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REVIEWS.

FOLK-BELIEFS IN THE BALKAN PENINSULA.

BALKAN HOME-LIFE. BY LUCY M. J. GARNETT. Pp. 309. Price 10s. 6d. net. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. 1917.

Ar present the Balkan Peninsula has special interest for many of us, and this elaborate account of the home-life of its four chief races-Greeks, Albanians, Bulgarians and Osmanli Turks— is timely. The Author's knowledge of the people is wide, but she fully admits the difficulty of exploring the beliefs of the many races which are included in the population. “It would prove a stupendous if not an impossible task to collect all the folk-beliefs and customs of the Balkan Greeks and their neighbours.... One generally learns them only by transgressing them." As an example, she tells of the horror expressed when she took into the house a little owlet which she found outside her window. It is the bird of death, and sure enough, soon after the family pet kid was found dead in the garden.

The "Old Religion" still survives with undiminished power, and, in spite of the veneer of doctrine and ritual prescribed by the Greek Church or by Islam, has a profound influence over the people. This is shown throughout the interesting survey of the life from cradle to grave. The Nereids, like our fairies, come out of their springs at night, steal babies, and leave changelings in their stead. "The Greek inhabitants of a village near Salonika relate that companies of Nereids may often be seen dancing in the moonlight on the adjacent seashore, and are careful to give a wide berth to these haunts of the 'Outlanders.' Gifts must be given to the Fates and a libation poured to Mother Earth to save children from harm. The Evil

Eye belief extends widely. The Kouchedra dries up the spring as the traveller seeks a drink; Peris and Dogsucklers beset his path; if he drinks from certain rivers he becomes a werewolf. The Nereids bring bad weather, and when it thunders they are scared by ringing the church bells. The custom of temporary burial of the dead within the European area is interesting. After three years the body is exhumed; if "the earth has eaten him," the bones are taken to the church; if the corpse is undecayed, the man is believed to be a vampire.

Of the Wallachs Miss Garnett writes: "A singular rite of purely Latin origin is now performed by the bride as she is lifted from her horse at the threshold; butter or honey is handed to her, with which she proceeds to anoint the door, signifying that she brings with her into the house peace, plenty and joy. The word uxor, originally unxor, is derived from ungere, to anoint.'" It is very doubtful if this custom is of Latin origin, and the suggested derivation seems to be a folk etymology. I learn on the best authority that the word probably means she who grows in size." Pliny, by the way, says that the bride should anoint the door with the fat of a wolf, possibly as a protective.

Miss Garnett has given us an excellent and instructive book. Its value for students would have been increased if she had given us some indication of the source from which her materials were derived, and if she had provided an adequate index.

W. CROOKE.

Books for Review should be addressed to
THE EDITOR OF Folk-Lore,

c/o MESSRS. SIDGWICK & JACKSON, LTD.
ADAM ST., ADELPHI, LONDON, W.C.

INDEX TO VOL. XXVIII. (1917).

Abul-Cassim Mohammed, ibn
Haukal: his account of the
Khazars, 396

Abulfeda: his account of the
Khazars, 400
Adonis, 285
Advent, 295

Aegisthus: desecration of his

victim's grave, 137

Agricultural rites in Formosa, 119
Ahir tribe cattle-scaring by, 152
Ahmed ibn Foszlan: his account

of the Khazars, 385

Ali, the Caliph worship of, 280
All Hallow Even: Hallowmas, 53
All Hallows' Night: Hallowmas, 53
All Hallowmas Fair, 74
All Saints' Day, 53, 67
All Souls' Day, 53

Al Mas'udy: his account of the
Khazar kings, 391
Amusements: on Guy Fawkes'
Day, 84; at Hallow E'en, 58,
65, 69, 76, 80; on St. Clement's
Day, 171

Ancestor worship: in Formosa,
119, 120, 124; in Serbia, 48
Andermas : St. Andrew's Day,
176

Animals at Christmastide, 417
Apparitions at Hallowmas, 54;

at Hallow E'en, 62; in Lincoln-
shire, 103.
Apple-snatching night; Hallow-
mas, 61.

Apples: games with at Hallow
E'en, 58, 65, 69, 76, 80
Aran Island legends from, 438;
saints of, 197

Ardmore legends of, 87 et seq.
Armada, the Spanish: traditions

of, 444

Arthur, King, and his knights
at Christmastide, 418
Ash leaves divination by means

of, 69, 313
Ashen Faggot, the, 427

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Balfour, H.: "Some Ethnological
Suggestions in regard to Easter
Island, or Rapunii," 356-81
Bant caste cattle-driving among,
117

Barring-out, 175, 297, 304

Bays: houses dressed with, at
Christmastide, 420

Beans sown on St. Edmund the
King's Day, 169

Begging customs: on St. Clement's
Day, 171; at Hallow E'en,
57, 63, 69; on St. Katherine's
Day, 173; on St. Thomas'
Day, 299, 303
Bellman, the cautionary rhyme
of, 86
Bell-ringing:

on St. Andrew's

Day, 175; on Guy Fawkes'
Day, 82; at Hallowmas, 55;
on St. Thomas' Day, 302
Bells, subterranean :
Christmastide, 418

heard at

Bhil tribe cattle-driving among,
154

Bird cult in Easter Island, 337-

355, 357; connexion of, with
the statues, 355; origin of, 371
Birds human-headed, 367; in-
sects and animals, folk beliefs
regarding, among Mexican In-
dians, 329; omens from, in
Formosa, 131

Bladebone weather omens from,
167

Blanchard, E. C. on "Christmas
Candles," 106-8

Blood to be spilt and sprinkled

on the threshold on St. Martin's

Eve, 168; on St. Martin's Day,
168

Bonfires lighted on Hallow E'en,
55, 63, 76; on Guy Fawkes'
Day, 81, 82

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Brabrook, Sir E. : on "Biblio-
graphy of Sir L. Gomme's
work, 106
Brand: Popular Antiquities,"
report of Committee on, 10-12;
materials for the Catalogue of,
52-86, 164-176, 295-304, 415-431
Bride, the dressed in old night
attire, 314; price of, in For-
mosa, 128-130

Buddhism the doctrines of, 288
Bull, the a sacred animal, 143;
a dispenser of mana, 160;
baiting, stages of, 144 et seq.;
baiting in Great Britain, 158;
head of, used in rite of cursing,
139; lifting of, 150 et seq.
Burial place in Easter Island,
348

Burne, Miss C. S.: on

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Witchcraft

in Great Britain," 451
Bussell, F. W.: on the "Persistence
of Primitive Beliefs in Theology,"
279-294

Cake Night: Hallowmas, 53; cakes
at Hallow E'en, 56 et seq.;
distributed at a christening,
317 et seq.

Camberley folklore from, 317
Camphor burnt in oath-taking,
104 et seq.
Candlemas: the Devil appearing
at, 252.

at

Candles Christmas, 106 et seqq.;
lighted on Christmas Eve, 428
Cannibalism in Easter Island,
340; in Formosa, 116;
witches' meetings, 256
Carnival Day, 5th November, 81;
Fair, 85

Carpenter effigy of, paraded on
St. Clement's Day, 171
Catana a coin from, 144
Catten's Day: St. Katherine's
Day, 172

Cattle killed on Lord Mayor's

Day, 166; 9th November, 168
Cave, a magic, 92
Cenad-y-meirw: wheaten cakes
distributed on St. Thomas'
Day, 303

Charms

exhibition of, 99 et seq. ;

to produce love, 330; to recover
a lover, 318

Chatham Island: flint implements
found in, 358

Childbirth purification after, in
Formosa, 126

Children born at Christmastide,
power of seeing spirits, 417
Chiwidden Day: last Thursday
before Christmas, 296
Christening cakes, 317 et seq.
Christmas: Block, the, 424;
Brand, the, 424; Bush, the;
422; Candles, 106 et seqq.;
Mock, the, 424; Stock, the,
424
Christmastide :
415 et seqq.

celebrations at,

Church removed by the Devil,
311, 314

Clothes, new worn at Christmas-
tide, 419

Coach the phantom, 93 et seq.;
with headless horses, seen at
Christmastide, 418

Coirligheile puzzle: signification
of, 332

Commons rights entered on at
9th November, 167

Connacht coast: legends of, 150-
207

Cook, Captain: visit of, to Easter
Island, 361
Coomishinaun lake

at, 89

Corning, begging, 299

phenomenon

Cornwall: tales from, 317 et seq.
Corpses :

exhumed to make

charms, 257

Council of the Society: report of,
4 et seqq.; appointment of
members, 3

Court, Mrs. E. K. M.: "Queries on
Egyptian Mythology," 331 et seq.
Covines witch companies, 239
Crete gems from, 141
Cromwell, Oliver: traditions of,
445

Crooke, W.: review of A. S.
Rattray, Ashanti Proverbs;
J. M. Dalziel, A Hausa Botanical
Glossary, 108 et seq.; of L. M. J,
Garnett, Balkan Home Life, 452
et seq.; on Bull-baiting, Bull-
racing, Bull-fights, 141 et seqq.;
on the Cursing of Venezelos, 449

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Dairy, the

precautionary phrase

on entering, 88
Dancing at witches' meetings,
250, 255

Danes traditions of, in West
Ireland, 432 et seqq.

David: cursing of, by Shimei,
134 et seq.

Days, unlucky, in Mexico, 330
Dead, the hospitality to, on

Hallow E'en, 75; reappear at
Hallow E'en, 75

Dead Man's Day: St. Edmund
the King's Day, 169
Death rites in Formosa, 130 et seq.
Deaths during the coming year:
divined at Hallow E'en, 66 et
seq.; announced at Christmas-
tide, 419

Deity, two-faced, the, 236 et seq.
Denbury Hill: encampment at,
314
Devil, the

cult of, in Christian
times, 233; his appearance,
235; appearing at witches'
meetings, 249

Divination at Hallow E'en, 58,
70, 76 et seqq., 80; by means
of peas and ash leaves, 313;
at Christmastide, 418
Dogs folk beliefs regarding, 329
Doles, at Hallow E'en, 57

Duck's foot working evil by
means of, 322

Dumb cake baked at Christmas-
tide, 418

Dy'gwyl Tomas: St. Thomas'
Day, 303

Each Ceannan Dubh, an

en-

chanted horse in Ireland, 101
Easter eggs in Scotland, 450
Easter Island: clans in, 339;
analysis of cultural elements in,
377; script of, 374

Ebionism, 289

Eel, the Master, 90

Egg: the first, competition for, in
Easter Island, 343; presented
to a god in Easter Island, 349;
salted, eaten at Christmastide,
418
Egyptian mythology: queries on,
331 et seq.

Elders their position in Formosa,

120

Elijah, the prophet: connected
with Khidr, 281

Elisha, the prophet: connected
with Khidr, 282

Elkesaites, the, 286 et seq.
Emerson, H. W.: Folklore from
the Himalaya," 323 et seqq.
Encampment, ancient : at Den-
bury Hill, 314

Esbat a meeting of witches, 247
Evergreens decoration with, at
Christmastide, 419; removal of,

423

Evil Eye, the, 318

Fairies : appearing at Hallow
E'en, 67, 75; food left for them
at Hallow E'en, 79; their
connexion with witches, 257
Falling stars: omens from, 167
Family organisation in Formosa,

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