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Each shoulder broad, came mantling o'er his breast
Sky-tinctured grain. Like Maia's son he stood, 5 And shook his plumes, that heavenly fragrance filled
The circuit wide. Straight knew him all the bands
Wantoned as in her prime, and played at will 6 Her virgin fancies, pouring forth more sweet,
Wild above rule or art-enormous bliss.
True appetite, and not disrelish thirst
" Haste hither, Eve, and, worth thy sight, behold, Eastward among those trees, what glorious shape Comes this way moving! seems another morn Ris'n on mid-noon: some great behest from heaven To us, perhaps, he brings, and will rouchsafe This day to be our guest. But go with speed, And what thy stores contain bring forth, and pour
Abundance, fit to honor and receive
Our givers their own gifts, and large bestow
To whom thus Eve : “Adam, earth's hallowed mould,
To nourish, and superfluous moist consumes:
Each plant and juciest gourd, will pluck such choice
The History of Property.—PALEY. i The first objects of property were the fruits which a man
gathered, and the wild animals he caught ; next to these, the tents or houses which he built, the tools he made use of to catch or prepare his food ; and afterwards weapons of war and offerce. Many of the savage tribes in North America have advanced no farther than this yet ; for they are said to reap their harvest and return the produce of their market with foreigners, into the common hoard or treasury of the tribe. Flocks and herds of tame animals soon became property. Abel, the second from Adam, was 2 a keeper of sheep; sheep and oxen, camels and asses, com
posed the wealth of the Jewish patriarchs, as they do still of the modern Arabs. As the world was first peopled in the East, where there existed a great scarcity of water, wells probably were next made property; as we learn froni the frequent and serious mention of them in the Old Testament; the contentions and treaties about them ; and from its being recorded, among the most memorable achievements of very eminent men, that they dug or dis
covered a well. Land, which is now so important a part 3 of property, which alone our laws call real property, and
regard upon all occasions with such peculiar attention, was probably not made property in any country, till long after the institution of many other species of property, that is, till the country became populous, and tillage began to be
The first partition of an estate which we read
of, was that which took place between Abrain and Lot, and was one of the simplest imaginable : “ If thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go the right; or if thou de
part to the right hand, then will I go to the left.” There 4 are no traces of property in land in Cæsar's account of
Britain ; little of it in the history of the Jewish patriarchs ; none of it found amongst the nations of North America : the Scythians are expressly said to have appropriated their cattle and houses, but to have left their land in common.
Property in immoveables, continued at first no longer than the occupation ; that is, so long as a man's family continued in possession of a cave, or whilst his flocks depastured upon a neighboring hill, no one attempted, or thought her:
had a right to disturb or drive them out: but, when the 5 man quitted his cave, or changed his pasture, the first what
found them unoccupied, entered upon them, by the same title as his predecessor's ; and made way in his turn for any one that happened to succeed him.
All more permanent property in land was probably posterior to civil: government and to laws; and therefore settled by these, or according to the will of the reigning chief.
Use of the Institution of Property.—PALEY. 1 The principal advantages of the institution of property
are, First, It increases the produce of the earth. The earth, in climates like ours, produces little without cultivation ; and none would be found willing to cultivate the ground, if others were to be admitted to an equal share of the produce. The same is true of the care of flocks and herds of tame animals. Crabs and acorns, red deer, rabbits, game, and fish, are all which we should have to subsist upon in this country, if we trusted to the spontaneous productions of the soil: and it fares not much better with other countries. A nation of North American savages, consisting of two or three hundred, will take up, and be half starved upon a tract of land, which in Europe, and with European management, would be sufficient for the maintenance of as many thousands. In some fertile soils, together with great
abundance of fish upon their coasts, and in regions where clothes are unnecessary, a considerable degree of population
may subsist without property in land; which is the case in the islands of Otaheite : but in less favored situa
tions, as in the country of New Zealand, though this sort 3 of property obtain in a small degree, the inhabitants, for want of a more secure and regular establishment of it, are driven oftentimes by the scarcity of provision to devour one another.
Second, It preserves the produce of the earth to maturity. We may judge what would be the effects of a community of right io the productions of the earth, from the trifling specimens which we see of it at present. A cherry-tree
in a nedge-row, nuts in a wood, the grass of an unstinted - pasture, are seldom of much advantage to any body, be* cause people do not wait for the proper season of reaping them. Corn, if any were sown, would never ripen ; lambs and calves would never grow up to sheep and cows, because the first person that met them would reflect, that he had Delter iáke them as they are, than leave them for another.
Third, li picrents contests.. War and waste, tumult and contusiou, must be unavoidable and eternal, where there is not enougă for all, and where there are no rules
to adjust the divis]011. 5
Fourth, It improves the conveniency of living. This it does two ways.
Il erables mankind to divide themselves into distinct professionis ; which is impossible, unless a man can exchange the productions of his own art for what he wants from others; and exchange implies property. Much of the advantages of civilized over savage life depends upon this. When a man is from necessity his own tailor, tentmaker, carpenter, cook, huntsman, and fisherman, it is impossible that he will be expert at any of his callings.
Hence the rude habitations, furniture, clothing, and imple6 ments of savages; and the tedious length of time which
all their operations require. It likewise encourages those arts, by which the accommodations of human life are supplied, by appropriating to the artists the benefit of his discoveries and improvements ; without which appropriation, ingenuity will never be exerted with effect.
Upon these several accounts we may venture, with a
few exceptions, to pronounce, that even the poorest and the worst provided, in countries where property and the
consequences of property prevail, are in a better situation, 7 with respect to food, raiment, houses, and what are called
the necessaries of life, than any are in places where most things remain in common.
The balance, therefore, upon the whole, must preponderate in favor of property with a manifest and great excess. Inequality of property, in the degree in which it exists in most countries of Europe, abstractedly considered, is an evil ; but it is an evil which flows from those rules concerning the acquisition and disposal of property, by which men are incited to industry, and by which the object of their industry is rendered secure and valuable. If there be any great inequality unconnected with this origin, it ought to be corrected.
This friend, that brother ;-friends and brothers all ;
You seek respect no doubt, and you will find it. 2 But if you are poor, Heaven help you! though your sire
Had royal blood within him, and though you
3 I once saw a poor fellow, keen and clever,
He walked on this side, then on that,