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the purity is stated to be 60, it signifies that out of every one hundred pounds of material dissolved in water, sixty pounds are sugar.
In cultivating, harvesting, milling and all subsequent manipulations, the aim should be to increase the purity of the cane juice; for the higher the parity the larger will be the yield of crystallized sugar.
By referring to the table it is evident, for both mill and diffusion products, that the juice from stripped cane is much purer than that from unstripped cane.
It is also evident, in case of the unstripped cane, that the mill juice is superior to diffusion juice, from cell No. 9; also that cell No. 9 contains the most impure juice in the battery.
In case of stripped cane, however, the diffusion juice from cell No. 9 is five degrees purer than the mill juice; the average purity of the juice in the last five cells is also higher than that in the first five. .
These differences in quality between products from stripped and unstripped cane are due to the leaves and leaf sheaths alone. Direct experiments both by milling and by diffusion sustain this opinion. The leaves used were moistened before they were ground. Diffusion products came from cell No. 6. .
PURITY OF MILL AND DIFFUSION PRODUCTS FROM LEAVES AND LEAF SHEATHS.
Out of every one hundred pounds of solids, separated from leaves, &c., by diffusion, there are eighty-six pounds of worse than worthless matter and fourteen pounds only of sugar. This fact offers a reasonable explanation for the low yields of crystallized sugar and the relatively high yield of syrup, common in the sorghum industry. There seems to be but one rational way of avoiding this trouble, that is to construct a stripping machine; for all of this injurious matter can be kept out of the sugar house, but cannot be readily removed if allowed to go into solutions.
COLOR AND TASTE OF DIFFUSION PRODUCTS FROM UNSTRIPPED CANE. It has been already stated that in color, taste and acidity, diffusion juices from stripped cane equal mill juice from stripped cane.
In comparison diffusion juice from unstripped cane was dark colored, bitter and decidedly acid.
The diffusion juice from the leaves and leaf sheaths was very dark even when it was drawn from the first diffuser. This color deepened rapidly as the juice grew more concentrated; the bitter taste also became intense. A portion of this juice was allowed to stand over night, and the next morning putrefaction was evident.
The fact that juice of low purity gives very poor yields of crystallized sugar and relatively high yields of syrup has been already noted. Sales of syrup are based almost exclusively upon color and taste, a few shades either way having greater influ. ence upon the market price than noticeable variations in percentages of sugar. From a financial standpoint, therefore, the effect of leaves upon the color and taste of syrups is of extreme importance.
This effect has been seen upon a large scale at Rio Grande. During this past season, as already stated, the diffusion battery was operated for twenty-six days upon mill bagakse from unstripped cane; this was done partly to avoid waste of sugar, and partly to test the apparatus and train the workmen.
The juice was skillfully handled and clarified, but, owing to the color and taste due to leaves, the two hundred and twenty-nine barrels of heavy syrup secured are not worth more than one-half as much as an equal quantity of the standard syrap made at this house from mill juice.
CONCLUSION. The comparison of diffusion products from stripped and unstripped cane indicates that the financial success of the sorghum sugar industry now depends largely upon the removal of leaves and leaf sheaths.
1. Because their presence in the diffusers increases the amount of water to be evaporated by thirty-three per cent.
2. Because they impart to diffusion juices a very dark color and intensely bitter taste, the effect of which is to reduce the market value of syrups at least one-half.
SUMMARY. When the above conclusions, drawn under the heading II. and III., are studied in connection with the approximately correct reports of expenses and sales, under present working processes, the following general statements seem warrantable:
1. If carefully stripped cane only is used at Rio Grande, the substitution of diffasion for milling will be followed by financial success. 2. If unstripped cane is diffused, financial success will still be problematic:
1. Because of evaporation expenses ;
2. Because of a serious depreciation in the market value of syrups, due to their inferior taste and color.
GEO. H. COOK, Director. NEW BRUNSWICK, N. J., December 21st, 1885..
THE LABOR LEGISLATION OF NEW JERSEY.
Laws Relating to the Employment of Labor and Affecting the
Interests of Wage-Earners in this State.
(Compiled from the Public Statutes.)
APPENDIX. THE LABOR LEGISLATION OF NEW JERSEY.'
LAWS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF LABOR AND AFFECTING
THE INTERESTS OF WAGE-EARNERS IN THIS STATE.
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. An Act to establish a bureau of statistics upon the subject of
labor, considered in all its relations to the growth and development of state industries.
WHEREAS, as guardians of the public welfare, the state authorities are called upon to
consider and in all legitimate ways endeavor to improve the physical, mental and moral condition of the state, especially those whose daily toil contributes so largely to the prosperity of manufacturing and other productive industries ;
therefore, 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the State of New Jersey, That there shall be appointed from this state, on nomination of the governor, to be confirmed by the senate, some suitable person to act as chief of, and who shall constitute a bureau of statistics with headquarters in the state house, who shall hold his office for five years and until his successor is appointed.
2. That the duties of such bureau shall be to collect, assort, systematize, and present in annual reports to the legislature, on or before the last day of October in each year, statistical details relating to all departments of labor in the state, especially in its relations to the commercial, industrial, social, educational and sanitary condition of the laboring classes, and in all suitable and lawful ways foster and enlarge our manufacturing and every other class of productive industry, with the view to their permanent establishment upon a prosperous basis, both to the employer and the employed.
3. That the said chief shall have power to examine witnesses under oath.
4. That the compensation of said chief shall be twenty five hundred dollars annual salary, and he is hereby authorized, in concurrence with the governor and comptroller, to employ such assistance and incur such expense in the discharge of his official duties, not exceeding the sum of two thousand dollars, including printing, stationery, traveling expenses, postage, and so forth; provided, that no assistant shall receive more than four dollars per day.
5. That the treasurer of this state is hereby authorized to pay from any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, and upon receipt of vouchers by the said