corbes and pendants graven faire, These are tributes due from pious brides,

And, arched all with porches, did arise, From a chaste matron and a virtuous wife. Smith.

On stately pillows framed after the Doricke guize. The writer, resolved to try his fortune, fasted all

Spenser. day, and, that he might be sure of dreaming upon What need the bridge much broader than the flood ? something at night, procured an handsome slice of

Shakspeare. bridecake, which he placed very conveniently under The raising gently the bridge of the nose, doth prehis pillow. Spectator. vent the deformity of a saddle nose.

Bacon. Would David's son, religious, just, and brave,

Came to the sea; and over Hellespont To the first bridebed of the world receive

Bridging his way, Europe with Asia joined. A foreigner, a heathen, and a slave ? Privr.

Milton. And now the palace-gates are opened wide

And proud Araxes, whom no bridge could bind. The guests appear in order side by side,

Dryden. And, placed in state, the bridegroom and the bride. At length on a single bridge, constructed with art

Pope. and difficulty, of large hogsheads, he [Maximin] Full many an age old Hymen had not spied

transported his army to the opposite bank, rooted up So kind a bridegroom, and so bright a bride. Id. the beautiful vineyards in the neighbourhood of Aqui

For her the spouse prepares the bridal ring, lea, demolished the suburbs, and employed the timFor her white virgins hymenæals sing. Id. ber of the buildings in the engines and towers, with

With all the pomp of woe, and sorrow's pride! which on every side he attacked the city. Gibbon. Oh early lost! oh fitter to be led In chearful splendour to the bridal bed! Walsh.

I stood in Venice, on the Bridge of Sighs ;

A palace and a prison on each hand :
Daughters of Salem, see the Hebrew king

I saw from out the wave her structures rise,
Crowned with the beauteous wreath his mother placed
About his temples on that happy day,

As from the stroke of the enchanter's wand.

Byron's Childe Harolde. When bridal rites completed all his bliss. Rowe. BRIDE. See MARRIAGE.

Bridge, in architecture, is awork either of stone,

timber, or iron, consisting of one or more arches BRIDEGROOMS. See MARRIAGE.

built over a river, canal, or the like. See ARBRI'DEWELL, n. s. The palace built by St. CHITECTURE, part yi. where the theory of their Bride's, or Bridget's well, was turned into a construction, and some account of remarkable workhouse. A house of correction.

bridges is given. Under the article LONDON He would contribute more to reformation than all Bridge, we notice the design and progress of the work houses and bridewells in Europe. Spectator. that stupendous undertaking : and under IRON

BRIDEWELL, near Fleet-street, is a foundation BRIDGES (exclusively a British invention) the of a mixed and singular nature, partaking of the history of those structures.

Bruge, in gunnery, the two pieces of timber bacon, &c., are resorted to from most parts of the which go between the two transums of a gun- kingdom ; the last of these fairs continues three carriage, on which the bed rests.

days. Both the churches are curacies. It is BRIDGEND, a town of South Wales, in Gla- twenty miles west by north of Birmingham, and morganshire, seated on the Ogmore, which divides 139 north-west of London. it into two parts, connected by a stone bridge. It BRIDGET, or Brigit (St.), a Swedish lady is seven miles west by north of Cowbridge, of the fourteenth century, famous for her revelatwenty from Cardiff, and 181 west from London. tions, and for being the founder of the order of It has a considerable market on Saturday for the Brigittines. Some represent her as a queen; cattle and provisions : with two fairs on 17th but Fabricius, on better grounds, says she was November and Holy Thursday,

only a princess, and the daughter of king BirBRIDGENORTH, a borough and market genes, of Upland. town of Shropshire, seated on the Severn, which BRIDGÉTINES. See BRIGITTINES. divides it into two parts, united by a handsome BRIDGETOWN, the capital of Barbadoes, stone bridge of six arches, and called the Upper situated in the inmost part of Carlisle Bay, which and Lower town. It is said to have been built is capable of containing 500 ships, being four by Ethelfleda, widow of Ethelred king of the miles in length and three in breadth. This was Mercians, about A. D. 675. Robert de Belesme, originally a most unwholesome situation, and was son of Robert de Montgomery, built the castle, chosen entirely for its convenience for trade; but and maintained it against king Henry I., in con- is now deemed as healthy as any place in the sequence of which it was forfeited to the crown, island. Bridgetown is esteemed one of the finest and remained so till the reign of Richard III., cities in the West India islands, as it contains who gave it to John Sutton lord Dudley. This 1200 houses, built mostly of brick. The wharfs town has undergone several sieges; and in the and quays are well defended from the sea, and civil war suffered much, the whole town being very convenient. The harbour is secured from almost destroyed by fire, when Sir Lewis Kirke the north-east wind, which is the constant trade defended the citadel for the king. There are wind there; and is well defended by numerous now no other remains of the castle than a small forts and castles from all attacks at sea. The part of the towers, and a place of that name citadel, which bears the name of St. Anne, cost within its walls, within which also stands one of about 180,000 dollars; on the east side is a small the churches, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, fort mounted with eight pieces of cannon, where exempted from episcopal jurisdiction. The other are preserved, under the care of a strong guard, church is at the north end of the town, on the the public magazines of ammunition and pro highest part of the hill. Near this church-yard vision. There are some good inns and houses of stood a college, which was burat during the civil refreshment in this city. Its shops and magazines wars, together with the church, which has been are well stored with all kinds of European prosince rebuilt. On the west bank of the river are ductions. The city has a garrison of 1200 men, the remains of a magnificent convent, under which and is the seat of the governor, the council, the are several remarkable vaults and caverns. Part assembly, and the court of chancery. Here is of the Cow-gate-street is a rock, rising perpen- also a post-office, where the foreign mails are dicularly, in which are several houses and tene- made up monthly. The church of St. Michael ments that make a very grotesque appearance. exceeds many English cathedrals in beauty, In many other places there are also caves and largeness, and convenience; and has a fine organ, dwellings for families in the rocks; and, indeed, bells, and clock. Here is a free-school for the the whole town has a singular appearance. It is instruction of poor boys, an hospital, and a colwell supplied with water, not only by pipes from lege. The latter was erected by the Society for a plentiful spring, half a mile off, but also from propagating the Christian Religion, in pursuance the Severn; it being thrown by a water engine to of the will of Colonel Christopher Codrington, the top of Castle-hill, whence the houses are sup- who left about £2000 a-year for its endowment, plied. There is a curious walk made from the for maintaining professors and scholars to study higher part of the town to the bridge, being a and practise divinity, surgery, and physic. · hollow way, hewn twenty feet through the depth Long. 58° 38' W., lat. 13° 10' N. of the rock. The town is governed by two bailiffs, BRIDGETOWN, the capital of Cumberland elected out of twenty-four aldermen (who must county, in New-Jersey. It is situated on Cohave gone through all the offices of the town), a hanzy creek, fifty miles south-east of Philadelphia. jury of fourteen, together with forty-eight common- The county court is held here quarterly. council men, a recorder, town-clerk, &c. The BRIDGEWATER, a borough of Somersetcorporation has many ancient privileges, as shire, ten miles north-east from Taunton, and granted by various charters. It has sent two 139 west from London. It stands on the river members to parliament ab origine. The right of Parrat, over which is an iron bridge, connecting election is in the burgesses and freemen, the num- the town with the suburb of Eastover. Here the -ber of voters being about 700. Here are manu- tide rises, at high water, six fathoms; and somefactories of stockings, cloths, fire-arms, iron tools, times the boar, as it is called, flows in with such &c. It has a free-school for the sons of the bur- impetuosity that it rises nearly two fathoms at a gesses, and an hospital for ten poor widows. Its time, which often occasions damage to the shipmarket, on Saturday, is well stocked with all ping. This river is pavigable to Bridgewater for kinds of provisions. Its fairs, on Thursday be- vessels of 200 tons, and for barges up to Taunton fore Shrove-Sunday, June 30th, August 2nd, and and Langport. The church, which is a handsome October 29th, for cattle, sheep, butter, cheese, and spacious structure, has the loftiest spire in the county Near it is a free-school of stone; and Then gan he make him tread his steps anew, the town-hall is a large building, over which is And learne to love, by learning lovers paines to rew. a cistern, which, by means of machinery, supplies

Spenser. the inhabitants with water. Bridgewater was the disposition of things is committed to them, first incorporated by king John, who built a whom law may at all times bridle, and superiour castle here, and was one of the first towns seized power controul.

Hooker. hy the barons under Henry III. It was consti- In the turning, one might perceive the bridlehand tuted a distinct county, and had other privileges something gently stir ; but, indeed, so gently, as it

Sidney. granted it by Henry VIII., in consequence of did rather distil virtue than use violence. which the sheriff of Somerset cannot issue any

With a strong, and yet a gentle hand, process here. During the civil war it was first gar

You bridle faction, and our hearts command. risoned by the parliament, but soon taken by the

Waller. rovalists, who kept it till the extinction of their

Enough my dear brother, altho' we speak reason

Yet. truth many times being punished for treason, cause. The duke nf Monmouth was proclaimed We ought to be

claimea We ought to be wary and bridle our tongue, king here, and lodged some time in the castle. Bold speaking hath done both men and beasts wrong. The corporation, consists of a mayor, recorder,

Marvell. two aldermen, twenty-four common-council men, 'The king resolved to put that place, which some a town-clerk, water-bailiff, and two sergeants at men fancied to be a bridle upon the city, into the mace; and sends two members to parliament, hands of such a 'man'as he might rely upon. who are chosen by such of the inhabitants as re

Clarendon. side in that part called the borough, and pay

They seized at last scot and lot. The revenue of the corporation is His courser's bridle, and his feet embraced. estimated at about £5000 per annum. The free

Dryden. men are free of all the ports of England and Ire

How hard sne'er it be to bridle wit, land, except those of their respective capitals. Yet memory oft no less requires the bit. The inhabitants carry on an extensive trade to

Stillingfileet Wales, Ireland, Newfoundland and other parts The queen of beauty stopped her bridled doves; of America, the West-Indies, and the Mediter- Approved the little labour of the Loves. Prior, ranean. Here are held four sessions annually, I bridle in my struggling 'muse with pain, for trying all crimes not capital; and a court of That longs to launch into a bolder strain. Addison. record every Monday, which takes cognizance of A bright genius often betrays itself into many debts; the rules and practice being according to errours, without a continual bridle on the tongue. those of the court of common-pleas. The streets

Watts. are irregular, but wide and well paved. Markets The heat of summer put his blood into a ferment, on Thursday and Saturday. Its fairs are 24th which affected his bridlehand with great pain. July, 2nd October, 27th December, and the first

Wiseman, Monday in Lent, when great numbers of horses

The'wars are all over, and horned cattle are sold. The assizes of the

Our swords are all idle, county are held here every other year. Bridge

The steed bites the bridle, water has a very good coasting trade, and a

The casque's on the wall. 'Byron. considerable number of coal vessels.

BRIDLE. The origin of the bridle is of the BRI'DLE, v. & n,) Goth. bridol, from ride, highest antiquity, and has been variously assigned. BRI'DLEHAND, (and ol, a strap or rein; Pausanias attributes its invention to Minerva; BRI'DLER, I bitol, a bit rein; Swed. Virgil (Georg. lib. iii. 115.) and Pliny, to the

Bri'dLING. 'bitul ; Teut, brittel; Belg. Lapitha Pelethronius. Many of the coins struck brydel; Fr. bride ; Ital. briglia. A bit with reins in the ancient towns of Thessaly represent a horse, for governing a horse. The verb primarily sig- sometimes with a rider, but often running loose pifies to guide or manage the horse. Metapho- with a long rein trailing on the ground, to show rically it is to rein up the head as a horse that the bridle was the invention of the Thesdoes when checked by the bridle, and to hold salians. The first horsemen, not being acquainted in; to restrain; to moderate ; to govern: and with the art of governing horses with bridles, the noun is applied generally to signify a re- managed them only with a rope or a switch, and straint, a curb, or check.

the accent of the voice. This was the practice And to the hors he goth him, faire and wel,

of the Numidians, Getulians, Libyans, and Mas. And stripeth of the bridel, right anon.

silians. The Roman youth also learned the art Chaucer's Canterbury Tales of fighting without bridles, which was an exerThey hied so' (they would not abide cise or lesson in the manege ; and hence it is, The bridling her horse to ride),

that on the Trojan column, soldiers are represented By five, by six, by two, by thre,

riding at full speed without any bridles. The There was not one abode with me;

different parts of a modern bridle are, the bit or The queene to mete everichone

snaffle; the head-stall, or leathers from the top They went, and bode with me not one.

of the head to the rings of the bit; the fillet, over

Chaucer'. Dream. Thus while his stony heart with tender ruth

the fore-head, and under the fore-top; the throatWas toucht, and mighty courage mollifide,

band, which buttons from the head-band under Dame Venus' sonde (that teacheth stubborn youth

the throat; the reins, or long thongs of leather With yron bit, and maketh him abide,

that come from the rings of the bit, and being cast Till like a victor on his back be ride)

over the horse's head, the rider holds then in his Into his mouth his maystring bridle thew

hand; the nose-band, going through loops of the That made him stoupe, till he did him bestride; back of the head-stall, and buckled under the

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