Introduction to Chemical Physics: Designed for the Use of Academies, High Schools, and Colleges. Illus. with Numerous Engravings, and Containing Copious Lists of Experiments with Directions for Preparing Them

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D. Van Nostrand, 1873 - 550 Seiten
 

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Inhalt

Chemistry b connected with many processes in the Arts
10
Chemistry explains Respiration
11
Chemistry explains the extraction of Metals
12
Importance of Chemistry
13
Chemistry depends ujoii the Balance
14
Apparatus required in Chemistry
15
Simple and Compound substances distinguished
16
The number of the Elements
17
Chemical Affinity defined IS 34 The active Agents of Chemistry
19
The Chemical AgentsHeat Light Electricity why called
20
The study of Chemistry begins with the Chemical Agents
21
CHAPTER II
22
Heat present in all bodies
23
Heat and Cold relative terms 2 1
24
Three modes in which Heat seeks an Equilibrium
25
First mode Conduction
26
Density favorable to Conduction
27
Tn Page
28
Porous bodies bad conductors
29
P Pacis 58 The second mode of diffusionConvection
37
Convection in Gases
38
What makes heated Water and Air ascend
40
The ascension of heated Liquids and Gases illustrated
41
The third mode of diffusionRadiation
42
Go Radiant Heat follows the same laws as Radiant Light
43
Other circumstances affecting the rate of Radiation
45
Radiation takes place from points beneath the surface
46
The radiation of the Earth
47
The theory of Radiation
48
Concave Mirrors
49
Experiments with two Concave Mirrors
50
Illustrations of Conduction
51
The different reflecting powers of different substances
52
The apparent radiation and reflection of Cold
53
Practical applications
54
The reflection of Heat by Fireplaces
55
The absorption of Radiant Heat
56
The ab orption of Hjat affected by Color
57
Transmission of Heat depends upon tho source from which it proceeds
58
Transmission of Heat from different sources of equal intensitv different for the same substance
59
Transmission of Radiant Heat from the same source different for different substancesDiathermancy
61
Diathermancy not proportioned to Transparency
62
8D The diathermancy of Liquids
64
The diathermancy of Gases
65
Diathermancy explained on the supposition that there aro differ ent kinds of Heat
66
The different kinds of Heat separated from each other
69
Different kinds of Heat emitted by different sources of Heat
70
XU TABLE OF CONTENTS Pal Vxa 95 Unequal diathermancy of Heat from different sourccsdue to the different kinds of Heat emitted
72
The refrangibility of rays of heat may be altered by re radia tionCalorescencc
74
The double refraction and polarization of Heat
75
The different processes through which Heat may pass in seeking an Equilibrium
76
Effects of HeatExpansion 100 Expansion produced by Heat
79
Expansion of Solids proved
80
The expansion of Metals
82
Illustrations of Expansion
83
Applications in the Arts
85
Injurious effects of Expansion
86
Fracture produced by sudden cooling
87
Metallic instruments injured by Expansion
88
Other Compensation Pendulums
89
The Compensation Balance
90
The expansion of Liquids
91
The expansion of the Liquids produced by the condensation of the Gases
92
The expansion of Air
93
Exception to the general law of expansion by heatWater at i certain temperatures contracts from Heat and expands from Cold
95
Important effects of this exception
96
This peculiar constitution of water proved by experiment
97
Water expands in freezing
98
Illustrations of this Force in Nature
99
Other substances also expand in Solidifying
100
The Air Thermometer
101
The Differential Thermometer
102
The Mercurial Therniomc cr
103
Construction of the Thermometer
104
Fahrenheits Scale
105
Other Thermometric Scales
106
Different forms of the Thermometer
108
Metallic Thermometers
109
Pyrometers 110
110
Effect of HeatLiquefaction 138 Heat of Composition
112
Liquefaction produced by Heatmelting point
113
The amount of Heat absorbed during the melting of Ice
114
The amount of Heat thus absorbed shown by experiment
115
Solids cannot be heated above their point of fusion until the whole of the solid is melted llfi
116
The Heat absorbed in Liquefaction is given out in solidification
117
Liquefaction always produces a reduction of Temperature
118
Freezing Mixtures
119
Salts and Acids dissolved in Water lower the freezing point
120
Two substances mixed often melt at a lower temperature than either separatelyFluxes
121
required
122
The beneficial effects of this Constitution
124
Vaporization
126
The physical properties of Vaj ors
127
Absorption of Heat in Ebullition
128
The amount of Heat absorbed not the same for all Vapors
130
The Boiling point variableinfluenced by atmospheric pressure
131
AVollastons Hypsometer
133
Solids dissolved in a Liquid elevate its boiling point
134
Elevation of the boiling point indicates increase of pressure
135
The culinary paradoxWater made to boil by the application of Cold
137
The Condensation of Steam by decrease of Temperature 159
140
The two forms of the Steam Lupine
142
The Steam Engine in its most complete lorm
143
Latent Heat of the Condensing Engine
145
The Boiler
146
The Boiler is an apparatus for forming and compressing Steam
147
Law of the propagation of pressure through Fluids
149
Mode in which pressure is transmitted from the Boiler to the Cylinder
150
Explosion of Boilers
151
The Boilers of Locomotives
152
Steam may be used expansively
155
riB PiCS 187 No economy of fuel in boiling Water at a low Temperature
156
No economy in using Liquids which boil at a lower Temperature than Water 133
158
Papins Digester
159
The Spheroidal state
160
The Spheroidal state explains the explosions of Boilers 1G2 193 Distillation
164
Uses of Distillation 1C6 195 The separation of two Liquids by Distillation 106
166
experiments effects of heatebullition167168169
167
Effects of HeatEvaporation 196 Evaporation
169
The amount of Vapor formed and its elasticity proportioned to Temperature 170
170
These truths illustrated by Experiment
171
The rapidity of Evaporation varies with the pressure In a vacuum it is instantaneous
172
The amount of Evaporation of different Liquids in a vacuum at the same Temperature is unequal
173
The elastic force of Vapor in a confined space does not vary with pressure but with Temperature
174
The clastic force of Vapor in two connecting vessels cannot riss above the elastic force proper to the colder vessel
177
The rate of Evaporation of different Liquids in Air is unequal
179
The presence of Vapor in Air affects its bulk and density ISO 206 The circumstances which influence Evaporation
181
Cause of the CoM produced by Evaporation
184
The Pulse Glass
186
Effect of Evaporation on Climate
187
The amcnnt of watery Vapor contained in the Air
188
Effect of reducing the temperature of the Air upon the amount of watery Vapor contained in it
191
Constitution of Gasesdifference between Vapors and Gases
194
The amount of pressure varies with the Gas
195
Thiloriers process for solidifying Carbonic acid
196
Solid Carbonic acid 226 Solidification of other gases 198
198
226 Natterers process for liquefying gases improved by Ritchie
200
227 Evaporation of liquefied gases applied to the manufacture of ice
202
228 Carrfs Ice Machine
205
The pressure exerted by liquefied gases
207
The constitution of the Globe dependent upon temperature
208
EXPERIMENTS EFFECTS OF HEATEVAPORATION209
209
Specific HeatCapacity for Heat 229 The amount of Heat in different bodies of the same Tempera ture unequal Specific Heat
210
Proof that different bodies of equal weight contain unequal amounts of Heat Method of mixture
211
Specific Heat determined by the time required to heat equal weights of different bodies equally
212
Specific Heat determined by rate of cooling
213
Specific Heat determined by the amount of Ice melted
214
Specific Heat determined by the rise of Temperature produced in equal weights of Water
215
The Specific Heat of Water 2I6 237 The Specific Heat of Solids
216
The Specific Heat of Gases
217
Rcgnaults determination of the Specific Heat of Gases
219
241 The Specific Heat of a body may be changed by altering its density
220
The distribution of temperature in the atmosphere explained
226
The Sources of Heat
232
The reflection of Light
250
The refraction of Light
251
The double refraction and polarization of Light
252
The compound nature of Solar Light The illuminating rays
253
The numler of vibrations required to produce the different col ors of the Solar Spectrum
256
The Chemical rays of the Solar beam
258
The triple character of Solar Light
260
The spectra produced by Artificial light and colored flames
262
The Solar Spectrum not continuous but crossed by fixed dark linesFraunhofers Lines
263
Spectra produced by the light of the Nebula and by Artificial light crossed by bright instead of dark lines
265
Spectrum Analysis
266
The Spectroscope
268
The new metals discovered by Spectrum Analysis 2ti9
269
The dark lines of the Solar Spectrum exactly coincident with the bright lines of spectra produced by the metals
271
Tam Pack
272
The effects of Solar Light on Chemical com ounds
279
Practical importaneeof distinguishing between the Illuminating
285
30J The sources of Electricity
292
TA3LE OF CONTENTS Pli Pa 312 The theory of Induction
298
31 Electricity confined to the external surface of bodies
299
Theories of Electricity
300
a Deve opmcnt of large quantitiesThe Electrical Machine
301
The Leyden Jar
302
Mode of charging the Leyden Jar
304
The theory of the Leyden Jar 3H 319 The Elcctrophorus 3155
306
The effects of Electricity
307
t EXPERIMENTS ON STATICAL ILECTRICITY296
311
Discovery of Galvanic Electricity 324 Galvanis theory
312
Correction of Galvanis theory by Volta
313
The Voltaic Tile
314
True theory of the Pile 328 Chemical constitution of the substances used to produce Voltaic Electricity
315
Proof that Chemical decomposition is the source of Galvanic Electricity
317
The decomposing plate is the point of departure of the Electrical current
318
Mode of transfer of the Hydrogen
319
The part played by the Copper plate
320
The polarization and transfer of the elements of the Liquid and the polarization of the Solid particles of the circuit necessary for the electric force to c...
321
Proof that a state of electrical Tension exists in the plates before the actual passage of the current 823
323
The energy of the current proportionate to the Chemical activity
324
The direction of the current dependent npon the direction of the Chemical action
325
Direct metallic connection between the generating and conduct 7
326
The Gas Batterv
327
The Galvanic Battery
329
Batteries of Intensity and Batteries of Quantity
330
Improved Batteries
331
The Sulphate of Copper Battery
333
Grove s Battery
335
Bunsens Battery 336
336
Sinees Battery 337
337
Management ot Batteries 337 j 349 De Lucs Pilethe dry File
339
Proof of the similarity of the electricity of the Battery and that of the Electrical Machine
340
The difference between Galvanic and Statical Electricity
341
Heating effects of the Galvanic current
343
Luminous effects
344
Duboscqs Electric Lamp
345
Discovery of the Electric Light
346
The properties and intensity of the Electric Light
347
Heating effects are best produced by batteries of Quantity
348
The decomposition of Water by the Battery
349
The decomposition of Water is effected by the polarization and transfer of its component elements
350
The decomposition of other compound Liquids
352
The decomposition of Metallic Salts in solution
353
The Glass Cup with porous diaphragm
354
Secondary decomposition
355
The experiment of three cups connected by Syphons
357
Sir H Davys experiment in which the Acids and Alkalies under the influence of the current seem to lose their ordinary affinity
358
The successive action of the same current on different vessels of Water
359
T IR pAaI 876 The successive action of the same current on vc sels containing dimrent compound Liquids
360
ElectroNegative bodies
361
The amount of Zinc dissolved from the generating plate is pro portioned to the amount of Chemical decomposition produced and vice versa
362
Electroplating and gilding
363
33 Electrotyping
364
The protection of the Copper sheathing of ships
366
3S5 Magnetic effects of the current
367
What is a Magnet?
369
The mutual actions of the Foles
370
The Astatic Needle
371
The induction of Magnetism
372
The diamagnetism of Gases
373
Oxvgen a magnetic substance
374
Magnetic and Diamagnctic bodies
375
The Galvanic current produces magnetismElectromagnets
376
Molecular movements during the magnetization of bars
378
The Astatic Galvanometer
379
The Liquid part of the Voltaic circuit acts upon the magnetic needle
380
The Laws of Electromagnetism
381
The magnetic effect of the wire carrying the current accounted for by Amperes thcorv
383
The most powerful form of Electromagnetsthe Horse Shoe Magnet
386
The Magnetic Telegraph
387
Morses Electromagnetic Indicator
390
The Telegraphic manipulator and Morses alphabet 891
393
The transmission of messages
395
Telegraphic Batteries
396
Caillauils Battery
397
The Sand Battery
398
j The velocity of the telegraphic current
401
The Atlantic Telegraph Cable 40 3
403
c
406
The Rate of transmission
407
HUtory of the Atlantic Telegraph
408
Application of Elcctromaguciuin to the production of Motion
409
The Electromotor of M Fremont
412
Stewarts Electromotor
414
Electro magnetic Clocks
416
0 The Electric Firealarm
417
Electric Gaslighting
420
Progress of discovery in Electro magnetism
421
Galvanic Induced Electricity 433 Voltaelectric Induction
423
Faradays Experiments
425
The inductive effect of the Primary current often takes place through a considerable distance
428
Induction of a momentary Secondary current by tho approach and removal of the primary current
429
The conditions of Induction and properties of inducod currents
431
Induction of a Secondary current in the primary wire itself
433
Induced Tertiary currents Henrys Coils
436
History of the discovery of Voltaelectric Induction
438
MagnetoElectricity 442 Magneto electric Induction
439
TABLE OF CONTENTS P ol PAa 444 History of the discovery of Magnetoelectricity
442
Volta Magnetoelectric Induction
443
History of the discovery of the Induction of Electricity by Elec tromagnetism
444
Aragos Rotations
446
The magnetism of the Earth induces secondary currents of Elec tricity in metallic bodies in motion
448
Magnetoelectric Induction confirms Amperes Theory
449
Pages Separable helices
450
The Circuitbreaker
452
Ruhmkorffs Coil for inducing secondary electrical currents
454
453 The Condenser 454 RuhmkorfTs Coil complete 456
456
Ritchies improved Ruhmkorffs Coil
459
The management of Ruhmkorffs Coil
462
The mechanical effects of Ruhmkorffs Coil
464
The Luminous effects
466
The Light intermittent and affected by the Magnet
470
Application of Geisslers Tubes to medical purposes and to the illumination of Mines
472
Application of Ruhmkorffs Coil to Spectrum Analysis
473
Chemical effects
474
Conversion of Carbon into the Diamond by the long continued action of the Coil
477
Saxtons Magnetoelectric Machine
480
Pages Magnetoelectric Machine
483
Magneto electricity used in the Arte in place of Voltaic electric ity especially for the illumination of Lighthouses
485
Wildes Magnetoelectric Machine 469 Improvements of 49
495
470 Siemens and Wheatstones Machines
496
471 Ladds first Machine 472 Ladds second Machine 497
497
Difference between the electricity of the machine and battery
500
Points of resemblance between the electricity of the Machine and the secondary electrical currents induced by the primary current and by Magnets
502
Heat produces Electricity
510
259
512
Farmers Thermoelectric Battery
516
Various sources of Electricity and its relations to the other
522
The convertibility and equivalency of Forces true of all
528
experiments on galvanic electricity electromagnetism
544
Chemistry exhibits striking proofs of Design 13
13
Applications in the Arts 31
31
Animals and Plants protected by nonconducting coverings 32
32
Liquids poor conductors S3 5fl The Gases poor conductors 34
34
Electricity induced by induced magnetism 441
44

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