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REVIEWS

Folk-BELIEFS IN THE BALKAN PENINSULA.
Balkan HOME-Life. By Lucy M. J. GARNETT. Pp. 309.

LIFE
Price ios. 6d. net. London : Methuen & Co. Ltd. 1917.

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At present the Balkan Peninsula has special interest for many of us, and this elaborate account of the home-life of its four chief races—Greeks, Albanians, Bulgarians and Osmanli Turksis timely. The Author's knowledge of the people is wide, but she fully admits the difficulty of exploring the beliefs of the many races which are included in the population. “ It would prove a stupendous if not an impossible task to collect all the folk-beliefs and customs of the Balkan Greeks and their neighbours. One generally learns them only by transgressing them.” As an example, she tells of the horror expressed when she took into the house a little owlet which she found outside her window. It is the bird of death, and sure enough, soon after the family pet kid was found dead in the garden.

The “Old Religion " still survives with undiminished power, and, in spite of the veneer of doctrine and ritual prescribed by the Greek Church or by Islam, has a profound influence over the people. This is shown throughout the interesting survey of the life from cradle to grave. The Nereids, like our fairies, come out of their springs at night, steal babies, and leave changelings in their stead. “The Greek inhabitants of a village near Salonika relate that companies of Nereids may often be seen dancing in the moonlight on the adjacent seashore, and are careful to give a wide berth to these haunts of the Outlanders.' Gifts must be given to the Fates and a libation poured to Mother Earth to save children from harm. The Evil

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Eye belief extends widely. The Kouchedra dries up the spring as the traveller seeks a drink ; Peris and Dogsucklers beset his path; if he drinks from certain rivers he becomes a werewolf. The Nereids bring bad weather, and when it thunders they are scared by ringing the church bells. The custom of temporary burial of the dead within the European area is interesting. After three years the body is exhumed; if "the earth has eaten him," the bones are taken to the church; if the corpse is undecayed, the man is believed to be a vampire.

Of the Wallachs Miss Garnett writes: "A singular rite of purely Latin origin is now performed by the bride as she is lifted from her horse at the threshold; butter or honey is handed to her, with which she proceeds to anoint the door, signifying that she brings with her into the house peace, plenty and joy. The word uxor, originally unxor, is derived from ungere, 'to anoint.'” It is very doubtful if this custom is of Latin origin, and the suggested derivation seems to be a folk etymology. I learn on the best authority that the word probably means “she who grows in size.” Pliny, by the way, says that the bride should anoint the door with the fat of wolf, possibly as a protective.

Miss Garnett has given us an excellent and instructive book. Its value for students would have been increased if she had given us some indication of the source from which her materials were derived, and if she had provided an adequate index.

W. CROOKE.

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Books for Review should te addressed to

THE EDITOR OF Folk-Lore,
c/o MESSRS. SIDGWICK & JACKSON, LTD.

ADAM ST., ADELPHI, LONDON, W.C.

INDEX TO VOL. XXVIII. (1917).

on

Ashes, wet : tabu of, at Christmas-

tide, 419
Auditor, honorary, of the Society :

appointment of, 3
Australia, natives of; magic

among, 260 et seq.
Avril-Bread, 305-10.
Balfour, H. : “ Some Ethnological

Suggestions in regard to Easter

Island, or Rapunii,” 356-81
Bant caste : cattle-driving among,

117
Barring-out, 175, 297, 304
Bays : houses dressed with, at

Christmastide, 420
Beans : sown on St. Edmund the

King's Day, 169
Begging customs : on St. Clement's

Day, 171 ; at Hallow E'en,
57, 63, 69; on St. Katherine's
Day, 173;

St. Thomas'
Day, 299, 303
Bellman, the : cautionary rhyme

of, 86
Bell-ringing : on St. Andrew's
Day, 175;

on Guy Fawkes'
Day, 82; at Hallowmas, 55 ;

on St. Thomas' Day, 302
Bells, subterranean : heard at

Christmastide, 418
Bhil tribe : cattle-driving among,
Eve, 168 ; on St. Martin's Day,

Abul-Cassim Mohammed, ibn

Haukal : his account of the

Khazars, 396
Abulfeda : his account of the

Khazars, 400
Adonis, 285
Advent, 295
Aegisthus : desecration of his

victim's grave, 137
Agricultural rites in Formosa, 119
Ahir tribe : cattle-scaring by, 152
Ahmed ibn Foszlan : his account

of the Khazars, 385
Ali, the Caliph : worship of, 280
All Hallow Even : Hallowmas, 53
All Hallows' Night: Hallowmas, 53
All Hallowmas Fair, 74
All Saints' Day, 53, 67
All Souls' Day, 53
Al Mas'údy : his account of the

Khazar kings, 391
Amusements : on Guy Fawkes'

Day, 84 ; at Hallow E'en, 58,
65, 69, 76, 80 ; on St. Clement's

Day, 171
Ancestor worship : in Formosa,

119, 120, 124 ; in Serbia, 48
Andermas : St. Andrew's Day,

176
Animals at Christmastide, 417
Apparitions : at Hallowmas, 54 ;
at Hallow E’en, 62 ; in Lincoln-

shire, 103:
Apple-snatching night; Hallow-
Apples : games with at Hallow

E’en, 58, 65, 69, 76, 80
Aran Island : legends from, 438;

saints of, 197
Ardmore : legends of, 87 et seq.
Armada, the Spanish : traditions
Arthur, King, and his knights

at Christmastide, 418
Ash leaves : divination by means

of, 69, 313
Ashen Faggot, the, 427

154
Bird cult : in Easter Island, 337-

355, 357; connexion of, with
the statues, 355 ; origin of, 371
Birds : human-headed, 367; in-

sects and animals, folk beliefs
regarding, among Mexican In-
dians, 329;

omens from, in
Formosa, 131
Bladebone : weather omens from,

167
Blanchard, E. C. : on “Christmas

Candles," 106-8
Blood : to be spilt and sprinkled

on the threshold on St. Martin's

mas, 61.

of, 444

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168
Bonfires : lighted on Hallow E'en,

55, 63, 76 ; on Guy Fawkes'

Day, 81, 82
Brabrook, Sir E. : on “ Biblio-

graphy of Sir L. Gomme's

work, 106
Brand : “ Popular Antiquities,”

report of Committee on, 10-12 ;
materials for the Catalogue of,

52-86, 164-176, 295-304, 415.431
Bride, the : dressed in old night

attire, 314 ; price of, in For-

mosa, 128-130
Buddhism : the doctrines of, 288
Bull, the ; a sacred animal, 143 ;

a dispenser of mana, 160;
baiting, stages of, 144 et seq. ;
baiting in Great Britain, 158 ;
head of, used in rite of cursing,

139; lifting of, 150 et seq.
Burial place in Easter Island,

348
Burne, Miss C. S. : on Witchcraft

in Great Britain,” 451
Bussell, F. W.: on the "Persistence

of Primitive Beliefs in Theology,“
279-294

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of, 332

Charms : exhibition of, 99 et seq. ;

to produce love, 330 ; to recover

a lover, 318
Chatham Island : flint implements

found in, 358
Childbirth : purification after, in

Formosa, 126
Children : born at Christmastide,

power of seeing spirits, 417
Chiwidden Day : last Thursday

before Christmas, 296
Christening cakes, 317 et seq.
Christmas : Block, the,

424 ;
Brand, the, 424; Bush, the;
422 ;

Candles, 106 et seqq. ;
Mock, the, 424; Stock, the,

424
Christmastide : celebrations at,

415 et seqq.
Church : removed by the Devil,

311, 314
Clothes, new : worn at Christmas-

tide, 419
Coach : the phantom, 93 et seq. ;

with headless horses, seen at

Christmastide, 418
Coirligheile puzzle : signification
Commons: rights entered on at

9th November, 167
Connacht coast : legends of, 150-

207
Cook, Captain : visit of, to Easter

Island, 361
Coomishinaun lake : phenomenon

at, 89
Corning, begging, 299
Cornwall : tales from, 317 et seq.
Corpses : exhumed to make

charms, 257
Council of the Society : report of,

4 et seqq. ; appointment of

members, 3
Court, Mrs. E. K. M. : “Queries on

Egyptian Mythology,” 331 et seq.
Covines : witch companies, 239
Crete : gems from, 141
Cromwell, Oliver : traditions of,

445
Crooke, W.; review of A. S.

Rattray, Ashanti Proverbs;
J. M. Dalziel, A Hausa Botanical
Glossary, 108 et seq. ; of L. M. J,
Garnett, Balkan Home Life, 452
et seq. ; on Bull-baiting, Bull-
racing, Bull-fights, 141 et seqq. ;
on the Cursing of Venezelos, 449

Cake Night: Hallowmas, 53; cakes

at Hallow E'en, 56 et seq. ;
distributed at a christening,

317 et seq.
Camberley : folklore from, 317
Camphor : burnt in oath-taking,

104 et seq.
Candlemas : the Devil appearing

at, 252.
Candles : Christmas, 106 et seqq. ;

lighted on Christmas Eve, 428
Cannibalism : in Easter Island,

340 ; in Formosa, 116; at

witches' meetings, 256
Carnival Day, 5th November, 81 ;

Fair, 85
Carpenter : effigy of, paraded on

St. Clement's Day, 171
Catana : a coin from, 144
Catten's Day : St. Katherine's

Day, 172,
Cattle : killed on Lord Mayor's

Day, 166 ; 9th November, 168
Cave, a magic, 92
Cenad-y-meirw : wheaten cakes

distributed St. Thomas'
Day, 303

on

I20

Crosses : chalked at Christmas-

tide, 419
Cross roads : unlucky places at

Christmastide, 418
Crows : rhyme of, 312
Culture, contact : psychology of,

12 et seqq. ; evolution of, 19;

survival in, 20
Curfew : begins on Guy Fawkes'

Day, 82
Curning : begging, 299
Dairy, the : precautionary phrase

on entering, 88
Dancing : at witches' meetings,

250, 255
Danes : traditions of, in West

Ireland, 432 et seqq.
David : cursing of, by Shimei,

134 et seq.
Days, unlucky, in Mexico, 330
Dead, the : hospitality to, on

Hallow E’en, 75; reappear at

Hallow E'en, 75
Dead Man's Day: St. Edmund

the King's Day, 169
Death rites in Formosa, 130 et seq.
Deaths during the coming year :

divined at Hallow E'en, 66 et
seq. ; announced at Christmas-

tide, 419
Deity, two-faced, the, 236 et seq.
Denbury Hill : encampment at,

314
Devil, the : cult of, in Christian
times, 233;

his appearance,
235 ; appearing at witches'

meetings, 249
Divination : at Hallow E'en, 58,

70, 76 et seqq., 80; by means
of peas and ash leaves, 313;

at Christmastide, 418
Dogs : folk beliefs regarding, 329
Doles, at Hallow E’en, 57
Duck's foot: working evil by

means of, 322
Dumb cake : baked at Christmas-

tide, 418
Dy'gwyl Tomas : St. Thomas'

Day, 303
Each Ceannan Dubh, an

Ebionism, 289
Eel, the Master, 90
Egg: the first, competition for, in
Easter Island, 343; presented
to a god in Easter Island, 349 ;
salted, eaten at Christmastide,

418
Egyptian mythology : queries on,

331 et seq.
Elders : their position in Formosa,
Elijah, the prophet: connected

with Khidr, 281
Elisha, the prophet : connected

with Khidr, 282
Elkesaites, the, 286 et seq.
Emerson, H. W.: Folklore from

the Himalaya,” 323 et se99.
Encampment, ancient : at Den-

bury Hill, 314
Esbat : a meeting of witches, 247
Evergreens : decoration with, at

Christmastide, 419; removal of,

423
Evil Eye, the, 318
Fairies : appearing at Hallow

E’en, 67, 75; food left for them
at Hallow E'en, their

connexion with witches, 257
Falling stars : omens from, 167
Family organisation in Formosa,

119
Fairs : at Hallow E'en, 61 ; on

St. Andrew's Day, 176
Feast, at witches' meetings, 254
Feeing : hiring fairs, 167
Feile Máirtín: St. Martin's Eve, 168
Festivals in November, 53
Figures, wooden : in Easter Island,

357
Finn and the giants, 183
Fire customs : at Hallow E'en, 55,

63, 69, 79; and light at
Christmastide, 424; tabu against
giving, at Christmastide, 419
First-footing :

Christmas
morning, 429 et seqq.
Flesh-brand : the witches' mark.

chanted horse in Ireland, 101
Easter eggs in Scotland, 450
Easter Island: clans in, 339 ;

analysis of cultural elements in,
377 ; script of, 374

244
Flowers, unlucky, 311
“Folk-Lore": appointment of

editor of, 3
Folk Tales from Co. Limerick,

208 et seqq.
Balsha, 216
Barrel-grown wheat, 210

79;

on

en-

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