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the acquisition of new territory for the extension me; but I take the following, which reads like an of African slavery, and he met the fate of other extract from it, from a little notice of the work disturbers of the peace. Had he lived he would that appeared in the Grantham Journal of May 26, have been one of the foremost men in the great 1888 :slave-holders' rebellion. John E. NORCROSS. "At St. Nicholas, Tbietleton, the two glass cruets dow Brooklyn, U.S.

in use were presented by the present Rector to supply

the place of two black bottles formerly used. These In a foot-note to the article “ Nicaragua” in latter are now missing; they were not of the ordinary Haydn's 'Dictionary of Dates' there is a short shape, but were quite flat, and were placed on the altar account of Walker's life and bis Nicaraguan ex; sherry ; these wines were mixed at the oblation. Many

at the Eucharist; one contained port and the otber pedition, which, in the absence of a more detailed of the parishioners remember seeing them used about account, may prove of interest to your corre- thirty or forty years ago.” spondent. W. GILMORE.

St. SWITHIN. 112, Gower Street, W.C.

MASSON (7th S.v. 328, 434).-In my inquiry after LOWESTOFT: Sr. Rook's Light (7th S. v. 346, this family I should have said that a Masson mar411).—Some years ago I was the temporary owner

ried a granddaughter, not daughter, of John Knox. of a very small meadow-not more than an acre in I have since discovered that a Masson was a comsize-that , in the legal documents relating to it

, missary in Cromwell's army, also that a Peggy was called a “pingle.” Perhaps this is the equiva- Livingston, daughter of John Livingston, minister quoting from Miss Baker's 'Northamptonshire and married a Masson. Her father was miaster lent of " pightle', though Mr. Edward Peacock, (who was a son of Lord Livingston and cousin

of the Earl of Linlithgow), went to St. Andrews Words and Phrases,' defines “pingle" as a clump of trees or underwood"; while Todd and the of St. Andrews from 1648 to 1662. He was one of glossarists define it “a small croft or enclosure » three persons who went over to Holland to make (N. & Q.,' 5th S. i. 311). Dr. Johnson also thus terms with Charles II. He was banished in 1662. defines it.


ST. PETER UPON THE WALL (7th S. v. 367,416).— 'MEMOIRS OF GRAMMONT' (7th S. v. 469). — This old parish is in Dengey Hundred, in the county

He who ballad never made, nor rhymed without of Essex. By "Norden's Description of Essex,' a flask of wine," was Marc-Antoine Gérard, sieur written in 1594, it is described "to haue bene a de Saint-Amant, best known under the latter name, town now greatly deuowred win the sea, and buyldand a contemporary of all the poets mentioned in ings yet appeare in the sea.”. Called St. Peter's on the lines quoted. He was a well-known boon-com- the Wall " for that it standed on the wall wcb was panion, often sang the praises of good wine and made to defende the land from the sea.” By some living, and died in 1661. HENRI VAN LAUN. supposed to have been the ancient Ithancester. The

ancient chapel has long fallen into decay, which WEST CHESTER (7th S. v. 469).—1, like A. H., stood on a spot at the north-east point of the south am anxious to identify this place. It was a inlet to the Blackwater estuary. It is now concathedral city, for on the monument of Edmund solidated, and forms part of the parish of BradKedermister, in Langley Church, Bucks, the follow-well-juxta-Mare—or, as it is called, Bradwelling occurs, "Anne, wife of Edmunde Kedermister, next-Sea- fifteen miles east from Maldon, Essex. lyeth buried in the Quire of ye Cathedrall Church

C. GOLDING. of West-Chester, 1618.” Her burial is not recorded Colchester, in the cathedral register of Chester. G. L. G. This was another name for Chester, used in Anna Houson was the eldest daughter of the Rev.

Anna Houson (OR Houston) (7th S. v. 387).contradistinction to Chester-le-Street in Durbam, Henry Houson, rector of Brant Broughton, co. which was considered East Chester. Camden, in Lincoln. She married, May, 1845, Richard, the ‘Britannia,' says that the name West Chester second son of Sir Richard Sutton, Bart. She died is a corruption of Leageacester, the old name of without children in 1848, and he married again in the town, given on account of the Roman 1851, succeeding to the baronetcy in 1873, on the legionary camp which was there, and that this death of his elder brother John. I knew both the corruption came about by reason of the westerly parties well, and the lady and her family espesituation of the place.


cially, they being intimate with mine. SACK USED AS COMMUNION WINE (7th S. iv.

G. H. R. 287, 457,516; v. 92).-The correctness of my aged The late Sir Richard Sutton, Bart., of Norwood relative's assertion concerning the combination of Park, Notts, father of the present baronet, married port and sherry in Holy Communion is confirmed for his first wife, May 18, 1845, Anna, the daughter Mr. Hope's Inventory of the Church Plate of of the Rev. H. Houson, rector of Brant Broughton, Rutland.' Unhappily I have not the book before Lincolnshire, who died without issue in 1848. i

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may remark that Mr. Houson was also rector of cell at Rome, was little observable beside the variety of Great Coates, near Grimsby, and that on his de- lamps and frequent draughts of the holy candlestick. cease in 1875 the refusal of the late Bishop with thigh bones and death's heads; but the cemeterial

In authentic draughts of Anthony and Jerome we meet Wordsworth to institute a gentleman who had cells of ancient Christians and martyrs were filled with purchased the next presentation, on the ground of draughts of Scripture stories," &c. simony, gave rise to the celebrated Great Coates There is nothing else to the point in Browne. case, in which, on legal, though not on_moral

C. O. B. grounds, the bishop was defeated. Mr. Houson was one of the last of the race of hunting parsons

PITSHANGER, EALING (7th S. v. 448). — The for whom Lincolnshire was once famous, but who Court Rolls of the manor of Ealing (otherwise are now almost extinct, not altogether to the ad. Zealing) are in the custody of Messrs. Lee, Bolton vantage of the Church.

E. V. & Lee, the Sanctuary, Westminster, who are

stewards of the manor, which_belongs to the Sir Richard Sutton, fourth baronet, born 0c Ecclesiastical Commissioners for England. tober 21, 1821, died October 2, 1878, having

A. COLLINGWOOD LEE, married first, May 18, 1845, Anne, daughter of Waltham Abbey, Essex, Rev. Henry Houson, rector of Brant Broughton, co. Lincoln. She died s.p., July 8, 1848.

ORDER OF THE SOUTHERN Cross (6th S. ix, 169,

G. T. H. 237; 7th S. V. 433). —The above is the name of [Burke gives the date of death of the first wife of Sir one of the orders established by Achilles I., King R, Sutton as 1846.]

of the South American kingdom of Araucania

Patagonia, the insignia and ribbon of which are SHAKING HANDS (7th S. iv. 408, 492; v. 176). fully described in the statutes of that decoration. - Leaving aside the question of ancient examples Achilles I. is of Irish extraction, deriving his deof shaking hands, any one who has at all mixed scent from the sept of O'Leary, and is animated with French people can confirm Prof. BUTLER’s by the philanthropic desire to transplant all disallusions to their treating the modern custom as contented Irishmen to his fertile kingdom. Can especially British. Further confirmation might be any of your readers give me a reference to a defound in almost any French novel—e. g., the first tailed pedigree of the O'Leary family? that comes under my hand is Clarétie's Maison

DE V, PAYEN-PAYNE. Vide,' ed. 1878, where, at p. 146 occurs “il lui serra la main à l'anglaise.” Further, they have adopted May

we not assume that this phrase owes its origin

“MUFFLED MOONLIGHT” (7th S. v. 208, 276).(invented ?) a special English word to express the action. See Geo. Ohnet, 'Les Dames de Croix to the well-known lines of Milton – Mort,' 1886, p. 205, “les shakehands s'échan- Unmuffle, ye faint stars; and thou fair Moon, gèrent"; Charles Joliet, 'Le Capitaine Harold,

That wont'st to love the travailer's benison,

Stoop thy palo visage through an amber cloud, 1886, p. 573,"après le shake-hands," &c.

And disinherit Chaos.

Comus,' 11. 331-4, R. H. BUSK.


DymPNA (7th S. v. 408, 491).—The most re(70 S. v. 347, 474).-In answer to Mr. GARDINER'S cent life of St. Dympna, the patroness of Gheel, query, I can inform him that no continuation of is, I believe, to be found in a little 12mo. volume the above book or “subsequent narration" by Mr. by Rev. John O'Hanlon, which was published at Ainslie (“Philo Scotus"), the author, was ever relative to Gheel itself and its hospital for the in

Dublin in 1863. A good deal of special information published.

R. A. G.

sane, gathered from a personal visit, is put together

in this little book, which I have on my shelves. The author was Philip Ainslie, son of Ainslie of

W. D. MACRAY. Pilton, and a relative to the Earl of Moray, whose factor he became of the estate of Dombrestle, in

St. Cozan (7th S. v. 489).-Nothing seems to Fife . He only published the one

volume. I knew be known of this person. His name occurs in the him; he was an intelligent and a gentlemanly Rev. Richard Stanton's Menology of England man. I think he went abroad, and died there.

and Wales' in the "List of Cornish Saints to whom J. A. STILLIE. churches have been dedicated, or who have given

their names to places, but who have left no SKULLS ON TOMBS (7th S. v. 449). -Sir Thomas sufficient record of their lives.” Browne ('Hydriotaphia, chap. iii. § 9) has the

EDWARD PEACOCK. following upon this subject :"Old considerations made few mementoes by skulls Biography' has mention of seven persons under

Smith and Wace’s ‘Dictionary of Christian and bones upon their monuments. obelisks and hieroglyphical figures it is not easy to meet the name “ Colum "_"the primary form of the with bones..... In the Jewish hypogæum and subterranean name, which becomes also Columbus, Columba,

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and as a diminutive Colman, Colmoc, Columban." Lord Archibald Campbell, in the 'Records of They all belong to Ireland. No fewer than forty- Argyll,' p. 29, devotes a paragraph to the descripone Colmans are enumerated in the same work. tion of a cannon at Inverary Castle recovered from

EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M. A. the wreck of the Florida, one of the ships of the Hastings.

Armada, sunk in Tobermory Bay, Mull. There is SPANISH WRECKS OFF ABERDEENSHIRE (7th S. another gun got from the same wreck at Dunstaff

J. A. O. v. 129, 257, 377).—With reference to the tradi- nage Castle. tion regarding the loss of the St. Catherine, Mr. When Lord Burghley wrote, " This man's ship Dalgarno, in Scottish Notes and Queries, vol. i. was drowned 17 Sept. in the Isle of Faire, near p. 121, states, in addition to what has been already Scotland,” he referred to the wreck of El Gran quoted from Pratt’s ‘Buchan,' that in 1876 a div. Grifon on Fair Isle, which lies half way between ing party succeeded in raising two guns and an Orkney and Shetland. This ship, belonging to anchor, which were sent by the Countess of Errol Rostock and of 650 tons burden, was one of the to Her Majesty at Balmoral. Mr. Dalgarno also chartered ships of the Armada. She was commentions a farmer in the neighbourhood having in manded by Don Juan Gomez de Medina, had on his possession untarnished Spanish dollars, of date board 43 * gente de mar," or mariners, and 243 1555, found in the locality. At p. 158 of the same "gente de guerra," or soldiers, under command of volume doubts are thrown on the story of the Capitana Patricio Antolinez and Esterian de Lego, wreck of the St. Catherine, and the St. Michael, retto - as appears from a copy of the Official another Spanish vessel said to have been cast away Spanish List in the British Museum. The narraon the Aberdeenshire coast. To these doubts Mr. tive of the shipwreck on Fair Isle and of the hardDalgarno replies (vol. ii. p. 12), and after stating ships endured, both by the Spaniards and the that since 1840 six guns have been recovered from islanders, before they were assisted from Shetland St. Catherine's Dub, the last of iron, in August, is well known and can be read in all local his1880, he goes on to say :

tories. See, in particular, Tudor's 'Orkney and “An admiral, who was then in the locality, doubted Shetland.'

A. L. whether the guns in question belonged to the Armada, as he said the guns of that period were generally made of DEMOCRACY (7th S. v. 446). —In reference to brass. A letter, however, was sent to the Spanish Am MR. DELEVINGNE's remarks, I would like to say bassador at London, who wrote to the Armoury in Spain that any one wanting to obtain a clear idea upon to get the matter solved. Information was received stating that the ill-fated St. Catherine was partly armed the etymological and political meaning of the ord with brass and partly with iron guns, and that one of the democracy cannot do better than consult the late ships of the Armada was driven ashore on the east coast Sir Henry Maine's essays on 'Popular Governof Scotland."

ment.' EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. Dr. R. Chambers, in the 'Domestic Annals of Hastings. Scotland,' vol. i. p. 186, makes no reference to the St. Catherine, but quotes from the ' Diary of the

OLIVER GOLDSMITH (7th S. v. 368).-Not necesRev. James Melville, of Anstruther, published by sarily abusive, for the term boor has a general the Bannatyne Club, regarding the loss of El Gran sense ; thus the Boers of South Africa are really Grifon, commanded by Juan Gomez de Medina

farmers ; so the “rude Corinthian boors the Fair Isle. Dr. Chambers also mentions the merely the local peasantry: German bauen, to till. loss of one of the Armada on the Mull of Kintyre,

The proper English word would be churi, A.-S. and of another in the Firth of Clyde, near Portin: ceorl, a man ; German Karl, English Charles ! cross Castle, in Ayrshire, and records the recovery

A. H. of some guns from the latter in 1740 and the ADJECTIVES ENDING IN -IC, -ICAL (7th S. v. 448). death of a descendant of one of the survivors of -In reply to the question of PROF. FEls respecting the crew in 1855.

the difference in the use of adjectives terminating Mr. Tudor, in his work on 'The Orkneys and in-ic and similar words terminating in -ical—for Shetland,' in describing the Fair Isle, mentions instance, comic, comical, dramatic, dramatical-I (p. 431, &c.) the wreck of El Gran Grifon as the think it must be admitted that no theory or rulo great historical incident of the Isle, and quotes can be given save the norma loquendi. But the Melville’s ‘Diary' and the annotated copy of the difference of meaning in the cases cited is easily official list of the Armada in the British Museum, given. A circumstance, phrase, situation characcomparing and analyzing the two at some length. terized as comic is credited with very superior Mr. Tudor also mentions tradition that qualities to such as are attributed to circumstances, another vessel of the Armada was wrecked near phrases, situations described as comical. The situaReawick Head, on the south side of the Shet- tion when Lady Teazle is discovered behind the land mainland, and, from what he states, this screen is comic; the blunders of Mrs. Malaprop seems to have a better foundation than many tradi- are comical. In the other case, dramatic may be tions.

predicated of the quality of an event or description



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many other

thereof; dramatical of the form of that descrip- mingled failed to understand its appropriateness tion. The dullest and most utterly flat piece ever till the suggestion was offered (and universally aoput upon the stage is dramatical, but by no means cepted) that his gait raised the image of an unsteady dramatic.

Τ. Α. Τ. balance, and that the bawk, or beam of a pair of

scales, had furnished the only name by which he There would appear to be no fixed rule regu- was known to the majority. A definition favourlating the difference of meaning between adjectives ing Bacchus as the origin of the sobriquet received with suffix -ic and those corresponding and with

no support.

THOMAS BAYNE, suffix -ical. The best method of showing that

Helensburgh, N.B. there is a difference seems to be to take several ordinary words of the class in question, and to

In the Isle of Axholme, where much of the land point out how each pair differs.

For instance,

is still unenclosed, this word retains the meaning take the words comic, tragic, politic, and cubic, it has in 'The Steele Glas':with their corresponding formg in -ical. The Nor that they set, debate betweno their lords, Greek sense is retained in comic and tragic, but is

By earing vp the balks, that part their bounds. merged in comical and tragical in a broader significa. We commonly call the more important boundaries

Arber, p. 78. tiop. Comic and tragic are art terms; the words comical and tragical have a more extensive range the neighbourhood, whom I recently asked to tell

meres, the lesser ones balks. A large farmer in A comic poet may write a comic play, of which the subject is a comical event or series of the townsmen or field-reeves of the various parishes

me the difference between the two, replied that events. So also with the word tragic. Politic is the reverse of comic and tragic, and has lost the not the balks. The bar or beam in the kitchen

have the power to let the meres for grazing, but Greek sense, yielding it to the longer form. Cubic chimney from which the pot-hooks hang we call denotes measure ; cubical, space. In words of this class the same rule holds, that there

galley balks.

C. C. B. is a difference in meaning between each pair, but

Here in the parish of Byfield is a strip of land which that there is no precise rule as to the exact influence is known by no other name than“Watr'y Balk.” It of the suffixes - zo and -ical.

divides a field which is let in allotments to the Julius STEGGALL, labouring population. The balk is wide enough to

answer as a cart road, and a never-failing spring BELGIAN ARMS (7th S. v. 408). -Am I correct at the upper end makes the balk rather watery in in imagining that J. E. alludes to "mou

wet seasons.

This balk is mown yearly. piloter," not moulins ? “De gueules à trois

W. M. GARDNER. moutons à piloter d'argent, cercles d'or”; these

Byfield, R.S.O. are the arms of Morrhe, Flanders. These arms occur as quartiers in the genealogy of Gaspar

MATTHEW's BIBLE, 1537 (7th S. v. 481).-R. R. Robert de Beer, Baron de Meulebeke, &c. I be- complains that in a tractate published by the late lieve these charges would be called in English B. M. Pickering in the year 1876 the collation of " pile-drivers" or "rams" ("moutons "). Randle Matthew's folio of 1537 is condensed, and that no Holme gives them under the latter name.

mention is made of a blank leaf in his copy, &c.

LEO CULLETON. To write a history of the early versions of the EngBALK (7th S. v. 128, 194, 291, 373). — Pro- is necessary.

lish Bible in one hundred small pages condensation nounced as Burns pronounced it when he sang of R. R. implies that I never possessed a copy of A rosebud by my early walk,

the Bible of 1537; but as my copy was bound for Adown & corn-enclosed bauk,

me by Mr. Pratt, and exhibited with some other and used with the same reference, this word is rare Bibles at the Carlisle meeting of the Royal common in Scotland to-day. Between two gardens Archæological Institute, plenty of evidence is prospecially familiar to me there is a footpath, which curable that R. R. is mistaken. from time immemorial has been called "the It is a pity that R. R. was in such a hurry to bawk," and it is so called at this hour by all who criticize my tractate, which has been years out of know it. Bawk is also used in the sense of beam, print, for if he had only waited a few weeks longer and it is quite accurate to describe a hen going to he would have found that in the second edition (of roost as flying on to its bawk. A recent joke, at about 400 pp.) a full collation of the 1537 Bible is the expense of a bachelor of solitary habits, turned given. Messrs. Eyre & Spottiswoode have had it upon the query whether it was not the case that in hand some time, and I hope when it is published he rested during the night on a bawk beside his it will meet with R. R.'s entire approval ; as to pigeons. "Auld Bawks” was a descriptive nick- please R. R. is the chief aim of my existence. name given to a quaint harvester in the days pre- The passage anent the prologues was intended ceding the introduction of mowers; and the third for the edition of 1549, but somehow the slips got generation of mortals with whom, Nestor like, be misplaced, and while the tractate was passing

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throagh the press I was too ill to see the proofs. sung by the Methodist congregations in connexion
Perhaps from a similar cause a dozen paragraph with this celebration, of which the chorus ran
marks are inserted in R. R.'s collation not one of thus :-
which exists in the book from which he quotes.

The God of our fathers, the God we revere,

Has bless'd us to see the centenary year.

O. C. B. Cecils (7th S. v. 467).—The following is from N. & Q.' I have found that exactly a century ago

May I say that since putting my question in "A New System of Domestic Cookery, by a Lady," the “Centenary of the Glorious Revolution of John Murray, 1819, p. 39 :

1688” was publicly celebrated throughout the “To dress the

same [cold beef that has not been done country, a fact of which, by the way, I have seen enough) called Cecile. Mince any kind of meat, crumbs of bread, a good deal of onion, some anchovies, lemon

no mention in the discussion of projects for bicen

See the Annual poel, salt, nutmeg, chopped parsley, pepper, and a bit of tonary celebrations this year. butter, warm and mix these over a fire for a few minutes; Register and other periodicals of that date. Perwhen cool enough, make them up into balls of the size haps some one with more time than I have would and shape of a turkey's egs, with an egg; sprinkle them reprint in ‘N. & Q.,' for the sake of the men of with fine crumbs, and then fry them of a yellow brown, and serve with gravy as before directed for Beef-olives." 1888, some account of how the events of 1688 The hypercritical may object that it is not the were commemorated in 1788.

J. A. H. MURRAY. same," but a preparation of the same that is called

Oxford, “Cecils”; also that beef is not "any kind of meat.” But it is not grammar that is wanted, but cookery, “OF A CERTAIN AGE” (7th S. v. 447).-I have and a change from " beef-olives” and “Sanders." always understood that the expression of a cer


tain age," applied as it generally is to ladies, A receipt how “to dress Cecils” is given in meant those who, though somewhat past their Walsh's Manual of Domestic Economy? (Rout- prime, would be offended if told that they were ledge, new edition, 1879).

i middle - aged." Dickens used the phrase in EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.

Barnaby Rudge, chap. i. :Hastings.

« The Maypole was really an old house, a very old

house, perhaps as old as it claimed to be, and perhaps CENTURY: CENTENARY (7th S. v. 467). —The older, which will sometimes happen with houses of an examples given below may perhaps be of some uncertain, as with ladies of a certain age. service to DR. MURRAY. Samuel Clark's 'Epistle

J. F. MANSERGH. to the Christian Reader,' dated December 10, 1649,

Liverpool, prefixed to bis “Marrow of Ecclesiastical History,' The Spectator of June 9 says, in an article on contains, Here [the learned, &c.] shall see in the taste for publicity : what Centuries, Ages and Places the famousest

“There is a rapidly increasing number of persons Lights of the Church......have flourished.” See whose object it is to live a double life, instead of the ono also the title-page. As regards centenary, under which has hitherto satisfied the majority of civilized the heading “Chronicle of Occurrences ' in the beings—not only the private life which all lead, but the Companions to the British Almanac' for 1855, half

public life which attaches to those who have become 1860, and 1863, there are the following records:

the objects of a certain notoriety and public curiosity."

This will probably give Dr. Murray some light July 3, 1854. “The centenary festival of the Society of Arts celebrated by a banquet at the Crystal Palace."


C. C. B.

the subject of his query. November 17, 1858. “ Celebration of the Tercentenary P.S.—Here is another illustration that has just of Queen Elizabeth's accession to the throne."

January 26, 1859. “ Centenary of Robert Burne's birthday," &c.

“His feet are set rather wide apart, in the fashion of November 10, 1859. “Centenary of the birth of the gentlemen approaching a certain weight."— Out of the German poet Schiller.” &c.

Question,' by W. D. Howells, pp. 133-4, Edinburgh, 1882. August 24, 1862. “ Bicentenary of the ejection of 2,000

“What is the exact meaning of this expression nonconforming clergymen.” See also p. 244.


so far as it can be defined ?” is asked. May it Liverpool.

not be answered almost, but not quite, accurately

that it means "an uncertain age," i, e., the age of This use of centenary is older by at least twenty a person (always, I think, in English of a woman) years than the Burns celebration of 1859. The who has certainly left youth behind her, but who centenary of Methodism was celebrated in 1839, is not willing that the distance it lies behind her when a tune-book called the Centenary Tune- should be exactly stated. The phrase may be debook' (which I well remember) was published. I scribed as a satirico - euphemistical ope, and, I can give (from a friend's memory) a contemporary should say, is rarely, if ever, used without a more quotation for the word. A hymn or anthem was or less overtly pronounced satirical intention.

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