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E, The People of the United States, in order

to form a more perfect Union, establish Juf. tice, insurę domestic Tranquility, provide for the common

Defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourfelves and our Posterity, DO ORDAIN AND ESTABLISH this CONSTITUTION for the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.


Sect. 1. ALL legislative powers herein granted, shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Sect. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chofen every second year by the people of the several states; and the electors in each Itate shall haye the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chofen.

Representatives and direct taxes fall þé apportion.


ed among the several states which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to fervice for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one Representative ; and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three; Maffachusetts, eight; Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, one ; Connecticut, five; New-York, fix; NewJersey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, fix; , Virginia, ten; North-Carolina, five; South-Carolina, five ; and Georgia, three.

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall iffue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the fole


of impeachment.

Sect. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the firit election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expi"Tation of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration ofthe sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary


appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not when elected, be an inhabitant of that sta e for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice-President of the United States shall be Prefie dent of the Senate, but shall have no rote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other officers, and also a President Pro Tempore, in the absence of the Vice-Prefident, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall havethe sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of twothirds of the members present.

Judgment in cafes of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy, any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment according to law.

Sect. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be

prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof: But the Congress may at any time by law make or alter fuch regulations, except as to the places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and fuch meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Sect. 5. Each Houfe shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do bu. siness; but a finaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance

of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

Each House fhall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, require fecrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those presents be entered on the journal.

Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be fitting.

Sect. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States, They shall in all cafes, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arreft during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be ques. tioned in any other place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time. for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil of. fice under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no person holda

office under the United States, shall be a mem. ber of either House during his continuance in office.

Sect. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Re. presentatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States : If he approve he fhall sign it ; but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall

ing any

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