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shall sell, or tap out heer or ale publicly or pri

IN SCOTLAND. vately, but the same shall remain as declared by The Excise for beer . . . . 82,471 3 49 the statute. 1 William and Mary, ses. 1. c. 24. Ditto for malt . . . . . 86,029 11 21

Within the bills of mortality, every barrel of Ditto ditto, terminating July 23, beer is to contain thirty-six gallons, according to 1817 . . . . . . . . 17,853 11 34 the new standard ale quart kept in the Exchequer; Ditto ditto, Nov. 25, 1819 . 29,347 18 11 and every barrel of ale thirty-two gallons. 12 Ditto ditto, July 5, 1820 .. 3,403 7 5 Chas. II.c. 53; 1 Will. & Mary, ses. 1.c. 24, &c. Out of the said limits, every barrel of beer or

Total · · £219,105 12 23 ale, whether strong or small, is to contain thirtyfour gallons, according to the aforementioned

IN IRELAND. standard. 1 William and Mary, ses. 1. c. 24. The excise for malt ... 191,601 18 64

The adulterating strong beer, porter, or ale, We come now to give, lastly, A practical with small beer, is prohibited by law, since both description of a London Brewery,–In doing the revenue and the public suffer by it. The which, we shall suppose our reader again to revenne suffers, because a larger quantity of beer travel with us through the principal operais sold as strong beer; that is, at a price exceed- tions. Fig. 1, 2, BREWING, plate I, is the ing the price of table beer, without the strong elevation and bottom of the mash tun, formed of beer duty being paid. In the next place, the cast iron or vertical staves bound by iron hoops. brewer suffers, because the retailer gets table or It has a false bottom, a few inches above the real mild beer, and retails it as strong beer. The fol- bottom, pierced, as we have described, with a lowing are the words of the Act, prohibiting the number of small holes, to admit the liquor, brewers mixing table beer with strong beer :- but retain the malt. The liquor is brought by a 'If any common brewer shall mix, or suffer to pipe into the tun beneath the false bottom, and be mixed, any strong beer, or strong worts with forces its way up through the goods. Fig. table beer or table worts, or with water in any 1. Shows the elevation of it; as also the unguile or fermenting tun after the declaration of derback beneath; one half of the tun being the quantity of such guile shall have been made; represented in section, to show the machine or if he shall at any time mix, or suffer to be within it. A A, fig. 1, is the level of the stage mixed, strong heer or strong worts with table or foor in which the mash tun is placed. BB beer worts or with water, in any vat, cask, tub, BB is the tun, formed of a number of pannels measures, or utensil, not being an entered guilé of cast iron plates screwed together. The disor fermenting tun, he shall forfeit £200.

position of these in the bottom is shown by the If any common or other brewer, inn-keeper, plans in fig. 2. The tun is supported upon eight : victualler, or retailer of beer or ale shall mix, or cast-iron columns, D D, which are united at the suffer to be mixed, any strong beer, or ale worts, upper ends by an iron framing E, which conwith table beer worts, or water, in any tub or fines them in a vertical position, and connects measure, he shall forfeit £50. The difference them with a central column F, shown by dotted between strong and table beer, is thus settled by lines in fig. 1, at the upper end, This is cast Parliament. "All beer or ale above the price of hollow, to form the continuation of a pipe G, eighteen shillings per barrel, exclusive of ale which brings the liquor into the tun from the duties now payable (viz. ten shillings per barrel), copper. This pipe has also another branch, H, or that may be hereafter payable in respect there- conveying the liquor up into the tun, beneath the of, shall be deemed strong beer or ale; and all false bottom I, which is the only part of this beer of the price of eighteen shillings the barrel machine made of wood. In the centre of the tun or under, exclusive of the duty payable (viz. two a vertical axis, K, is set up and turned round by shillings per barrel) in respect thereof shall be wheelwork communicating with the upper end deemed table beer within the meaning of this of it. Upon this axis are two bevelled wheels, and all other Acts now in force, or that may a and b, giving motion to the mashing engine. hereafter be passed in relation to beer or ale or These wheels turn two borizontal axes L, M, any duties thereon.' 59 Geo. III. c. 53, sect. 25. extending from the centre to the circumference

The gross annual receipt, in money, received of the tun. The former has four wheels upon it, by the Excise for beer brewed, and malt and over which pass four endless chains, which also hops, in the united kingdom for the year ending pass round wheels upon a horizontal axis, N, 5th Jan. 1820, amounted to £5,997,216. 35. 1038. near the bottom of the tun. Upon the endless

chain, cross pieces of iron, d, are fixed; and these IN ENGLAND, £ 8. d. have ieeth in them, which, as the chains revolve The Excise for beer . . . 2,924,260 13 21 by the action of the wheel b, raise up the malt Ditto for malt. . . . . 1,204,549 9 31 from the bottom of the tun to the top of the mass Ditto ditto temporary tax, 43

of malt. That this stirring may be performed in Geo. III. c. 81 ...

967 15 104 all parts of the tun, the frame containing the Ditto ditto annual additional

axes L, M, N, has a progressive motion round duty, commenced Mar. 26 898,364 15 34 the tun by the following means : On the kirb or Ditto ditto old, commenced

upper edge of the tun is a ring of teeth (0, Jupe 24 . . . . . . 512,076 8 91 shown in the plan. These are engaged by an Ditto ditto old, commenced

endless screw, which is mounted in a frame P, July 5 . . . . . . 46,289 10 8 and shown in perspective in fig. 3. This screw

- has a rotatory motion, given it by a wheel Q ou Total : £5,586,508 13 1} the extreme end of the axis M, which turns Vol. IV.

2 M

pinions d, e, on the axis of the screw. The wheel of the copper, at the upper end of a large tube has two rings of cogs h and i upon its face, one H, figs. 2 and 4, rising from the dome. I is the about ds the size of the other. Each engages chimney to the copper, situated over the fire its pinion d and e on the spindle of the screw; door a, fig. 3, and the chimney has an arch in it, neither of which are fixed to this spindle, but to give passage to the fire door. The course of are at liberty to slip freely round it. Between the flues is shown in fig. 1, which is a horizonthe pinions is a circular plate, k, fitted upon the tal section, taken a little above the level of the axis with a fillet, so that it must revolve with it. grate-bars, upon which the fire rests. On each This plate has studs projecting from both sides, side of this grate a jamb of brickwork K, K, is and the pinions have similar studs. Now when built. This supports the bottom of the copper, the plate k is thrust towards either of the pinions, and compels the flame ad smoke to go backby means of a lever l, it causes the axis and waris, and surround the copper, by rising up in screw to revolve with the same velocity that the the dark space shown in figs. 3 and 4. It then pinion has; and as the pinions have different turns round in the two semicircular passages velocities, from being turned by two different over and behind the jambs K K, fig. 1, and enrings of teeth, it follows, that, by raising or de- ters the chimney by the opening at L, fig. 3. pressing the end m of the lever I, the screw may The chimney is double, having a partition up the be turned with either of these velocities at plea- centre, which divides it into passages, one of sure, and thus cause the machine to make the which is appropriated to each flue. The opencircuit of the tun in a greater or less time. The ing L is furnished with an iron door, which can extreme ends of the two axes L, N, are support- be closed at pleasure; and the bottom of the ed in an iron arm, fixed to the iron frame P of chimneys are likewise shut by iron doors at d, the screw, which runs upon the edge of the tun fig. 3, which slide back horizontally when they with four rollers. From this frame two rods p,p, are required to be open. By means of these fig. 1, extend to a frame which surrounds the cen- doors the stoker, or fire-man, can at all times tral axis, and supports the central axis by a collar regulate the draught of the fire; for by throwing at its upper end, and the lower point of the axis open the doors d, e, and at the same time openis fitted into a socket made through the frame. ing the fire-door at a in front, the draught is

The underback, RR, is placed between the nearly destroyed, as the cold air passes directly eight iron columns, upon hrickwork, supported up the chimney without going through the fire'; upon bearing piles, is formed of cast iron plates, and, by closing the door L, the draught is totally united by screws, in the same manner as the stopped, and the fire soon extinguished. In the mash tun, and as is explained in the figures. The centre of the copper a spindle M is fixed, pasplates are flat on the inside, but have flaunches sing through a tight stuffing box. At the top of all round the outside, and ribs across to strength- the tube E, and above this, it has a cog wheel e, en them. This is shown by representing part of by which the spindle is turned round. On the the plates as removed. The wort is drawn off lower end of the spindle a cross bar is fixed, and from the mash tun by eight cocks in the bottom, secured by stays, and short pieces of chain are two of which are shown at SS, fig. 1. They suspended from it, which drag the bottom of the allow the wort to flow into the underback, copper when the spindle is turned round, and whence it is drawn by a pump, the suction tube stir the hops so as to prevent their burning, for which is marked T.

which they would do if suffered to rest on the Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, BREWING, plate II, are bottom. This apparatus, which is called the different sections of a close copper, which con- rowser, is suspended by a swivel at the top of tains say 250 barrels. A A, in all the figures, the spindle, from a lever f, the opposite end of denotes the external brickwork, which is a cylin- which is drawn down by a rack and pinion g. drical wall, built upon the arches. In the lower This raises the rowser from the bottom of the part of this is the ash pit B, and the fire-grate copper, when it is not in use, and at the same placed over it, being partly supported by iron time disengages the wheel e from its pinion, pillars. CCC is the copper, hung in the brick- which is kept in continual motion by the engine. work by a projecting ring of a few inches, at the Cast iron braces 3, 5, are fixed across the copper, place where the hemispherical dome G joins to support the spindle of the rowser. In the top upon it. The dome is surrounded by a copper of the tube E is a safety valve, loaded with a from DD, to contain the water which is intended weight h, to permit the escape of the steam if it for the succeeding mash, or afterwards for the should become so strong as to endanger the copwort produced by the mash. This liquor is per; and by the side of it is another, i, which heated with the steam produced by the copper, opens, and admits air, if a condensation of the which is conducted up a large tube E, rising steam should produce a vacuum in the copper. from the centre of the dome. To the top of this The man holes are closed by lids, which are four smaller pipes F F, figs. 2 and 3 are joined, quite steam tight, and can be quickly opened turning down to the bottom of the pan, and open and shut. The door is of cast iron, and has a at their lower extremities, by which means the ring projecting from its under surface to drop steam is conducted beneath the liquor contained into the ring to which the flat surface of the lid in the pan, and by bubbling up through it, soon is fitted. The lid is hung by a joint, loosely fitcommunicates to it a considerable degree of heat. ted, and is kept down tight by the pressure of a A recess is made at X, figs. 2 and 4, in the cop- strong screw. This screw is held over the cenper pan, to expose the dome G; and in this tre of it by a cross bar fixed to the ring by a place is the man hole for entering to the copper. joint pin at the end, while the other end slips Another of these man holes is provided in the top under a kind of staple. When the central screw is slackened, the bar can be turned about upon large brass cocks, such as are sometimes used its centre, to remove it from the lid, which can for coppers, cost from thirty to forty pounds. A then be opened upon the joint. A balance Mr. Rowntree has constructed some stop-cocks weight is applied to take off the weight of the of the form shown, figs. 6 and 7, where À A are lid, as shown at Y, fig. 4; and within the lid is the flaunches for connecting the cock with the a smaller one of brass, which is fitted in the pipe, B a chamber, in the centre of which is a same manner; and which is removed to intro- spindle 4, passing through a stuffing box in the duce the thermometer or a gauge, for the purpose lid b, and having a handle c to turn it round. of ascertaining the quantity of liquor in the cop- Upon this spindla a sector of brass, d, is fixed, per, without the trouble of moving the great lid, and when turned about, it either closes or opens which is only opened to allow men to go into at pleasure the opening of the pipe. A piece of the copper to clean it, while the upper man hole, brass is screwed into the chamber, for the sector H, is only used to put in the hops. The copper to fit against, and they are ground together till is filled by a pipe from the liquor-back, as before- they are perfectly tight, by which means the mentioned. The pipe R, fig. 2, divides into two friction is inconsiderable. branches, each of which is provided with a sluice Fig. 8 represents an effectual substitute for a cock, mand n, just before the branches enter the cock in many parts of a brewery, particularly at pan from the recess X. The branch m delivers the bottom of the coolers or backs. A is a brass its contents into the pan, but n turns down, and valve seat, which has a conical valve a, exactly is soldered to the dome of the copper. The pan fitting the seat, and closing its aperture when can be emptied into the copper by two valves, shut. The seat is fixed down in the wooden pop, fig. 2, in the bottom of it, which are draws bottom of the back by small screws; and from by iron rods and levers reaching over into the the seat rises two iron bars, d, d, uniting at top, recess X.

and supporting a screw, which is turned round It is said that the first pan was placed over the by a handle, e. The shank b, of the valve copper, for the purpose of heating one liquor by a, has an opening through it, and above this the the other, by Mr. Goodwynde, about 1780; but screw is tapped into it. This opening receives the steam did not in this case pass through the a cross bar of the frame d, which, at the same water. About five years afterwards, Mr. Bramah time that it sustains the lower pivot of the screw, erected a copper at Harford's brewery, with a prevents the valve shank, b, from turning round dome and steam pipes, as in our plate, fig. 3, with the screw, which will raise or lower the except that the pipes F were hung by joints from valve at pleasure. the great central pipe, so as to rise and fall simi- Fig. 9 is another cock of Mr. Bramah's, called a lar to an umbrella; and, a float being attached to taster; to be put in a store rat for tasting the beer, the end of each pipe, the steam always passed It is a brass tube, A, with a shoulder, a, which is out under the same pressure of water, whether the only projection on the outside of the vat, and the pan was full or not, as the floats always kept is held in by a nut, b, screwed upon it on the the mouths of the pipes at the same depth be- inside of the stave, B, of the vat. In the end of neath the surface; at the same time, this depth the tube is a plug, c, ground and fitted in, and could be readily adjusted by altering the floats, having a hole in one side. The key, D, of the so as to increase or diminish at pleasure the pres- cock, which is bored through the shank, and also sure of the steam in the copper; a construction, through one of the ends of the cross handle, which having been found to succeed, is now being introduced into the cock, fits upon a square, common.

a triaugle, a circle, or any other figure, at the end In fig. 5, of plate II., is a sluice-cock, where AA of the plug; and when the key is turned round, is a cast-iron frame having two pillars B rising so that the handle is upright, the cock is open, from it, to support a frame C, which contains a and the beer will flow through the handle as a pinion for raising the rack a, and drawing the spout. This cock cannot be opened without a key. slider D, which stops the bore of the pipe. A Fig. 10 is Mr. Bramah's vent-peg, to be put fiat plate of cast iron is screwed against each into the head of a cask when the liquor is drawn side of the frame A, forming a thin box, in which off, in order to admit the proper quantity of air, the slider rises and falls. Each of these plates to allow the liquor to run. AA is a section of has a short pipe projecting from it, to con- the head of the cask, in which a taper screw, B, nect with the pipe, which the sluice is intended is placed for fastening the apparatus. The upper to shut up. One of these plates is ground flat, end of the screw is of large dimensions, and and the slider D is fitted and ground against it, turned out into a cup of a cylindrical form, with so as to slide freely, but to fit perfectly water a stud or pin rising up in the middle. A hole is tight. On the opposite side of the slider two drilled through the centre of the peg, to commusteel springs b b are bolted. The ends of these nicate with the interior of the cask at b. Tbe act against the other flat plate, in order to press cavity surrounding the stud being filled with the slider against its fitting, and keep it close. water, the cap or thimble, C, must be inverted, The slider Ď is connected with the rack by a and dropped into the rabbet, which is turned in emooth cylindrical iron rod attached to both, and the top of the peg. Small holes are drilled passing through a stuffing box in the top of the round in the cap at 1 and 2, to admit the air frame A, which is fitted so closely round it freely; and as the lower edge of the cup is imwith hemp, as to prevent the escape of any fluid mersed in the water round the stud, nearly to the by its sides. This kind of sluice-cock, of very bottom of the cup, the ingress or egress of the air general use in the brewery, is also the least ex- will be prevented, except when the pressure of pensive ;-an object worthy of attention, when the air is augmented by drawing the liquor out of the cask. It is very usefui to prevent the store the surfaces of the beer in all the tuns, and liquor in drawing becoming fat or vapid from also in the cistern t, to the original level. In exposure.

order to carry off the yeast which is produced by Fig. 1, plate III, is a representation of the the fermentation of the beer in the tuns 00, an beautiful and complete fermenting-house at the iron dish or vessel is made to float upon the surbrewery of Messrs. Whitbread and Co. Chiswell- face of the beer which they contain; and from street. It was erected after the plan of Mr. the centre of this dish a pipe, o, descends, and Richardson, who conducts the brewing depart- passes through the bottom of the tun, being ment of that celebrated establishment. R is the filled through a collar of leather, so as to be pipe which leads from the different coolers to tight, at the same time that it is at liberty to convey the wort to the great fermenting-vessels slide down as the surface of the beer descends in or squares M, of which there are two, one behind the tun. Over the edge of this dish the yeast the other; ff represents a part of the great pipe flows to a trough beneath, and is conveyed down which conveys all the water from the well up to the pipe. the water cistern at the top of the works. This Under the fermenting-house are noble arched pipe is conducted up the wall of the fermenting- vaults P, built of stone, and lined with stucco. house, and has a cock in it, near R, to stop the Into these the beer is let down when sufficiently passage. Just beneath this passage a branch- fermented, and is kept till wanted : being bepipe, p, proceeds and enters a large pipe rr, neath the surface of the earth they possess great which has the former pipe r, withinside of it. equality of temperature. From the end of the piper, nearest to the Figs. 2, and 3, are malt-rollers, or machinery squares M, another branch nn proceeds, and re- for bruising the malt. A is the hopper, into turns to the original pipe f, with a cock to regu- which the malt is let down from the malt-loft late it. The object of this arrangement is to above; and from this the malt is let out gradumake all, or any part of, the cold water flow ally through a sluice or sliding-shuttle a, and through the pipe rx, so as to surround the wort- falls between the rollers BD. These rollers are pipe r, which is only made of thin copper, and made of iron, truly cylindrical, and their pivots lower the temperature of the wort passing through are received in pieces of brass let into iron the pipe r, until, by the thermometer, it is found frames, which are bolted down to the wooden to have the exact temperature which is desirable, frame of the machine. A screw, E, is lapped before it is put to ferment in the great square M. through the end of each of these iron frames, By means of the cocks at n and p, the quantity and by these screws the brasses can be forced of cold water which shall pass in contact with the forwards, and the rollers made to work closer to surface of the pipe R, can be regulated at plea- each other, so as to bruise the malt in a greater sure, so as to have a command of the heat of the degree. G is the shaft by which one of the wort when it enters into the square. When the rollers is turned ; and the other receives its mofirst fermentation in the squares M is finished, tion by means of a pair of equal cog-wheels H, the beer is drawn off from them by pipes marked which are fixed upon the ends of the pivots, at v, and conducted by its branches, w, to the dif- the opposite ends of each of the rollers: d is a ferent rows of fermenting tuns marked NN, small lever, which bears upon the teeth of one which fill all the building. Between every two of these cog-wheels, and is thereby lifted up rows are placed large troughs, to contain the every time a cog passes. This lever is fixed on yeast which they throw off. The representation the extremity of an axis, which passes across the shows the small tuns all placed on a lower level wood frame; and in the middle of it has a lever than the bottom of the great vessels M, so that c, fig. 2, bearing up a troughb, which hangs the beer will flow into them, and, by standing in under the opening of the hopper A. By this them all, will fill them to the same level. When means the trough b is constantly jogged, and they are filled the communication-cock is shut; shakes down the malt regularly from the hopper but, as the working off of the yeast diminishes A, and lets it fall between the rollers: e is a the quantity of beer in each vessel, it is neces- scraper of iron plate, which is always made to sary to fill them up again. For this purpose, bear against the surface of the roller by a weight, the two large vats 0 0 are filled from the great to remove the grains which adhere to the roller. vessels M, before any beer is drawn off into the BREWIS. Ang.-Sax. briu; Teut. brosam ; small casks N, and this quantity of beer is re- Welsh brywes ; Scot. brose. See Broth. Bread served at the higher level for filling up. The soaked in fat potage; and also the potage itself, two vessels 00 are, in reality, placed between What an ocean of breuis shall I swim in! the two squares M, but we have been obliged to

Beaumont's and Fletcher's Dioclesian. place them so that they can be seen. Near each BREYNIA, in botany, a genus of class pofilling-up tun o is a cisternt, with a pipe of lygamia, order triæcia : Cal. six-parted : COR. communication from the tun 0, and this pipe is none: Anth. five : stig. five; berry three-celled : closed by a float-valve. The small cisterns t SEEDS two. Species only one. B. disticha, a have always a communication with the pipes, native of New South Wales. which lead to the small fermenting vessels N; BRIANCON, a noted town of France in the and therefore the surface of the beer in all the department of the Upper Alps, and ci-devant tuns and in the cisterns will always be at the province of Dauphiné. It has a fine bridge over same level; and, as this level subsides by the the Durance, 180 feet high, a strong castle on a working off of the yeast from the tuns, the float steep rock, and other defences. It lies seventeen sinks and opens the valve, so as to admit a suf- miles north-west of Embrun, and forty-five east of ficiencv of beer from the filling up tuns o, to re- Grenoble.

BRIANCONNOIS, a ci-devant territory of No bribery of courts, or cabals of factions, or adFrance, in Dauphiné, which was bounded by vantages of fortune, can remove him from the solid Grenoblois, Gapençois, Embrunois, Piedmont, foundations of honor and fidelity.

Id. and Savoy. It comprehends several valleys, How powerful are chaste vows ! the wind and tide which lie among the mountains of the Alps: You bribed to combat on the English side. Id. and though it is extremely cold, yet it is fertile

The secret pleasure of a generous act, in corn and pastures. Briançon is the capital Is the great mind's great bribe. Id. Don Sebastian. town. Manna is gathered near it, on the leaves Affection is still a briber of the judgment; and it and branches of a species of pine; incisions is hard for a man to admit a reason against the thing in it yield large quantities. The chief road he loves ; or to confess the force of an argument from France to Italy passes through it. It against an interest.

South is now comprehended in the department of the The great, 'tis true, can still the electing tribe ; Upper Alps.

The bard may supplicate, but cannot bribe. BRIAR EUS, in fabulous history, a giant, the

Prologue to Good-natured Man. son of Ether, Titan, or Cælus and Terra. This The kingdom's farm he lets to them bids least, was his name in heaven; on earth he was called (Greater the bribe) and cheats at interest. Marvell, Ægeon. He was of singular service to Jupiter, when Juno, Pallas, Neptune, and the rest of the

Bribe anciently imported as much as panis gods, endeavoured to bind him in chains and de- mendicatus, which still keeps up the idea of the throne him. Afterwards, however, he conspired matter whereof bribes anciently consisted. Hence with the rest of his gigantic brethren to dethrone also the Spaniards use bribar and brivar for begJupiter. Virgil, on this occasion, describes him ging; and hrivia, brivoneria and brivonissimo, as having 100 hands, fifty heads, and breathing for beggary. In authors of the middle age, a out fire. The fable says, that Jupiter, to punish bribe given a judge is called quato litis, and the him, threw him under mount Ætna, which, as receiver, campi particeps, or cambi particeps; often as he moves, belches out fire.

because the spoils of the field, i. e. the profits of BRIBE', v. & n.) Goth. bry ; Sax. bred

the cause, were thus shared with the giver. BRI'BING, (; that is a perverting

Bribery, in law, is a high offence, where a (; that is a per Bei'ber, (fee or gift, something

person in a judicial place takes any fee, gift, reBribery, added to the simple de

ward, or brokage, for doing his office, but of the mands of justice, with a view to influence its

king only. It signifies also the receiving or decisions; a boon to prevent honesty, given to

offering any undue reward to or by any person the worthless in high places; the sop, which

concerned in the administration of public justice, when a man takes, the devil enters into him,

whether judge, officer, &c. to act contrary to his and he is ready to betray his king, his country,

duty; and sometimes it signifies the taking or or his God. See Minutes of Evidence before

giving a reward for a public office.--In the east the House of Commons-Article Irisu MAGIS

it is the custom never to petition any superior TRACY. The Glossary to Chaucer, thus explains

for justice, not excepting their kings, without a this word, as used by the father of our tongue,

present. The Roman law, though it contained or in his time : ' Briborie,' says he,“ seems to

many severe injunctions against bribery, as well signify a thief; briben,' he adds, may mean to

for selling a man's vote in the senate or other decoy; while a bribe is probably what is given

public assembly, as for the bettering of common to a beggar ; what is given to an extortioner or

justice; yet, by a strange indulgence, it tacitly cheat.'

encouraged this practice, in one case; allowing

magistrates to receive small presents, provided Who saveth a thefe when the rope is knet,

they did not on the whole exceed 100 crowns With some false turne the bribour will him quite.

Lydg. 'Tra. 152. day

a-year; not considering the insinuating nature This sompnour, waiting ever on a day,

and gigantic progress of this vice, when once adRode forth to sompne a evidence, an oid ribibe mitted. Plato, therefore, in his ideal republic, Feining a cause, for he wold han a bribe.

orders those who take presents for doing their Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. duty to be punished in the severest manner; and And, for ther n'is no thefe without a louke, by the laws of Athens, he that offered a bribe That helpeth him to wasten, and to souke, was also prosecuted, as well as he that received Of that he briben can or borwe moy,

Id. a bribe. "In England this offence is punished, in You have condemned and noted Lucius Pella, inferior officers, with fine and imprisonment; For taking bribes here of the Sardians. Shakspeare. and in those that offer a bribe, though not taken,

There was a law made by the Romans, against the the same. But in judges, especially the supebribery and extortion of the governors of provinces : rior ones, it has always been looked upon as so before, says Cicero, the governours did bribe and ex. heinou

heinous an offence, that the chief justice Thorpe tort as much as was sufficient for themselves; but now they bribe and extort as much as may be enough

was hanged for it in the reign of Edward III. not only for themselves, but for judges, jurors, and

Se By a statute, 11 Henry IV. all judges and magistrates.


officers of the king, convicted of bribery, shall Nor less may Jupiter to gold ascribe,

forfeit treble the bribe, be punished at the king's When he turned himself into a bribe. Waller.

will, and be discharged from his service for ever. If a man be covetous, profits or bribes may put him

him And some notable examples have been made in te the test.

L'Estrange. parliament, of persons in the highest stations, There is joy when to wild will you laws prescribe, and otherwise very eminent and able, but conWhen you bid fortune carry back her bribe.

taminated with this sordid vice. Dryden. BRIBERY IN ELECTIONS. See ELECTIONS,

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