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D.-DAILY RATIONS COSTING FROM TWENTY TO FORTY-FIVE CENTS.
(Since the delivery of the above address, Hon. Carroll D. Wright, the President of the Convention, has asked me in what form the statistics of dietaries of the people would be most valuable as data for determining the actual amounts of nutritive material consumed. The following brief statement suggests some points in answer to this question.
If the pecuniary cost of the dietary is the only or the principal matter to be considered, the statement of the total amounts of meats, vegetables, and other food-materials purchased may suffice. If, however, it be desired to determine the actual nutritive value of the dietary, and with this to answer the question whether the amounts of the several classes of nutrients, protein, fats and carbohydrates, are insufficient, excessive
or properly adapted to the needs of the consumer, the statements should be of such sort as to permit a reasonably accurate estimate of the actual amounts of nutrients in the food. It is likewise important to know whether all the food is actually eaten, or whether a part of it is wasted.
It is accordingly essential that the amounts of each of the food-materials should be stated in pounds. The legal bushel for certain articles may have one weight in one State, and a different weight in another State. When a chemist is told that the dietary includes so many bunches of onions or cans of corn, though he may know the average composition of corn and onions as they ordinarily grow, he is at a loss to tell how much of the nutritive materials the dietary contained, because of this lack of definiteness in the statement of the amounts of materials. If the statement is made that a family consupied so many pounds of beef in a year, he is again unable to estimate the amounts of nutrients it contained, because there are such wide differences in the composition of beef of various kinds, and espectally in the portions or "cuts," as the butchers call them, from the different parts of the same animal. A glance at the tables of composition of food-materials given in the address above will illustrate this point. I have been much perplexed in some attempts toward calculating the nutri. tive materials in dietaries from the fact that the amounts and kinds of materials are not stated with such definiteness as to permit an at all satisfactory estimate of their composition. In brief, if it is desired to ascertain the actual dietetic value of the food, or its fitness for the needs of the consumer, or if we seek an answer to the question as to whether it contains nutrients in proper amounts and proportions, and how it might be altered so as to make it better for his nourishment or for his porse, the weight of each food-material, and as complete a description as possible of each article, should be given. That an accurate estimate of any given dietary is possible even with data in the form suggested is, of course, not to be assumed. The only way to determine the exact amount of nutrients is to analyze the food actually cousumed. But if the statistician's figures and descriptions are reasonably accurate and detailed, an at least approximate calculation of the composition is possible.]
OTHERS, IN REPLY TO QUESTIONS NUMBERS 27 AND 28,
BOTTLE AND VIAL GLASS Blowers: MILLVILLE.-" The causes that lead to financial embarrassment in my trade are the result of immoral habits among the workmen themselves, such as drink, and the desire to live beyond the sphere their Wages will allow. In this way they exhaust their earnings and neglect their duties to their families. The great need is education and a higher and better knowledge of our rights and privileges." "Prohibition of the liquor traffic would greatly improve the condition of glass blowers as a body. Great advance has been made in this respect within a few years, but there is room for greater improvement still." "Selfishness is the great hindrance to the progress of the working people; too many look out, as they call it, for No. 1. To accomplish anything of consequence for the improve. ment and elevation of the working people there must be a sacrifice of self.” “Glass blowers' opportunities, in early life, for education have been very limited, but night schools accomplished much for them nevertheless. The League has done a great deal in the way of practical education by bringing the intellectual powers into active exercise, and has given to the members opportunities to familiarize themselves. with matters that pertain to their occupation. This has been of great advantage in securing a better rate of wages, so that it is the boast of our members that we have for the past four or five years been paid the highest rate possible under the wage system and the existing conditions of trade. The profits of employers have been reduced to the minimum, and the only hope for an increase must come by co-operation, under which the whole of the profits will be secured to the workers." " Ram is a great curse to glass blowers. I hope to see the day when it will be placed where it properly belongs, that is, on the top shelf in the drug store, labeled poison."
CLAYTON.--"Among the other institutions of reform, we are largely indebted to Sunday schools for improvements in the morals of the working classes."
GLASSBORO._" We have in our trade men who are intellectually equal to any in the professions; but as a rule we are deficient in education. What we want is better opportunities for education." "The moral condition of glass blowers, generally, is above the average so far as this State is concerned." "If glass blowers would practice temperance to a greater extent it would vastly improve them. Entire prohibition of the liquor traffic would be a good thing, more so than anything else at present.” “The financial state of glass blowers is improving; many of them own their own homes, and many more have savings invested."
WOODBURY.—"A strict enforcement of the Child Labor law, with compulsory attendance at school at least three months in the year of all under sixteen years of age." "The glass blowers, as a rule, are sober, industrious men, but some of them are addicted to drink; for the sake of their families the liquor traffic should be abolished by prohibition.” “An eight-hour law would benefit us."
SALEM.-" The glass blowers are intelligent, but few have had the advantage of even a common school education, being deprived of the opportunity by early apprenticeship." "Shorter hours of labor and more time for recreation.” " Trades unions to be prosperous should see that the members strictly obey the laws." "I hope to see the wage system superseded by co-operation." "Stopping the sale of rum would vastly improve the trade."
WILLIAMSTOWN.—"My opinion, after carefully studying the condition of our trade and the amount of money we spend in strikes to maintain wages, is that it would be better, when the employers are not willing to allow us a fair share of the profits, to use our money by starting business on our own account under the direction of the Glass Blowers' League. Twenty thousand dollars used in this way would be more effectual in a strike than to eat it up through idleness. I am opposed to strikes for the reason that they cost too much, but I do not see how they are to be avoided at times, so I believe the best there is to adopt the plan here suggested; and even though the strike fails, our money will not be wasted.” “Industrial schools for our children would be a great benefit.”
WINsLow.—" The proper training of our children will greatly improve their future condition. I believe with our present free schools, they have a far better future before them than ours has been." "The temperance reform is doing a great work for the wage-workers."
WILTON.--" Wages were withheld during the blast by the employer, who failed, as I believe, through his own neglect of business, and the workmen will lose heavily by his failure. The law should compel employers to pay wages in full once every week." "The law should make it criminal for employers not to pay the workmen their wages." " There should be a law to compel the payment of wages in full, in cases of failure. We have worked for a year and now have to lose all we have saved." “ The firm has failed, and they owe mo $400, which I have worked hard for; there should be some way to compel the payment of wages." " Weekly or, at least, monthly payment of wages in full, would greatly benefit the working people here.” “The workmen should take into consideration the subject of co-operation, not stock concerns; the two are very different; the former has the educational feature, which workmen need for succeeg,"
FLINT GLAES BLOWERS: MILLVILLE.—"We are fully up to the best of wage workers.” “We have made our condition by organized effort.” “The education of our children is the foundation for the future prosperity of the workingmen, and in this way we are making rapid progress." "Have not given much attention to these things, but think our elevation lies in education.” “Workingmen's institutes, libraries and technical schools are among the means to elevate the laboring classes."
LAMP WORKERS: MILLVILLE.—"In Bohemia they make large quantities of the goods, and produce in private families, in addition to their regular work. This Bohemian glassware is brought to this country and sold at very low rates, which is a great injury to our trade of lamp work, by which many fancy articles of great beauty are made.” “The condition of the workers in Alint glass has been much improved