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site to Aran, in Co. Clare, where the peasantry greatly fear to use his name lest they might use it in an angry moment as a The Croagh has a very early stone-roofed oratory and carved stones, one reputed to represent the saint. It is strange, though not unprecedented, that his name should be forgotten for we have anonymous saints-St. (Findclu) Inghean Baoith and St. MacCreiche-on the adjoining shores of the great bay. At the Croagh, sails are (or were in 1878) dipped and oars raised by passing fisher-boats in his reverence. That he lived in the sixth century is a mere guess. His feast days

fall on July 16th and Sept. 28th. In 1896, though the weather had been stormy, about 100 pilgrims landed on the Croagh and did the rounds on the beaten track according to ancient custom. The holy well is now usually dry and the personal offerings are few. His wooden statue was in high repute, like those of St. Carroll near Kilrush in Co. Clare, of St. Brendan on Inishglora and of St. Molash on Inishmurray in Co. Sligo, but as far back as before 1650, Malachy O'Queely, "titular" Archbishop of Tuam, had it removed and secretly buried. Women in 1670 used to gather seaweed (duleasg) on the "captives stone" on the shore of his island to benefit friends and relatives in prison. His altar stone, Leac Sinach, was kept at Moyruss Church, on the opposite shore of the channel opposite to the Croagh; I could not find, or even hear of it in 1899. The inhabitants of Aran and the mainland used to name their children after him; but boats called by his name were regarded as unlucky, even at the end of the last century. There was some unusual fear of telling about him at Carna and Moyruss, so I learned less than in Aran or Co. Clare. Roderic O'Flaherty, in 1687, gives a full and interesting account of the misfortune which overtook a skipper who in defiance of the saint would not dip sail on passing the Cruach.2

St. Roc or Salroc.-A local legend tells of a contest between this saint and Satan at the Salroc Pass, in Connemara. The saint had a cell at the foot of this picturesque defile from the Killeries southward, and one day the Devil found him asleep 1Journal Roy. Soc. Antt. Ir. vol. xxvi. p. 101. 2 HIar Connaught, pp. 99-101.

and chained him. The enemy feared to meet St. Roc face to face and sprang over the mountain dragging at the chain which cut the narrow pass in the subsequent contest. The cell is marked by a graveyard with some rude stations or heaps of stones. I have not heard this legend in Connemara, so give it merely on "book-authority." It was probably made for


St. Leo, like St. Roc, finds no place in the Calendars or Lives of the Saints. He is reverenced on Inishark. There are two slabs at his church, one with a carving of a bishop with a chalice, the other, called Leac Leo, has the reputed mark of a footprint made as he stepped down from the church. His cave, Uaimh Leo, and his well are shown. His bell is noted by Roderic O'Flaherty in 1684 as made of brass or bronze, and it was cut up into pieces for relics or amulets; some were extant in 1846. Like the holy stone on Caher Island it was carried off by sailors (French, in one version), who took it to the Bay of Biscay, but had to return and restore it, being pursued by storms (or threw it into the sea in a storm, when it returned and was found on the shore by seaweed-gatherers). I heard this variant legend on Inisturk. The natives of Shark, after performing their rounds and praying at the well, sometimes conclude their devotions by sleeping in the clochan-one of the stations is an ice-borne granite boulder with a "bullaun," or basin, ground into it. The saint's day is observed on April 11th.

St. Colman.-Readers of the Venerable Bede's history will remember how, in A.D. 667, Colman, the saintly Abbot of Lindisfarne, for thirty-seven years a Columban monk of Iona, entered into the Pascal controversy. King Oswy decided in favour of the Roman observance, and Colman retired to Iona and then to Inishbofinde, the island of the White Cow. He also founded a monastery at Mayo. A late church marks the site of his monastery on Bofin, the only early relic being a large basin stone. There were two wells, but Tobercolman, though traditionally remembered, could not be located even in 1839. St. Colman died A.D. 674 or 676; his day is August 8th. His successor, Beretan, died Jan. 14th, A.D. 711 or 712. On that 1 Ireland (Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall), vol. iii. p. 489.

day another abbot, Luighbe, of unknown date, is also venerated. There is no tradition of Colman's burial being at Bofin. He is very probably the patron of Tobercolman well and the Killeen graveyard near it on Achill. Four tyrants, "Coman, Aumin, Henry and Puca," are said to have broken off the arms of St. Colman's cross and burned the house of Dubhdara Omaille, probably the legendary father of Grania Uaile, or Grace O'Malley, about 1550. St. Colman's well had gone dry in 1838 and people used to fill a hollow slab near it with water for the pattern. A Mr. Nangle, scathingly criticised by the Ordnance Survey Letters, 2 wrote of a "stone god of Achill," of which no one else ever heard. He was more famed for his controversial zeal than for accuracy of observation and very likely had heard of the "Neevoge" of Iniskea. So also Lady Wilde seems to have transferred some half-forgotten account of the wooden figure at Inishmurray when she tells of "Father Molosh a wooden idol on one of the Achill Islands it was a rude semblance of a human head."3 Just where writers should have been most critical and careful they seem to be most careless and assertive.

St. Daimhoidh.-No legend of a saint was found by me on Clare Island. The holy well is not dedicated to St. Brigid but to her festival. St. Daimhoidh, a sainted lady, was reverenced in Achill; she had a church named Kildavnet on Achill Sound near the Omailles Castle, and the late seventeenth century maps show another Kildawnet on Achillbeg, at the great promontory fort of Dun Kilmore. There a venerable killeen " graveyard, basin, stone and two low slab altars, heaped with white pebbles, are still to be seen, though the church has not left a foundation and the altars are supposed to be giants' graves.

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St. Derbhile, another sainted lady, is venerated on the Mullet and in South Iniskea. She was of the reigning house of King

1 Ord. Survey Letters, Mayo, vol. i. pp. 343-4.

2 Mayo, vol. i. p. 345.

3 Ancient Legends, etc. (Lady Wilde), vol. i. p. 1II.

Proc. Roy. Ir. Acad. vol. xxxi. part ii. (c), p. 65; Journal Roy. Soc. Antt. Ir. vol. xliv. p. 330.

Fiachra, but either there were two saints of the name living about 590 A.D., or some mistake has crept into the Calendars, for the name appears commemorated on Aug. 5th and Oct. 26th. Near her holy well on Iniskea is a teacht, a heap of white stones. Her little church among the Fallmore sandhills at the south end of the long peninsula of the Mullet (opposite to the noble mountain of Slievemore in Achill) is a most interesting little ruin, nearly buried in the sand. Her shrine, her "keeve' and grave, a dry-stone enclosure with a wooden cross, adjoin the oratory.2

St. Marcan.-At Burrishoole on Clew Bay lived a saint named Marcan who fought with St. Brigid. She cursed him, but he was too holy to be affected, and foretold that his house should be inundated, which took place when the sea broke into the lake. Pilgrims to his well (still famous for cattle cures) had to be careful not to visit any place sacred to St. Brigid on their way thither, such as Kilbride in Tirawley. The site of his house was shown under the sea, even in 1839.

St. Brendan.-Brennan, or, more usually, Brennall, figures largely in the folk-tales of this coast. The inhabitants of its islands believe firmly that he discovered America. The fishermen of North Iniskea showed Dr. Charles Browne certain bare patches on the former island, and told how Satan, disguised as a beautiful girl, disturbed the saint at his prayers and proceeded to tempt him. Brennan indignantly repulsed "her," and hunted "her" to the end of the island, blessing the place as he followed. The author of evil was unprepared for such righteous wrath, lost his presence of mind for once and changed into a great ram. The saint, all the more angry, pressed on his pursuit, but in his anger forgot to bless the soil, and so, though he drove the enemy into the sea, the spots where the Devil

1 Martyrology of Donegal.

2 Lord Dunraven, Notes on Ancient Irish Architecture, vol. i. p. 107, plate Ivi.; Roy. Soc. Antt. Ir. Handbook V. p. 21, p. 32.

3 Handbook VI. Roy. Soc. Antt. Ir. pp. 27-29; see O'Hanlon's Life of the Irish Saints, vol. v. (May 16). An elaborate compendium. St. Brendan died May 16, A.D. 577.

Proc. Rev. Ir. Acad. vol. iii. ser. iii. p. 639.

landed after each spring were blighted for ever. Brennan has a number of holy wells dedicated to him, but the centre of his cultus in Connacht is certainly Inisglora. Of it wonderful stories were told which came down to Giraldus Cambrensis and even got transferred to Aran and confused and forgotten--how the bodies in the holy isle never decayed, and so forth. The peasantry of the other isles (for Inisglora is uninhabited) deny that the soil prevents putrefaction, and point to the decayed bones in evidence for their denial. The curiously rude wooden figure of St. Brennan is in the larger oratory on Inisglora and may be seen through the doorway in Lord Dunraven's photograph. It was said to have been painted, but retains no trace. It was fibrous and weather-worn even when Otway saw it, and is now strangely crackled. Like the others of St. Molash on Inishmurray, and the lost ones of Kilcarroll, Co. Clare,2 Templedahalin on Kerry Head, and that on St. MacDaras Island, it was held in high esteem and accredited with curative powers. Giraldus tells the same of other images of the Irish saints in his day. Any man who thrice lifted the image at Inisglora with true faith could benefit women in childbirth. Ships used to dip their sails in reverence of the saint when passing Inisglora. I could not learn in the Mullet if the practice is maintained to our times. Before leaving the subject I may state briefly that the island has another oratory, the Church of the Women, three "thorrows" or domed huts, a well, and seven leachts or stations. The most venerated of the "thurrows" is the Leachta relig Mhurragh, or "station of the relics of the Blessed Virgin Mary," to whom it is dedicated. Another kiln-like hut is called the "Aigh" or "Oigh," "the pure place." It is customary to break bread between two people in the “ thurrowmore." No woman could approach the holy well, and if they touched it the water became blood-stained and full of worms and corruption. One old man at Belmullet who had lived in


1 Notes on Irish Architecture, vol. i. plate xxxiii. p. 40.

2 Erris and Tyrawly, p. 102.

3 For fuller accounts of this most interesting holy isle, see Otway's Tour in Connaught; Handbook VI. Roy. Soc. Antt. Ir. p. 26, and Dr. C. Browne, Proc. R. Ir. Acad. vol. iii. ser. iii. p. 643.

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