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covered at intervals upon it. Of this there are 1. One flowered (uniflora), that contains but the following kinds :
one flower; as Agrostis. 1. Sitting (sessilis), when all the flowers sit 2. Two flowered (biflora), having two flowers; close to the stem, without foot-stalk, as in the field as in Aira. mint. Mentha arvensis.
3. Three-flowered (triflora), &c. 2. With a foot-stalk (pedunculatus), when the 4. Many-flowered (multiflora), that contains flowers are furnished with short foot-stalks. many flowers.
3. Headed (capitatus), when the flowers stand 5. Round (teres), when the flowers in the spi. so thick that they take the figure of a half sphere cula are so placed that their horizontal section is as; Phlomis tuberosa.
round; as Glyceria fuitans, &c. 4. Half (dimidiatus), when the flowers sur- 6. Two ranked (disticha), when the flowers in round only the half of the stalk; as in balm, the spicula are placed in two opposite rows on Melissa officinalis.
the same level ; as in Cyperus. 5. Close (confertus), when one whirl stands 7. Ovate (ovata), when the outline of the spiclose above another.
cula resembles the figure of an egg ; as Bromus 6. Distant (distans), when the whirls stand at secalinus. a distance one from another.
8. Oblong (oblonga), when the outline of the 7. Leafy (foliosus), when there are leaves at spicula exhibits an ellipsis more or less perfect. the base of the whirl.
9. Linear (linearis), when the spicula is long 8. Leafless (aphyllus), when there are no leaves and small, but of equal breadth throughout. above the whirl.
211. The spike (spica) is that sort of inflores9. Bracteate (bracteatus), when there are floral cence when many flowers, without any foot-stalk, leaves, or bracteæ, at the whirl.
sit on a simple filiform principal flower-stalk. If 10. Ebracteate (ebracteatus), when there are there be a foot-stalk, it must be much shorter no bracteæ at the whirl.
than the flower. The kinds are, 11. Naked (nudus), when no leaves or brac- 1. Glomerate (glomerata), when the spike teæ stand near the whirl.
consists of a spherical selection of flowers. 12. Six, eight, ten, or many flowered (sex, 2. Interrupted (interrupta), when the flowers octo, decem, or multiflorus), when the whirl upon the spike are interrupted by naked interconsists of many flowers.
stices. 209. The head (capitulum), is a number of 3. Verticillated (verticillata), when the flowers, flowers standing thick upon one stalk, so as to leaving naked interstices on the spike, appear form a round head. The flowers have either foot- on that account to be placed in whirls. stalks, or sit close. The following are varieties 4. Imbricated (imbricata), when the flowers of this :
stand so thick together that one lies upon 1. Spherical (globosum, or sphæricum), when another. the flowers have a perfectly round form; as in 5. Distichous (disticha), when the flowers the Gomphrena globosa.
are arranged on the spike in two rows. 2. Roundish (subglobosum), when the head of 6. One-rowed (secunda), when the flowers flowers is nearly round, but where the length are all arranged on one side of the spike, so that exceeds the breadth; as in clover; Gomphrena the other side is naked. globosa.
7. Cylindrical (cylindrica), when the spike is 3. Conical (conicum), when the head is long, equally covered with flowers both above and bedrawing towards a point; as in Trifolium mon- low. tanum.
8. Linear (linearis), that is very slender, and of 4. Hemispherical (dimidiatum, or hemisphe- equal thickness. ricum), when the head is round on one side and 9. Ovate (ovata), that is thick above, more flat on the other.
slender below, and appears of an oval form. 5. Leafy (foliosum), when the head is sur 10. Ventricose (ventricosa), thick in the rounded with leaves.
· middle, and slender at both extremities. 6. Tufted (comosum), haring leaves at the 11. Leafy (foliosa), having leaves between the point; as Bromelia ananas.
flowers. 7. Naked (nudum), when it is devoid of leaves. 12. Comose (comosa), having leaves at the
8. Standing on the point (terminale), when it apex. stands on the top of the stem.
13. Fringed (ciliata), having hairs between the 9. Axillary (axillare), standing on the angles flowers. of the leaves, that is, where the base of the leaf, 14. Simple (simplex), without branches. or of the leaf-stalk, is placed.
15. Branched or compound (ramosa, or com10. Alar (alaris), sitting on the axillæ of the posita), when several spikes stand on one branched branches.
or divided stalk. 210. The ear (spicula or locusta), is either 16. Conjugate (conjugata), when two spikes named from the flowers of the grasses enclosed standing on one stalk unite at the base. in the glume; or we understand by it also, the 17. Bundled (fasciculata), when several spikes flowers of the gramineous plants, such as cyperus, standing on one foot-stalk unite at the base. scirpus sylvaticus, &c., which stand closely 18. Terminal (terminalis), standing on the pressed together on a filiform flower-stalk, It is apex of the stalk or branch. denominated according to the number of the 19. Axillary (axillaris), standing in the angles flowers and their figures. The following are the at the origin of the leaves. kinds of it:
20. Lateral (lateralis), standing on the wood of the former year, that is, on the place now des- 215. The cyme (cyma) is that species of intitute of leaves.
florescence where the whole at first view has the 212. The Raceme (racemus) is that sort of appearance of a compound umbel, only the inflorescence to which several pedunculated principal flower-stalk and those which support flowers are longitudinally attached, nearly of the particular florets do not rise from the same equal length, or at least where the lowest flower- point. The flower-stalks rise close above one stalks are little longer than the upper. Here fol- another and are divided into irregular branches. low the different kinds of Raceme;
Examples of the cyme are found in Sambucus 1. One-sided (unilateralis), when only one nigra, and Viburnum opulus. side of the stem is set with flowers.
216. The corymb (corymbus) is properly 2. One-rowed (secundus) when the flower-stalks speaking an erect racemus, the lower flowerare situated round the principal stem, but the stalks of which are either branched or simple, but flowers themselves are directed only to one side. always so much produced as to be of equal height
3. Limber (laxus), when the raceme is very with the uppermost. pliant and Alexible.
217. The panicle (panicula) consists of a 4. Stiff (strictus) when the raceme does not number of simple flowers that stand on unequally bend.
divided branches, and on a long peduncle. The 5. Simple (simplex), when it is unbranched. kinds are,
6. Compound (compositus), when several 1. Simple (simplex), that has only undivided single racemes unite on one stem.
side branches. 7. Conjugate (conjugatus), when two racemes, 2. Branched (ramosa), when the branches are standing on one stem, unite at the base.
again branched. 8. Naked (nudus), without leaves or bracteæ. 3. Much branched (ramosissima), when the 9. Foliate (foliatus), set with leaves or bracteæ. side branches are much divided.
10. Bracteate (bracteatus), when there are 4. Disappearing (deliquescens), when the bracteæ at the flowers.
foot-stalk so loses in branching that it cannot be 11. Ebracteate (ebracteatus) having no bracteæ. traced to the end. 12. Erect (erectus), standing upright.
5. Spreading (patentissima), when the branches 13. Straight (rectus), straight without bending. stand wide from one another, and spread out on
14. Cernuous (cernuus), when the apex of all sides. the raceme is bent downwards.
6. Crowded (coarctata), when the branches 15. Nodding (nutans), when the half of the stand very close together. raceme is bent downwards.
7. One-rowed (secunda), when the branches 16. Hanging (pendulus), when the raceme incline all to one side. hangs down perpendicularly.
218. The Thyrse (thyrsus) is a condensed 213. The Fascicle or bundle (fasciculus) is a panicle, whose branches are so thick that the number of simple foot-stalks, of equal height, whole has an oval form ; as in the flower of the which arise at the point of the stem, not from one privet, Ligustrum vulgare, Tussilago petasites. point, but from several. As an example of the 219. The Spadix is peculiar to the palms, and fasciculus may be quoted Dianthus carthusian- some plants allied to the genus Arum. All orum.
flower-stalks that are contained in a vagina, are 214. The umbel (umbella) consists of a num- called Spadix. - This organ is sometimes found ber of flower-stalks, of equal length, that rise like a spike, racemus, or panicle, and from these from the point. In an umbel the flower-stalks it takes its name. are called rays (radii). There are the following The terms appropriated to it are the following: varieties of the umbel.
1. Spiked (spicatus), having the appearance 1. Simple (simplex), when the rays bear but of a spíke. * one flower.
2. Raceme-like (racemosus), forming a ra2. Compound (composita), when each ray of ceme. the umbel' supports a simple umbel. The rays 3. Paniculated (paniculata), having the form of which support the simple umbels are called the a panicle. universal or general umbel, umbella universalis. 220. The Catkin (amentum, or julus,) is a long The simple umbels are called the particular or and always simple stem, which is thickly covered partial umbels, umbella partialis or umbellula with scales, under which are the flowers, or their
3. Sitting (sessilis); when the umbel has no essential parts. stalk.
Examples of this are found in the willows (sa4. Pedunculated (pedunculata), when it is lices), hazle (Corylus avellana), hornbeam (carfurnished with a stalk.
pinus), &c. 5. Close (conferta), when the rays of the um- ' 1. Cylindrical (cylindricum), which is equally bel stand so near one to another that the whole thick above or below. umbel becomes very thick and close.
2. Attenuated (attenuatum), which grows 6. Distant (rara), when the rays stand wide. thinner and thinner to the point.
7. Poor (depauperata), when the umbel has 3. Slender (gracile), which is long but has few but few flowers.
scales, and also is slender in proportion to its 8. Convex (convexa), when the middle rays length. are high but stand thick, so that the whole form 4. Ovate (ovatum) which is thick below and a globular figure.
around, but grows gradually more slender to the 9. Flat (plana), when the rays being of equal point. length, the flowers form a flat surface.
221. The accessory leaves of the inflorescence are the bracteæ, of which the spatha, and the 12. Spherical (globosum), when it has the involucrum are varieties.
form of a perfect sphere. 222. The bracteæ are small leaves, placed 13. Hemispherical (hemisphæricum), when it above the articulation of the inflorescence, near is round below and fiat above. or between the flowers, and in general are of a 14. Cylindrical (cylindricum), when the pedifferent shape and color from the other leaves. rianth is round and long, as thick above as They are subject to many variations of figure, below. duration, &c.; the terms to express which are 15. Flat (planum), when the foliola of the pethe same as are applied to leaves under similar rianth are spread out quite flat. circumstances.
16. Doubled or calyculated (auctum or caly223. The spatha and the involucrum differ culatum), when at the base of the common pefrom bracteæ in being situated immediately below rianth there is another row of foliola, that appear the articulation of the inflorescence with the to form another involucrum ; as in dandelion, plant. They are both subject to several varia- Leontodon Taraxacum. tions of form, which are designated by particular 227. The Flower is the part immediately ternames.
minating the twigs or branches of the inflores224. The spatha is,
cence, and containing the commencement of the
fruit. Its parts are the Calyr, the Corolla, the 1. Univalve (univalvis) when it consists but Stamens, and the Pistillum; besides which must of one leaf; as in Arum maculatum.
be noticed the Discus. 2. Bivalve (bivalvis) when two leaves stand 228. When the calyx and corolla are so conopposite each other, as in Stratiotes.
founded as not to be capable of being distin3. Halved (dimidiata) when the flowers are guished they are called perianthium; as in Bucovered on one side only.
tomus. 4. Permanent (persistens) when it remains 229. The calyx immediately encloses the flower. unchanged till the fruit appears. .
It is, 225. The involucrum consists of several leaves, 1. Abiding (persistens), remaining after the surrounding one or several flowers. It is chiefly flower falls off; as in the hen bane, Hyoscyaknown in umbelliferous plants, and in compound mus piger. flowers. In the former the terms employed do 2. Deciduous (deciduus, that falls off at the not differ from those used for other parts of a same time with the flower; as in the lime tree, plant; in the latter it is altogether of another Tilia Europæa. kind, and requires a particular description. 3. Withering (marcescens), that withers after
226. The common calyx, common perian- "the flower, but still remains for some time, and thium, or anthodium, as it is sometimes called, at last drops off; as in the apricot, Prunus Aris an involucrum, which contains a great number meniaca. of flowers, in such a manner as that these flowers 4. Caducous (caducus), that falls off before appear to form but one; as in the dandelion the flower; as in the poppy, Papaver somni(Leontodon taraxacum), blue bottle (Centaurea ferum. cyanus), sun flower (Helianthus annuus, &c. 5. Simple (simplex). The kinds are,
6. Double (duplex), when a double calyx 1. Ope leaved (monophyllum), that consists encloses the flower; as the strawberry, Fragaria but of one leaf, united at the base, but divided vesca; mallow, Malva rotundifolia. at top.
7. One leafed (monophyllus), when the calyx 2. Many leaved (polyphyllum), that is com- consists of one leaf, that is, it may be dirided pounded of several leaves.
into equal or unequal laciniæ, but all of them 3. Simple (simplex), when the flowers are sur- are connected at the base. rounded with a single row of leaves.
8. Two, three, four, five-leaved, di-tu-ri-tetra4. Equal (æquale), when in a simple periaath penta-&c. phyllus, many leaved (polyphyllus), the leaves are of equal length.
when it consists of two or more foliola. 5. Scaly or imbricated (squamosum or imbri- 9. Dentated (dentatus), when it has at the catum), when the common perianth consists of wargin short segments or indentations, but closely imbricated foliola.
which are not deeper at most than the fourth 6. Squamose (squamosum), when the foliola part of the whole calyx. According to the are bent back at the point.
number of these segments the calyx is, bi, tri, 7. Scariose (scariosum), when the foliola are quadri, quinque, &c. or multidentatus, with hard and dry ; this is found in Centaurea glasti- two, three, four, five, or many segments. folia.
10. Cleft (fiszus), when the calyx is divided 8. Fringed (ciliatum), when the margins of into laciniae, but which reach only to the middle. the foliola are beset with short bristles of equal It is often bi-tri-quadri-multifidus. length.
11. Parted (partitus), when it is divided down 9. Muricated (muricatum), when the mar- to the base. These divisions are also named acgins of the foliola are set with short stiff cording to their number, as bi-tri-quadri-&c. prickles.
multipartitus. 10. Thorny (spinosum), when each leafet is 12. Labiated or bilabiated (labiatus or bilaprovided with a thorn: these are either simple biatus), when it is deeply divided into two lacithorns (spinæ simplices), or branched (ramosæ). nice, both of which are dentated; as in garden
11. Turbinated (turbinatum), when the peri- sage, Salvia officinalis. anth has quite the figure of a top.
13. Entire (integer), when a monophyllus ca
lyx is short, round at the base, and entire on the going, only the tubc is very short; as in shepmargin.
herd's club, Verbascum. 14. Urceolated (urceolatus), when a mono- 10. Tongue-shaped (ligulata), when the tube phyllous calyx is short, round at the base, and is not long, suddenly ceases, and ends in an obentire on the margin.
long expansion; as in the Aristolochia clematitis, 15. Shut (clausus), when a polyphyllous, or and in some flowers that are contained in a comdivided calyx, applies itself closely to the co- mon perianthium. rolla.
11. Difform (difformis), when the tube gra16. Tubular (tubulosus), when a divided, dually becomes wider above, and is divided into cleft, or indented calyx, at its origin is cylindri- unequal lobes; as in some corollas that are cal, and forms a tube.
included in a common perianthium, e. g. the 17. Spreading (patens), when, in a mono- blue bottle, Centaurea cyanus. phyllous or polyphyllous calyx, the foliola or 1 2. Ringent (ringens), when the margin of a laciniae, stand quite open.
tubular corolla is divided into two parts, of 18. Reflected (reflexus), when either the seg- which the upper part is arched, the under oblong, ments, or laciniae in monophyllous calyxes, or and has some resemblance to the open mouth of the foliola in polyphyllous, are bent back. an animal; as in sage, Salvia officinalis.
19. Inflated inflatus), when the calyx is 13. Masked (personata), when both segments hollow, and bellies out.
of the ringent flower are closely pressed together; 20. Abbreviated (abbreviatus), when the calyx as in snap-dragon, Antirrhinum majus. is much shorter than the corolla.
14. Bilabiate (bilabiata), when the corolla has 21. Colored (coloratus), when the calyx is two segments or lips, which lie over against each of another color than green.
other, and which are themselves often laciniated 230, The corolla is the envelope, or small or cleft. leaves enclosed by the calyx, surrounding the 15. One-lipped (unilabiata), when in a ringent, interior parts of the flower, of a more delicate personate, &c. corolla, the upper or under lip is structure than the calyx, and of another color wanting, as in Teucrium. zhan green. It consists either of one piece or of 232. The kinds of the many-petalled corolla several ; the first called a monopetalous corolla (corolla polypetala) are, (corolla monopetala), the last polypetalous (cor- 1. Rose-like (rosacea), when petals which are olla polypetala). The pieces it consists of are pretty round, and at their base have no unguis, called petals (petala).
form a corolla. 231. The monopetalous corolla is that which 2. Mallow-like (malvacea), when five petals, consists but of one piece, which, however, may which at the base are considerably attenuated, so be divided into segments, but which must always unite below that they appear to be monopetalous. be entire at the base. The following are vari- 3. Cross-like (cruciata), when four petals, eties of this corolla :
which are very much produced at their base, 1. Tubular (lubulosa), that consists of a single stand opposite to one another; as in Sinapis alba, piece, hollow and of equal thickness. The small Brassica oleracea, viridis, &c. corolla or foret, which is found included in a 4. Pink (caryophyllacea), when five petals at common perianthium, is also called tubular, their base are much elongated, and stand in a although it sometimes departs from this form. monophyllous calyx; as in Dianthus caryophyl
2. Club-shaped (clavata), which forms a tube, lus, &c. growing gradually wider upwards, and narrower 5. Lily-like (liliacea), wher there are six at the aperture.
petals, but no calyx. In some there are only 3. Spherical (globosa), which is narrow above three, in others they form a tube at the bottom. and below, and wide in the middle.
This makes the idea somewhat indefinite, but it 4. Bell-shaped (campanulata), that grows gra- ought to be remarked that this kind of corolla dually wider to the mouth, so that it has nearly never has a calyx, and that it is only proper to the appearance of a bell.
the lilies. 5. Cup-shaped (cyathiformis), when a cylin 6. Two, three, four, five, many petalled (didrical tube grows gradually wider from below tri-tetra-penta-&c. polypetala), thus the corolla upwards, but the margin is upright, and not bent is denominated, according to the number of the back or contracted.
petals. 6. Urceolated (urceolata), when a short cylin 7. Papilionaceous (papilionacea), when four drical tube extends itself into a wide surface, petals differing in figure stand together; to these the margin of which is erect.
petals the following names have been given (for 7. Funnel-shaped (infundibuliformis), when instances, examine the flowers of the common the tube of the corolla grows gradually wide, pea, pisum sativum, or vetch, vicia sativa): above that is obversely conical, but the rim pretty a. The standard (vexillum) is the uppermost flat and turned outwards.
petal, which is commonly the largest, and is 8. Salver-shaped (hypocrateriformis), when the somewhat concave. tube of the corolla is perfectly cylindrical, but b. The two wings (alæ) are the two petals, very long, and the rim forms a broad expansion; which stand under the vexillum, and opposite to as in Phlox.
each other on each side. 9. Wheel-shaped (rotata), when a cylindricalc. The keel (carina) is the undermost petal ; tube is very short, nearly shorter than the calyx, it is hollow, and stands under the vexillum, and sometimes hardly perceptible, and its margin is opposite to it, and contains the ovary, with quite flat. It is almost thc sanie with the fore- the stamina and pistillum.
8. Orchideous (orchidea), is a corolla, com- 7. Loose (liberum), that is not attached to posed of five petals, of which the undermost is any other filament. long, and sometimes cleft; the other four are 8. Connate (connatum), when several grow arched, and bent towards one another.
together, forming a cylinder; as in the mallow, 9. Irregular (irregularis), consisting of four or Malva. inore petals, which are of different lengths and 9. Bifid (bifidum), when a filament is divided inclination, so that they do not come under the into two parts. description of the other kinds.
10. Multifid, or branched (multifidum or ram 233. A single division of the corolla, as we osum), when it is divided into many branches ; have observed, is called a petal (petalum); when as in Carolinea princeps. this is plain the upper part is called lamina, the 11. Jointed (articulatum), when the filament under part unguis.
has a moveable joint; as in sage, Salvia officinalis. 234. The particular parts of the corolla hare 12. Connivent (connivens), when several besides appropriate names. The following are filaments bend towards one another at their those of the monopetalous corolla :
points. 1. The tube (tubus) of a monopetalous corolla 13. Incurved (incurvum), that has a bend like is the under part, which is hollow, and in gene- a bow. ral of equal" thickness. All flowers with this 14. Declined (declinatum), when several filakind of corolla have a tube, except the bell- ments do not stand erect, but by degrees, without shaped, and sometimes the wheel-shaped. describing a large curve, bend towards the upper
2. The border (limbus), is the opening of the or under part of the flower; as in Pyrola. corolla,' especially when it is bent back. The 15. Hairy (pilosum), set with fine hairs. limbus is often dentated or deeply divided, and 16. Equal (æquale), that are all of equal the divisions are called
length. 3. Segments or lobes (laciniæ or lobi), and 17. Unequal (inæquale), when some are long they are denominated according to their figure, and some short. number, and situation.
237. The anther (anthera), is a hollow cellu4. The helmet (galea) is the upper arched lar body, that contains a quantity of pollen. Its lacinia of a ringent or masked corolla, which is kinds are the following: further denominated according to its situation, 1. Oblong (oblonga), which is long and pointfigure, and segments or laciniæ.
ed at both ends. 5. The gape (rictus) is, in ringent flowers, the 2. Linear (linearis), that is long and flat, but space between the two extremities of the helmet all of equal breadth. and the under lip.
3. Spherical (globosa), when perfectly round. 6. The throat (faux), in a monopetalous and 4. Kidney-shaped (reniformis), that is spheriringent corolla, is the opening of the tube. cal on one side, but concave on the other; as in
7. The palate (palatum), in a personate co- ground ivy, Glechoma hederacea, fox-glove, Digirolla, is the arch of the under lip, which is so talis purpurea, &c. elevated as to close the faux.
5. Doubled (didyma), when two seem to be 8. The labellum is the under lip of a ringent joined together. and personate corolla.
6. Arrow-shaped (sagittata), that has a long 9. The lips (labia), in the bilabiate and uni- point, and is cleft at the base into two parts. labiate flowers, are two divisions, the one 7. Bifid (bifida), that is linear, but cleft abore called the upper lip (labium superius), and the and below, as in the grasses. other the under lip (labium inferius). The 8. Peltated (peltata), that is circular, flat on galea and labellum are likewise by some botan- both sides, and attached by the middle to the ists called lips.
filament; as in the yew, Taxus baccata. 235. The stamens are the male organs of the 9. Dentated (dentata), that on the margin has plant, and are seated between the corolla and dents or indentations; as in the yew, Taxus bacthe ovarium. Their parts are three; the filament, cata. the anther, and the pollen.
10. Hairy (pilosa), that is covered with hair; 236. The filament (filamentum) is a longish as in the dead nettle, Lamium album. body, that is destined for the support and ele- 11. Two-horned (bicornis), which has at its vation of the anther. In its figure it is very apex two subulate prolongations, as in Pyrola, yarious.
Arbutus, Erica, &c. 1. Capillary (capillare), that is all of equal 12. Awned (aristata), that at the base has two thickness, and as fine as a hair.
bristle-shaped appendages, as in Erica. 2. Filiform (filiforme), like the former, only 13, Crested (cristata), when two cartilaginous thicker.
points are set on the sides or on the base; as in 3. Awl-shaped (subulatum), which is thicker some heaths, Ericæ. below than above.
14. Awnless (mutica), when it has neither 4. Dilated (dilatatum), that is so compressed awn nor crest. It is the opposite of No. 12, 13. on the sides as to appear broad and leaf-like. 15. Angulated (angulata), that has several
5. Heart-shaped (cordatum), the same with deep furrows that form four or more angles. the foregoing, but with a margin above and 16. Bilocular (bilocularis), when the anther is pointed below; as in Mahernia.
divided by a partition into two parts or cells. 6. Wedge-shaped (cuneiforme), a dilated fila- 17. Unilocular (unilocularis), when there is ment, that is pointed below, but cleft above; as but one cell or cavity in the anther. in Lotus tetragonulobus.
18. Bursting at the side (latere dehiscens.)