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bearing a number of leaves from which comes a new 12. Cleft (fissum), when there is a cleft at the plant; as Ajuga reptans, Hieracium pilosella. point, extending half way down the leaf. When

198. The FOLIAGE consists of the leaves, and there is but one cleft at the point, the leaf is their several parts, with the tendrils or other ap- called bifid (folium bifidum); if there are two pendages connected therewith. The leaves are clefts, it is called trifid (trifidum); if there are the organs in which the juices of the plant are more clefts, the leaf is called quadrifidum, elaborated, and rendered fit for being returned quinquefidum, &c. multifidum, with many into the system, through the descending vessels clefts. of the bark, and the radiating vessels of the 13. Fan-shaped (flabelliforme), when a trunwood. They begin where the primordial scales cated cuneiform leaf is at the point once or at the base of the plant, if any, terminate; and oftener cleft. they cease to be considered leaves as soon as 14. Tridentated (tridentatum), when the point the inflorescence (inflorescentia) commences ; if is truncated, and has three indentations. situated among the inflorescence they are denominated bracteæ.

In respect of the base. 199. The leaf is divided into three distinct 15. Heart-shaped (cordatum), when the base parts : the stipulæ, the petiole, the lamina i s divided into two round lobes, the anterior part

200. The stipulæ are minute scale-like ap- of the leaf being ovate. pendages, seated at the base of the common or 16. Kidney-shaped (reniforme), when the partial petiole; occasionally they are foliaceous; base is divided into two round separate lobes, their position is liable to slight variation, being and the anterior part of the leaf is round. sometimes at the base of the petiole, sometimes 17. Moon-shaped (lunatum), when both lobes adnate with its margin, and occasionally placed at the base have either a straight or somewhat on the side of the stem opposite to the petiole. arched line, and the anterior part of the leaf is The stipulæ are to the leaf, what the bracteæ are round. to the flowers.

18. Unequal (inæquale), when one side of 201. The petiole is the foot-stalk of the leaf, the leaf is more produced than the other. and is subject to nearly the same variations in 19. Arrow-shaped (sagittatum), when the base form as the stem; the terms applied to which, is divided into two projected pointed lobes, are cqually applicable to the petiole.

and the anterior part of the leaf is likewise 202. The lamina is a term used to express the pointed. leaf itself, considered without reference to the 20. Spear-shaped (hastatum), when the two petiole or stipulæ.

pointed lobes of the base are bent outwards. Leaves are said to be simple when they consist 21. Ear-shaped (auriculatum), when there are of one lamina only; and to be compound, when at the base two small round lobes bent outwards. they are formed by the union of morc laminæ It is nearly the hastate leaf, only the lobes are than one. The following are the terms employed smaller and round. in speaking of leaves.

In respect of circumference.
A. SIMPLE LEAVES.

22. Orbicular (orbiculatum), when the diameter In respect of the aper.

of the leaf on all sides is equal. A leaf is said to be :

23. Roundish (subrotundum), differs little 1. Acute (acutum), when the leaf ends in a from the foregoing, only that the diameter is point.

longer, either from the base to the apex, or from 2. Acuminated (acuminatum), when the point side to side. is lengthened out.

24. Ovate (ovatum), a leaf which is longer 3. Pointed (cuspidatum), when the lengthened- than it is broad; the base is round and broadest, out point ends in a small bristle.

the apex narrowest. 4. Obtuse (obtusum), when the end of the 25. Oval or elliptical (ovale or ellipticum) a leaf is blunt or round.

leaf whose length is greater than its breadth, but 5. Mucronate (mucronatum), when there is a round both at base and apex. bristle-shaped aculeus, situated on the round end 26. Oblong (oblongum), when the breadth of a leaf; as in the Amaranthus blitum.

to the length is as one to three, or the breadth 6. Bitten (præmorsum), when the leaf is as it always least; but the apex and base vary, that were bitten off at the point, forming a curved is, they are sometimes obtuse, sometimes line; as in the Pavonia præmorsa.

pointed. 7. Truncated (truncatum), when the point of 27. Parabolic (parabolicum), a leaf is so the leaf is cut across by a straight line; as in the called which is round at the base, then forms a Liriodendron tulipifera.

small bend, and grows less towards the point. 8. Wedge-shaped (cuneiforme), when a trun- 28. Spatulate (spatulatum), when the fore part cated leaf is pointed on both sides at the of a leaf is circular, growing smaller toward the base.

base, as in the cucubalus otites. 9. Dedaleous (dædaleum), when the point 29. Rhombic (rhombeum), when the sides of has a large circuit, but is truncated and ragged. the leaf run out into an angle, so that the leaf

10. Emarginated (emarginatum), when an represents a square. obtuse pointed leaf has a part as it were taken 30. Oblique (subdimidiatum), is that leaf out of the apex.

which has one side broader than the other. 11. Retuse (retusum), when an obtuse leaf is of this leaf there are several varieties : as soinewhat emarginated, but in a small degree. a. Heart-shaped oblique (sub-dimidiatio-cordatum) a heart-shaped leaf, which is at the same

In respect of the margin. time oblique, as in the Begonia nitida. b. Trapeziform (tra peziforme), a rhombic leaf,

51. Quite entire (integerrimun), when the with one side smaller than the other, &c.

margin is without either notch or indentation. 31. Panduræform (panduræforme), when an

N. this, No. 50 and No. 40, are often confoundoblong leaf has a deep curve on both sides.

ed. An entire leaf is merely the opposite of the 32. Sword-shaped" (ensiforme), an oblong

numbers from 40 and 41 to 49. It may often

8 leaf, growing gradually narrower towards the

be either dentated or serrated. A quite entire apex, which is pointed, the sides are flat, and

leaf may, indeed, be formed like numbers from have more or less of an arch-like form; as in the

41 to 17, but it can have no indentations or sersword flag, Iris.

ratures, as in the following leaves : 33. Lanceolate (lanceolatum), an oblong leaf

52. Cartilagineous (cartilagineum), when the which grows gradually narrower from the base to

margin consists of a border of a harder substance the point.

than the disk. 34. Linear (lineare), when both sides of a leaf

53. Undulated (undulatum), when the margin run parallel to each other, so that it is equally

is alternately bent in and out. broad at the base and the apex.

54. Crenated (crenatum), when the margin is 35. Capillary capillare), when a leaf has

set with small and round notches, having at the scarcely any breadth, and is as fine as a thread

same time a perpendicular position. or hair.

55. Repand (repandum), when there are on 36. Awl-shaped (subulatum), a linear leaf,

the margin small sinuses, and between them segwhich is sharply pointed.

ments of a small circle. 37. Needle-shaped (acerosum), a linear leaf

56. Toothed (dentatum), when the margin is

set round with small pointed and distinctly sepathat is rigid, and generally endures through the winter; as in the pine tribe, Pinus.

rated teeth. 38. Triangular (triangulare), when the circum-.

57. Duplicato-dentate (duplicato-dentatum), ference represents a triangle, the apex of which

on when each small tooth of the margin is again makes the point of the leaf; as in the birch,

dentated; as in the elm, Ulmus campestris. Betula alba.

58. Dentato-crenate (dentato-crenatum), when 39. Quadrangular, quinquangular (quadrangu

each tooth is set with small and round denticuli. lare, quinquangulare), when the circumference of

59. Serrated (serratum), when the teeth on the the leaf has four or five angles; as in the Menis

margin are very sharp pointed, and stand so permum Canadense.

close that one seems to lie on the back of another. 40. Intire (integrum, indivisum), which is not

60. Gnawed (erosum), when the margin is at all clest or divided.

unequally sinuated, as if it had been gnawed; as 41. Lobed (lobatum), when a leaf is deeply id some species of sage, Salvia. divided, nearly half its length, into lobes. Ac

61. Spiny (spinosum), when the margin is set cording to the number of lobes it is denominated

minated with spines; as in the thistle, Carduus. bi-lobed (bi-lobum), as in Bauhinia; tri-lobed

d 62. Fringed (ciliatum), when the margin is set (tri-lobum), quinquelobed (quinquelobum), as in round with strong hairs, of equal length, and at the hop, Humulus lupulus, &c.

a considerable distance from one another. 42. Palmated (palmatum), when there are five or seven very long lobes, that is, when the seg

In respect of their surface. ments are more than half way divided.

03. Aculeated (aculeatum), when the surface 43. Divided (partitum), when in a roundish is covered with spines. leaf the division extends to the base ; Ranunculus 64. Hollow (concavum), when there is a holaquatilis.

low in the middle of the leaf. 44. Two-ranked (dichotomum), the last leaf, 65. Channelled (canaliculatum), when the midwhose linear sections are divided or subdivided dle rib of a long and narrow leaf is furrowed. into twos.

66. Wrinkled (rugosum), when the surface is 45. Torn (laciniatum), when an oblong leaf raised between the veins of the leaf, and thus has several irregular clefts.

forms wrinkles; as in sage, Salvia. 46. Sinuated (sinuatum), when on the sides ::. Bullate (bullatum), when the parts raised of an oblong leaf there are round incisures, as in between the veins on the surface appear like the oak, Quercus robur.

blisters. 47. Pinnatifid (pinnatifidum), when there are 68. Pitted (lacunosum), when the raised regular incisures, to go almost to the middle rib. places between the veins are on the under sur

48. Lyre-shaped (lyratum), nearly the fore- face, so that the upper surface appears pitted, going leaf, whose outer segment is very large 69. Curled (crispum), when the leaf is fuller and round.

on the margin than in the middle, so that it 49. Runcinate (runcinatum), when the incis- must lie in regular folds. ures of a pinnatifid leaf are pointed, and form 70. Folded (plicatum), when the leaf lies in a curve behind, as in the dandelion, Leontodon regular straight folds from the base. taraxacum.

71. Veined (venosum), when the vessels of a 50. Squarroso-laciniate (squarroso-laciniatum), leaf rise out of the middle rib. This is the case when the leaf is cut almost into the middle rib, in most plants. and the incisures run in every direction; as in the 72. Netwise-veined (reticulato-venosum), when thistle, Carduus lanceolatus. N. the contour of the veins which rise from the middle rib again the leaves from No. 41 to 43 is round. From subdivide into hranches, that form a sort of 44 10 49 it is oblong.

net-work.

73, Ribbed (costatum), when the veins arise 92. Bigeminate (bigeminatum, bigeminum), out of the middle, and proceed in a straight line when a divided leaf-stalk at each point bears two towards the margin in considerable numbers, and leaves; as in some species of Mimosa. close together; as in the Calophyllum inophyl- 93. Trigeminate (trigeminatum or tergemilum, Canna, Musa, &c.

num), when a divided leaf-stalk on each point 74. Nerved (nervosum), when the vessels bears two leaves, and on the principal stalk, rising out of the petiolus run from the base to where it divides, there is a leaf at each side; as the apex.

in the Mimosa tergemina. 75. Three-nerved (trinervium), when three 94. Ternate (ternatum), when three leaves are nerves take their origin from the base. Thus supported by one foot-stalk; as in the clover, we likewise say, quinquenervium, septempervi. Trifolium pratense. Strawberry, fragaria vesca. um, &c.

95. Biternate (biternatum, or duplicato-terna76. Triple-nerved (triplinervium), when out tum), when a foot-stalk, which separates into of the side of the middle rib, above the base, three, at each point bears three leaves. there arises a nerve running towards the point ; 96. Triternate (triternatum, or triplicato-teras in Laurus, Cinnamomum, and Camphora. natum), when a foot-stalk, which separates into

77. Quintuple-nerved (quintuplinervium), three, is again divide at each point into three, and when out of the middle rib, above the base, there on each of these nine points bears three leaves. arise on each side two nerves running towards 97. Quadrinate (quadrinatum), when four the point.

leaves stand on the point of a leaf-stalk; as He78. Septuple-nerved (septuplinervium), when dysarum tetraphylium. on each side of the middle rib, above the base, 98. Quinate (quinatum), when five leaves are three nerves arise, and proceed to the apex. supported by one foot-stalk : this, it is true, has

79. Venose-nerved (venoso-nervosum), when, some affinity with No. 89, but varies on account in a leaf havirg nerves, the vessels run into of the number five, as in the other there are gebranches, or in a veined leaf; as in the Indian nerally more leaves. cress, Tropæolum majus.

99. Umbellate (umbellatum), when at the 80. Streaked (lineatum), when the whole leaf point of a leaf-stalk there stand a number of is full of smooth parallel vessels, that run from leaves, closely set, and forming the figure of a the base to the apex,

parasol; as Aralia sciodaphyllum, Panax chry81. Nerveless (enervium), when no nerves rise sophyllum. from the base.

100. Pedate (pedatum, ramosum), when a 82. Veinless (avenium), where there are no veins. leaf-stalk is divided, and in the middle, where it

83. Dotted (punctatum), when, instead of divides, there is a leafet, at both ends there is ribs and veins, there are dots or points; as in likewise a leafet, and on each side, between the the Vaccinium vitis idaea.

one in the middle and that at the end, another 84, Colored (coloratum), a leaf of some other or two, or even three leaves. Such a leaf therecolor than green.

fore consists of five, seven, or nine leafets, that 85. Cowled (cucullatum), when in a heart- are all inserted on one side; as in the Helleborus shaped leaf the lobes are bent towards each viridis, fætidus, and niger. other, so as to have the appearance of a cowl. 101. Pinnated (pinnatum), where on an undi

86. Convex (convexum), when the middle of vided leaf-stalk there is a series of leafets on each. the leaf is thicker than the rim, raised on the side, and on the same plane; of this there are upper surface and hollowed on the under. the following kinds : a. Abruptly-pinnated (pari

87. Keel-shaped (carinatum), when on the pinnatum, or abrupte pinnatum), when at the under surface of a linear-lanceolate, or oblong apex of a pinnated leaf there is no leafet. leaf, the place of the middle rib is formed like B. Pinnate with an odd one (impari-pinnatum, the keel of a ship.

or pinnatum cum impari), when at the apex of a 88. Quadruply-keeled (quadricarinatum), when pinnated leaf there is a leafet. the middle rib, by means of a thin leaf above and y. Oppositely pinnate (opposite pinnatum), below, projects, and the margin is incrassated, when the leafets on a pinnated leaf stand opposo that a horizontal section has the appearance of site to one another. a cross; as Ixia cruciata.

o. Alternately pinnate (alternatim pir natum),

when the leafets on a pinnated leaf stand alterB. Compound Leaves.

nately. 89. Compound (compositum), when several &. Interruptedly pinnate (interrupte pinnaleaves are supported by ore foot-stalk To this tum), when in a pinnated leaf each pair of alterterm belong Nos. 89, 92, 95, 96, 97. But when nate-leafets is smaller. the leaf agrees with the above definition, although 4. Jointedly pinnate (articulate pinnatum), it should not come under any of the following when between cach pair of opposite pinnæ, or kinds, it is still to be considered a compound leaf. leafets, the stem is furnished with a jointed edge.

90. Fingered (digitatum) when the base of 7. Decursively pinnate (decursive pinnatum), several leaves rests on the point of one foot-stalk; when from each particular pinnula a foliaceous as in the horse-chestnut, Aesculus Hippocastanum. appendage runs down to the following one.

91. Binate (binatum), when two leaves stand 9. Decreasingly pinnate (pinnatum foliolis deby their base on the top of one foot-stalk; but if crescentibus), when thc successive foliola on a the two foliola of a binate leaf bend back in a pinnated leaf grow gradually smaller to the point; horizontal direction, it is called, a conjugate as in the Vicia sepium leaf, folium conjugatum.

102. Conjugately pinnated (conjugato-pio

natum), when a leai-stalk divides, and each part 121. Compressed (compressum), when a thick makes a pinnated leaf.

leaf is flat on both sides. 103. Ternato-pinnate (ternato-pinnatum) when 122. Two-edged (anceps), when a compressed at the point of a principal leaf-stalk there stand leaf is sharp on both edges. three pinnated leaves; as Hoffmanseggia.

123. Depressed (depressum), when the upper 104. Digitato-pinnate (digitato-pinnatum), surface of a fleshy leaf is pressed down, or, as it when several simply pinnated leaves, from four were, hollowed out. to five, stand on the point of one stalk; as in 124 Flat (planum), when the upper surface of Mimosa pudica,

a thick leaf forms an even plane. 105. Doubly pinnate (bipinnatum, duplicato- 125. Gibbous (gibbosum, or gibbum), when pinnatum), when a leaf-stalk bears, on one plane both surfaces are convex. on both sides, a number of leaf-stalks, of which 126. Scimitar-shaped (acinaciforme); a twoeach is a pinnated leaf.

edged thick leaf, on one side sharp and arched, 106. Trebly pinnate (triplicato-pinnatum, or on the other straight and broad. tripinnatum), when several doubly pinnated 127. Axe-shaped (dolabriforme), when a fleshy leaves are attached to the sides of a foot-stalk leaf is compressed, circular on the upper part, on one plane.

convex on the one side, sharp edged on the 107. Doubly compound (decompositum) when other, and cylindrical at the base. a divided leaf-stalk connects several leaves; of 128. Tongue-shaped (linguiforme), when a long this kind are Nos. 90, 91, 93, 98, 99, 100. But compressed leaf ends in a round point. the term decompositum is only used when the 129. Three-sided (triquetrum), when the leaf division of the leaf-stalk of the pinnulæ is ir- is bounded by three narrow sides, and is at the regular.

same time long. 108. Super-decompound (supra-decomposi- 130. Deltoid (deltoideum), when a thick leaf tum), when a leaf-stalk, which is often divided, is bounded by three broad surfaces, and is at the sustains several leaves; to this belong Nos. 94, same time short. 101. But then the term is used only when the 131. Four-cornered (tetragonum), when a leaf, divisions of the leafets are either more numerous long in proportion, is bounded by four narrow or not so regular.

surfaces ; as in the Pinus nigra.

132. Warty (verrucosum), when short flesiiy C. In respect of the place.

leaves are truncated, and stand in thick heaps; 109. Radical (radicale), when a leaf springs as in some Euphorbiæ. from the root, as in the violet, Viola odorata. 133. Hook-shaped (uncinatum), when a fleshy Sagittaria sagittifolia.

leaf is flat above, compressed at the sides, and 110. Seminal (seminale), when a leaf grows bent back at the point. out of the parts of the seed, as in the hemp; E. In respect of situation and position. where, as soon as it springs, there appear two 134. Opposite (folia opposita), when the bases white bodies, which are the two halves of the of the leaves are next each other, on opposite seed that change into leaves.

sides of a stem. 111. Cauline (caulinum), which is attached to 135. Dissimilar (disparia), when of two leaves, the principal stem. The root leaves and stem placed opposite, the one is quite differe; :ly leaves of a plant are often very different

formed from the other; as some species of Me112. Rameous (rameum), when a leaf rises lastoma. from the branches.

136. Alternate (alterna), see No. 11. 113. Axillary (axillare or subalare), which 137. Scattered (sparsa), when the leaves stand stands at the origin of the branch.

thick on the stem, without any order. 114. Floral (Aorale), which stands close by the 138. Crowded (conferta, or approximata), when flower.

the leaves stand so close together that the siem

cannot be seen. D. In respect of substance.

139. Remote (remota), when the leaves are 115. Membranaceous (membranaceum), when separated on the stem by certain interstices. both membranes of a leaf lie close upon one 140. Three-together (terna), when three leaves another, without any pulpy substance between stand round the stem : there are sometimes four, them; as in the leaves of most trees and plants. five, six, seveu, eight, &c., quaterna, quina, sena,

116. Fleshy (carnosum), when between the septena, octona, &c. membranes there is much soft and pulpy sub- 141. Star-like (stellata, or verticillata), when stance; as in houseleek, Sempervivum tectorum. several leaves stand round the stem at certain

117. Hollow (tubulosum), when a somewhat distances; as in ladies-bedstraw, Galium, &c. Aleshy and long leaf, as in the onion, Allium 142. Tufted (fasciculata), when a number of Cepa.

leares stand on one point; as in the larch, Pinus 118. Bilocular (biloculare), when in a linear larix, Celastrus buxifolius. leaf, internally hollow, the cavity is divided by 143. Two-rowed (disticha), when leaves are a longitudinal partition into two. Lobelia so placed on the stem that they stand on one dortmanda,

plane; as in the pitch fir, Pinus picea, Lonicera 119. Articulate (articulatum, or loculosum), symphoricarpus. when a cylindrical hollow leaf has its cavities 144. Decussated (decussata), when the stem, divided by horizontal partitions; as Juncus articu- in its whole length, is set round with four rows latus.

of leaves at each branch, and when one looks rer120. Cylindrical (teres), when it is formed like pendicularly down upon it, the leaves seem to a cylinder.

forili a cross; as in Veronica decussata.

:45. Imbricated (imbricata), when one leaf 166. Rooting (radicans), when the leaf strikes lies over another, as the tiles upon a roof. Of root. this there are the following kinds :

167. Swimming (natans), when the leaf swims a. Bifariously imbricated (bifariam imbricata), on the surface of water; as in Nymphæa alta. when the leaves are so laid upon one another that 168. Immersed (demersum), when the leaves they form but two rows longitudinally on the are found under water. stem.

169. Emerging (emersum), when the leaf of B. Trifariam imbricata, three rows.

an aquatic plant raises itself out of the water. y. Quadrifariam imbricata, &c. four rows, &c. 203. Besides the petiole, the stipulæ, and the F. In respect of insertion.

lamina, which have now been described, there are 146. Petiolated (petiolatum), when a leaf is

two appendages which properly belong to the furnished with a foot-stalk.

foliage, and still remain to be noticed ; these are 147. Palaceous (palaceum), when the foot

the ramentum, and the cirrhus, or tendril. stalk is attached to the margin.

204. The rament (ramentum), is a small, 148. Peltated (peltatum), when the foot-stalk

often bristle-shaped, leafet, that is oblong, thin, is inserted into the middle of the leaf.

and more or less of a brown color; sometimes 149. Sessile (sessile), when the leaf is attached

placed, like the stipulæ, in the angles of the peto the stem without any foot-stalk.

tiole; but sometimes, likewise, without any 150. Loose (solutum, or basi solutum), a suc

order on the stem. It appears on all trees when culent cylindrical or subulate leaf, which seems

their buds open, and falls soon after. On the to have no connexion with the stalk on which it

oak it stands like the stipulæ, on the Scotch fir, rests, but seems to hang the more loosely ; as

Pinus sylvestris, it is soon dispersed. Sedum album.

When the stem of a plant is covered with fine 151. Riding (equitans), a sword-shaped or

dry scales, that have the appearance of the Ralinear leaf, that forms at its base a sharp and

mentum, it is properly called a ramentaceous deep furrow, whose surfaces lie on one another,

stem, caulis ramentaceus. and embrace the stalk; Dracaena ensifolia, Sisy

205. The tendril (cirrhus), is a filiform body, rinchium striatum, &c.

which serves for attaching plants to some support. 152. Decurrent (decurrens), when the foliace

It is always an alteration of some other part of ous substance of a sessile leaf runs down along

the plant; for instance, in the vine, of a leaf,

and in the Artabotrys, of a part of the infloresthe stem. 153. Embracing (amplexicaule), when a ses

cence. Climbing plants are furnished with tensile leaf is heart-shaped at the base, and with

drils. They are in general spiral. The species both lobes embraces the stem.

are as follows: 154. Connate (connatum), when opposite and

1. Axillary (axillaris), when rising from the sessile leaves are joined at their base.

axillæ of the leaves. N. A perfoliated leaf (folium perfoliatum), is

2. Foliar (foliaris), when springing from the already described in No. 59.

points of the leaves.

3. Petiolar (petiolaris), when standing on the F. In respect of direction. ' point of the common foot-stalk of a compound 155. Appressed (adpressum), when the leaf leaf. turns up, and lays its upper surface to the stem. 4. Peduncular (peduncularis), when rising

156. Erect (erectum, or semiverticale), when from the foot-stalk of a flower. the leaf is directed upwards, and makes with the 5. Simple (simplex), when not divided. stem a very acute angle.

6. Convolute (convolutus), when winding re157. Vertical (verticale), which stands quite gularly round a prop. upright, and thus makes with the horizon a right 7. Revolute (revolutus), when winding irreangle.

gularly, sometimes to this side, sometimes to 158. Bent sideways (adversum), when the that. margin of a vertical leaf is turned towards the stem. 206. To the inflorescence are to be referred

159. Spreading (patens), which goes off from all those parts which are placed above the articuthe stem in an acute angle.

lation, which unites the flower with the plant 160. Bent in (inflexum, or incurvum), when strictly speaking, the term denotes the mode in an upright leaf is bent in at its point towards the which the flowers are arranged upon their stalk stem.

or rachis. We will first describe the different 161. Oblique (obliquum), when the base of manners in which this is effected, and then exthe leaf stands upwards, and the point is turned plain the nature and modifications of the accestowards the ground.

sory leaves. 162. Horizontal (horizontale), when the upper 207. The inflorescence in many plants is an surface of the leaf makes with the stem a right important character, and the following kinds have angle.

been described, viz. : The whirl (verticillus), the 163. Bent down (reclinatum, or reflexum), head (capitulum), the ear (spicula), the spike when the leaf stands with its point bent towards (spica), the raceme (racemus), the fascicle (fascithe carth

culus), thc umbel (umbella), the cyme (cyma), 164. Bent back (revolutum), when the leaf is the corymb (corymbus), the panicle (panicula), bent outwards, and its point from the stem. the thyrse (thyrsus), the spadix (spadix), and

165. Hanging down (dependens), when the finally, the catkin (amentum). base is turned to the zenith, and the point towards 208. A whirl (verticillus), consists of several the ground.

flowers that encircle the stem, and stand unVol. IV.

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